Description : The 1862 Homestead Act played a central role in the creation of the modern West, but historians are just beginning explore the law's significance beyond a narrow reading of its success or failure as a policy. Settlers who ran for homesteads in the Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889, and in subsequent land runs in Oklahoma Territory, brought with them a "homesteading ideal," an elastic concept that celebrated the virtues of individual, small-scale landownership and promised the security of economic independence along with prosperity derived from market participation. Rarely precisely defined, the homesteading ideal proved flexible enough to unite Western settlers and Eastern reformers in a shared effort to subvert Indian claims to both land and distinct racial identities, despite their widely divergent interests in doing so. Oklahoma Indians lost a majority of their land in the decades between the Land Rush and the 1930s, but many of them also exploited the flexibility of the homesteading ideal to maintain distinct cultural identities, foiling the assimilationist goals of reformers. The homesteading ideal thus bound Indians, settlers, and reformers together in tense, reciprocal relationships even as each group tried to bend the ideal to serve their own interests. This dissertation focuses first on the boomers and settlers who brought the homesteading ideal to Oklahoma and second on relations between Indians and whites on the Cheyenne and Arapaho reservation in western Oklahoma, where the frenzy for homesteading was particularly intense. In the 1860s, Elias C. Boudinot, a mixed-blood Cherokee, became one of the first advocates for ending Indian sovereignty in Indian Territory, allotting land to individual Indians, and welcoming white homesteaders. Beginning in the 1880s, white settlers used the homesteading ideal to delegitimize Indian land claims, organize Oklahoma's government, and transform what had been reserved as Indian Territory into the nation's forty-sixth state. On the Cheyenne and Arapaho reservation, Eastern reformers sponsored the efforts of John Seger, a career Indian Office field employee who established assimilation programs acceptable to many tribal members. Increasingly rigid application of land allotment policies, however, ultimately undid much of Seger's work and drove a wedge between Indians and whites.
Description : As a historian and as a novelist Mari Sandoz (1896?1966) stands in the front rank of western writers: in the words of John K. Hutchens, "no one in our time wrote better than the late Mari Sandoz did, or with more authority and grace, about as many aspects of the old West." This first full-length biography is particularly concerned to show the relationship between Sandoz's life and experiences and her writing. Drawing heavily on materials in the Mari Sandoz Collection at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln?correspondence to and from Sandoz, her research notes, and manuscripts?and on interviews with dozens of Sandoz's friends and acquaintances, the author not only establishes the facts of Sandoz's life but confirms her standing as a writer and historian.
Description : The world of insects is one we only dimly understand. Yet from using arsenic, cobalt, and quicksilver to kill household infiltrators to employing the sophisticated tools of the Orkin Man, Americans have fought to eradicate the "bugs" they have learned to hate. Inspired by the still-revolutionary theories of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, James E. McWilliams argues for a more harmonious and rational approach to our relationship with insects, one that does not harm our environment and, consequently, ourselves along the way. Beginning with the early techniques of colonial farmers and ending with the modern use of chemical insecticides, McWilliams deftly shows how America's war on insects mirrors its continual struggle with nature, economic development, technology, and federal regulation. He reveals a very American paradox: the men and women who settled and developed this country sought to control the environment and achieve certain economic goals; yet their methods of agricultural expansion undermined their efforts and linked them even closer to the inexorable realities of the insect world. As told from the perspective of the often flamboyant actors in the battle against insects, American Pests is a fascinating investigation into the attitudes, policies, and practices that continue to influence our behavior toward insects. Asking us to question, if not abandon, our reckless (and sometimes futile) attempts at insect control, McWilliams convincingly argues that insects, like people, have an inherent right to exist and that in our attempt to rid ourselves of insects, we compromise the balance of nature.
Description : This book offers a new perspective on natural language predicates by analyzing data from the Plains Cree language. Contrary to traditional understanding, Cree verbal complexes are syntactic constructs composed of morphemes as syntactic objects that are subject to structurally defined constraints, such as c-command. Tomio Hirose illustrates this in his study of vP syntax, event semantics, morphology-syntax mappings, unaccusativity, noun incorporation, and valency-reducing phenomena.
Description : Join the handcart pioneers in their epic journey to Zion. Beginning with the conversions and persecutions they experienced in Europe, this remarkable book shares the true story of the Martin and Willie handcart companies as you've never heard it before. Follow along through the miracles and heartbreaks with eye-witness accounts, first-hand documents, and personal testimonies. Thorough and well-researched, this is a must-read!
Description : Benjamin Capps has been called the Texas author whose work will be read 100 years from now, but Clayton notes that Caps has not been the frequent subject of nationally disseminated critical interpretation, perhaps because he is an anomaly—a writer of serious, literary fiction set in the West. Notable are Capps's perceptive characterizations and his use of historical background and folklore.
Description : This eBook includes the full text of the novel plus the following additional content: • An exclusive preview chapter from Jean M. Auel’s The Land of Painted Caves, on sale in hardcover March 29, 2011 • An Earth’s Children® series sampler including free chapters from the other books in Jean M. Auel’s bestselling series • A Q&A with the author about the Earth’s Children® series Ayla, the heroine first introduced in The Clan of the Cave Bear, is known and loved by millions of readers. Now, in The Plains of Passage, Ayla’s story continues. Ayla and Jondalar set out on horseback across the windswept grasslands of Ice Age Europe. To the hunter-gatherers of their world--who have never seen tame animals--Ayla and Jondalar appear enigmatic and frightening. The mystery surrounding the woman, who speaks with a strange accent and talks to animals with their own sounds, is heightened by her uncanny control of a large, powerful wolf. The tall, yellow-haired man who rides by her side is also held in awe, not only for the magnificent stallion he commands, but also for his skill as a crafter of stone tools, and for the new weapon he devises, the spear-thrower. In the course of their cross-continental odyssey, Ayla and Jondalar encounter both savage enemies and brave friends. Together they learn that the vast and unknown world can be difficult and treacherous, but breathtakingly beautiful and enlightening as well. All the pain and pleasure bring them closer to their ultimate destination, for the orphaned Ayla and the wandering Jondalar must reach that place on earth they can call home. As sweeping and spectacular as the land she creates, Jean M. Auel’s The Plains of Passage is an astonishing novel of discovery, danger, and love, a triumph for one of the world’s most original and popular authors.
Description : The North American Great Plains is a major global breadbasket but its agriculture is stressed by drought, heat, damaging winds, soil erosion and declining ground water resources. Biomass production and processing on the Plains would partially restore a perennial vegetative cover and create employment opportunities. This book explores the possibility that the ecology and economy of the Plains region, and similar regions, would benefit from the introduction of perennial biomass crops.