Description : In the 1980s and 1990s successive United Kingdom governments enacted a series of reforms to establish a more market-oriented economy, closer to the American model and further away from its Western European competitors. Today, the United Kingdom is one of the least regulated economies in the world, marked by transformed welfare and industrial relations systems and broad privatization. Virtually every industry and government program has been affected by the reforms, from hospitals and schools to labor unions and jobless benefit programs. Seeking a Premier Economy focuses on the labor and product market reforms that directly impacted productivity, employment, and inequality. The questions asked are provocative: How did the United Kingdom manage to stave off falling earnings for lower paid workers? What role did the reforms play in rising income inequality and trends in poverty? At the same time, what reforms also contributed to reduced unemployment and the accelerated growth of real wages? The comparative microeconomic approach of this book yields the most credible evaluation possible, focusing on closely associated outcomes of particular reforms for individuals, firms, and sectors.
Description : During the 1980s Britain became one of the world's most market-oriented economies, an approach which resulted in three severe recessions and a deepening degree of inequality. This book argues that a rebalancing of the economy will remain elusive until proactive policies are implemented at the corporate and industrial level.
Description : A new edition of the leading textbook on the economic history of Britain since industrialization. Combining the expertise of more than thirty leading historians and economists, Volume 2 tracks the development of the British economy from late nineteenth-century global dominance to its early twenty-first century position as a mid-sized player in an integrated European economy. Each chapter provides a clear guide to the major controversies in the field and students are shown how to connect historical evidence with economic theory and how to apply quantitative methods. The chapters re-examine issues of Britain's relative economic growth and decline over the 'long' twentieth century, setting the British experience within an international context, and benchmark its performance against that of its European and global competitors. Suggestions for further reading are also provided in each chapter, to help students engage thoroughly with the topics being discussed.
Description : Redundant Masculinities? investigates the links between the so-called 'crisis of masculinity' and contemporary changes in the labour market through the lives of young working class men. Allows the voices of poorly-educated young men to be heard. Looks at how the labour market is changing. Emphasises the social construction of gender and racial identities. Dispels popular myths about the crisis in masculinity.
Description : The Budget sets out the Government's plans for taxation, public spending and economic growth for the coming year. It focuses on providing support for pensioners and families, increasing employment opportunities and protecting the environment. Measures announced in the 2007 Budget include: basic rate of income tax to be reduced from 22 pence to 20 pence from April 2008; higher rate income tax threshold to be raised by £800 a year in April 2009; Working Tax Credit threshold to be increased by £1200 to £6420 in April 2008; higher personal allowances for those aged 65 or over to be raised by £1180 in April 2008; Child Tax Credit to be increased by £150 per year in April 2008 and Child Benefit for the eldest child to be raised to £20 a week in April 2010; headline Corporation Tax to be lowered from 30 per cent to 28 per cent from April 2008; increase of 2 pence per litre in fuel duty rates from 1 October 2007; changes to Vehicle Excise Duty for the next three years, with rates for the most polluting cars rising to £400 and for clean cars falling to £35; duty on beer and cider rises to 1p a pint, 5p for wine, 11p for cigarettes; Inheriatnce Tax threshold will rise from £285,000 to £350,000 in 2010; ISA savings limit up from £3,000 to £3,600; measures to improve energy efficiency of all homes by the end of the next decade.
Description : China's rise as an economic powerhouse raises a number of questions that are the subject of lively debate. How did the country do it? How applicable are the lessons of China's economic reform of the past thirty years to the challenges it faces in the next three decades? What does the detailed pattern of China's success and challenges look like the sub-sectoral and sub-national levels, and what does this mean for future policy? How will China's role as a global economic player evolve? This Oxford Companion to the Economics of China presents an original collection of perspectives on the Chinese economy's past, present and future. The contributors of these entries include: the best of young Chinese researchers based in China and outside; renowned academics from the top universities in China, Europe, and North America; present and past senior officials of international agencies like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; senior Chinese government officials from the Centre and the Provinces; and four recipients of the Nobel Prize in Economics. The Companion consists of 99 entries written by the leading China analysts of our time. The topics covered include: The China Model, Future Prospects for China , China and the Global Economy, Trade and the Chinese Economy, Macroeconomics and Finance, Urbanisation, Industry and Markets, Agriculture and Rural Development, Land, Infrastructure and Environment, Population and Labour, Dimensions of Wellbeing and Inequality, Health and Education, Gender Equity, Regional Divergence in China, and China's Provinces: Selected Perspectives. The Editors are four global leaders in Chinese economic analysis and policy who between them have held or hold the following positions: Director General, International Food Policy Research Institute; Co-Editor, China Economic Review; President Chinese Economists Society; Assistant Director of Research at the IMF; Principal Adviser to the Chief Economist of the World Bank; and Professors of Economics at Ivy League Universities.
