Description : Faxed is the first history of the facsimile machine—the most famous recent example of a tool made obsolete by relentless technological innovation. Jonathan Coopersmith recounts the multigenerational, multinational history of that device from its origins to its workplace glory days, in the process revealing how it helped create the accelerated communications, information flow, and vibrant visual culture that characterize our contemporary world. Most people assume that the fax machine originated in the computer and electronics revolution of the late twentieth century, but it was actually invented in 1843. Almost 150 years passed between the fax’s invention in England and its widespread adoption in tech-savvy Japan, where it still enjoys a surprising popularity. Over and over again, faxing’s promise to deliver messages instantaneously paled before easier, less expensive modes of communication: first telegraphy, then radio and television, and finally digitalization in the form of email, the World Wide Web, and cell phones. By 2010, faxing had largely disappeared, having fallen victim to the same technological and economic processes that had created it. Based on archival research and interviews spanning two centuries and three continents, Coopersmith’s book recovers the lost history of a once-ubiquitous technology. Written in accessible language that should appeal to engineers and policymakers as well as historians, Faxed explores themes of technology push and market pull, user-based innovation, and "blackboxing" (the packaging of complex skills and technologies into packages designed for novices) while revealing the inventions inspired by the fax, how the demand for fax machines eventually caught up with their availability, and why subsequent shifts in user preferences rendered them mostly passé.
Description : Far more than just a military conflict, the ‘War on Terror’ has been a struggle over values and meanings, a desperate contest for hearts and minds in which language has become its battlefield. In this highly original book, Fred Halliday takes us on a tour of this new war-zone, its artillery and trenches, minefields and booby-traps._x000D_ _x000D_ Drawing on years of painstaking collation, Halliday shows how the ‘War on Terror’ has brought us not just new words and acronyms, such as ‘Gitmo’ and ‘IED’, and new imports, such as ‘jihad’ and ‘Salafi’, but also new - and distinctly sinister - ways of using existing language, such as ‘extraordinary rendition’ and ‘enhanced interrogation techniques’._x000D_ _x000D_ Halliday chronicles the use and development of all the neologisms produced by the ‘War on Terror’, and examines the underlying dynamics driving them. He argues that the increased use of everyday words from Arabic, for example, reflects not only increased interest in the Arab world but also hostility to it, a sense that its reference points are ‘untranslatable’ in our own culture. Scanning the pock-marked semantic landscape of the post 9/11 world, he uncovers hidden twists of phrasing and word associations which in themselves tell a story about the violent clash of ideologies that has marked the opening of the 21st century._x000D_ _x000D_ Part indispensable reference, part polemic, part entertaining snapshot of our times, Shocked and Awed is a bristling arsenal of the 21st century’s most potent weapons: Words.
Description : “I was the only woman.” These words appear again and again in the stories of women planners working in Canada from the 1940s to the 1970s. Despite their small numbers, women were active in the Community Planning Association of Canada and the Town Planning Institute of Canada (later called the Canadian Institute of Planners) during those years. This book tells their stories, expanding our understanding of what constitutes “planning” and who counts as “planners.” It challenges us to re-evaluate not only the profession’s past, but also its role in creating a more inclusive and equitable future.
Description : This volume explores dynamic conversations through history between individuals and communities over questions about religion and state. Divided into two sections, our authors begin with considerations on the separation of religion and state, as well as Roger Williams’ concept of religious freedom. Authors in the first half consider nuanced debates centered on emerging narratives, with particular emphasis on Native America, Early Americans, and experiences in American immigration after Independence. The first half of the volume examines voices in American History as they publicly engage with notions of secular ideology. Discussions then shift as the volume broadens to world perspectives on religion-state relations. Authors consider critical questions of nation, religious identity and transnational narratives. The intent of this volume is to privilege new narratives about religion-state relations. Decentering discussions away from national narratives allows for emerging voices at the individual and community levels. This volume offers readers new openings through which to understand critical but overlooked interactions between individuals and groups of people with the state over questions about religion.
Description : Based on first-hand interviews and documents from the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, Michael Nelson shows that Western radio - principally, the British Broadcasting Corporation, Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, and the Voice of America - were unrivaled forces in the fight against communism and the fall of the Iron Curtain. The Communists did everything in their power to prevent the infiltration of Western thought into their world, resorting to jamming radio signals, assassinating staff, and bombing stations. These radio programs introduced a forbidden, exciting culture to millions of eager listeners. Pop music, talk shows, news, and information about consumer goods all relayed a message of the good life, subtly undermining the values of the communist regimes. Western radio actively connected listeners with the cultures of Europe and North America.
Description : Tied by history, politics, and faith to all corners of the globe, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict fascinates and infuriates people across the world. Based on new archive research and original interviews, Headlines from the Holy Land explains why this fiercely contested region exerts such a pull over leading correspondents and diplomats.