Description : Over the last two decades the concept and practice of Local Economic Development (LED) has gained widespread acceptance around the world as a locally-based response to the challenges posed by globalization, devolution, local-level opportunities, and economic crises. Support for local economic development is now firmly on the agenda of many national governments and key international agencies. This volume examines the debates about Local Economic Development and examines some of the unfolding experiences of LED in the developing world. The focus is upon the region of southern Africa, and more especially upon post-apartheid South Africa. LED emerged in South Africa as one of the more significant post-apartheid development options being pursued by empowered localities with the overt encouragement of national government. Elsewhere in the developing world, much interest surrounds the experience of LED in post-apartheid South Africa, which is seen as a laboratory for experimentation, innovation, and learning. The seventeen chapters in this book examine the range of LED interventions that have been the basis for experimentation in the last decade, including both pro-market as well as pro-poor interventions. Key themes include debates about the most appropriate policy directions for LED, its contribution towards sustainable development, the role of social capital, cluster support, public procurement, eco-development, good governance and tourism-led LED. The book also contains a series of detailed case studies on the implementation of LED in South Africa and the wider region of southern Africa, including analyses of LED undertaken at a variety of scales from the provincial, metropolitan, and small-town level. Until now, most research on local economic development has focused on the developed world. This volume breaks new ground in applying LED policy and practices to problems specific to the developing world. It will be of interest to scholars of development studies, urban and regional planning, human geography, and urban studies. "This compelling and comprehensive book provides a look at the innovative (including pro-poor) local economic development strategies being used in South Africa. The contributors [to Local Economic Development in the Changing World: The Experience of Southern Africa] are among the very best scholars in the field." -Gary Gaile, University of Colorado "Etienne Nel and Christian Rogerson have produced an excellent book on local economic development in South Africa. The chapters in this timely volume contain many valuable lessons for both the developing and the developed world. Of particular importance is the policy focus of Nel and Rogerson on investing in and empowering low-income workers, entrepreneurs, families, and neighborhoods. Because of the special emphasis on inclusive economic development strategies, this book is a very useful guide to what the Prague Institute calls "Treating People and Communities as Assets." -Dr. Marc A. Weiss, Chairman and CEO, Prague Institute for Global Urban Development Etienne Nel is associate professor in the Department of Geography of Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. Christian M. Rogerson is professor of human geography, School of Geography, Archaeology, and Environmental Studies, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Description : On October 1, 2009, the People's Republic of China (PRC) celebrated the 60th anniversary of its founding. And what an eventful and tumultuous six decades it had been. During that time, under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), China was transformed from one of the world's poorest countries into the world's fastest growing major economy, and from a weak state barely able to govern or protect its own territory to a rising power that is challenging the United States for global influence. Over those same years, the PRC also experienced the most deadly famine in human history, caused largely by the actions and inactions of its political leaders. Not long after, there was a collapse of government authority that pushed the country to the brink of (and in some places actually into) civil war and anarchy. Today, China is, for the most part, peaceful, prospering, and proud. This is the China that was on display for the world to see during the Beijing Olympics in 2008. The CCP maintains a firm grip on power through a combination of popular support largely based on its recent record of promoting rapid economic growth and harsh repression of political opposition. Yet, the party and country face serious challenges on many fronts, including a slowing economy, environmental desecration, pervasive corruption, extreme inequalities, and a rising tide of social protest. Politics in China is an authoritative introduction to how the world's most populous nation and rapidly rising global power is governed today. Written by leading China scholars, the book's chapters offers accessible overviews of major periods in China's modern political history from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, key topics in contemporary Chinese politics, and developments in four important areas located on China's geographic periphery: Tibet, Xinjiang, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.