A Commentary On The Animal Apocalypse Of I Enoch

Author by : Patrick A. Tiller
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Description : The Animal Apocalypse is now the second of two dream-visions that together form Book 4 of 1 Enoch. A slightly revised version of the author's doctoral dissertation (Harvard Divinity School, 1991), this commentary explicates the details of the allegory, its overall meaning, and its place in the political and intellectual history of Judaism. Paper edition (unseen), $24.95. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.


A New Reading Of The Animal Apocalypse Of 1 Enoch

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Description : A New Reading of the Animal Apocalypse of 1 Enoch is the most comprehensive theological commentary on this important second-century BCE Jewish apocalypse to date, laying out the purpose and methodology of this Enochic allegory and using this as the basis for a new commentary on the whole text, presented here in a fresh translation. Against other interpretations that focus on Israel and its institution, Daniel Olson argues that the promise of universal blessing in the Abrahamic covenant is presented in the Animal Apocalypse as the governing dynamic in a sacred history that begins and ends with humanity in general. The authentic Jacob/Israel will appear in the end times and be the catalyst of universal salvation. Book jacket.


A New Reading Of The Animal Apocalypse Of 1 Enoch

Author by : Daniel Olson
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Description : A New Reading of the Animal Apocalypse of 1 Enoch offers a full theological analysis of this second-century BCE allegory and uses this as the basis for a new commentary on the text, presented in a fresh translation.


Between Symbolism And Realism

Author by : Bennie Reynolds
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Publisher by : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
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Description : Bennie H. Reynolds analyzes of the language (poetics) of ancient Jewish historical apocalypses. He investigates how the dramatis personae, i.e., deities, angels/demons, and humans are described in the Book of Daniel (chapters 2, 7, 8, and 10–12) the Animal Apocalypse (1 Enoch 85–90), 4QFourKingdoms(a-b) ar, the Book of the Words of Noah (1QapGen 5 29–18?), the Apocryphon of Jeremiah C, and 4QPseudo-Daniel(a-b) ar. The primary methodologies for this study are linguistic- and motif-historical analysis and the theoretical framework is informed by a wide range of ancient and modern thinkers including Artemidorus of Daldis, Ferdinand de Saussure, Charles Peirce, Leo Oppenheim, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Umberto Eco. The most basic contention of this study is that the data now available from the Dead Sea Scrolls significantly alter how one should conceive of the genre apocalypse in the Hellenistic Period. This basic contention is borne out by five primary conclusions. For example, while some apocalypses employ symbolic language to describe the actors in their historical reviews, others use non-symbolic language. Some texts, especially from the Book of Daniel, are mixed cases. Among the apocalypses that use symbolic language, a limited and stable repertoire of symbols obtain across the genre and bear witness to a series of conventional associations. While several apocalypses do not use symbolic ciphers to encode their historical actors, they often use cryptic language that may have functioned as a group-specific language. The language of apocalypses indicates that these texts were not the domain of only one social group or even one type or size of social group.


Enoch And The Messiah Son Of Man

Author by : Gabriele Boccaccini
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Publisher by : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
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Description : Distinguished in the field of Enochic studies, Gabriele Boccaccini led the way in June 2005 at the Third Enoch Seminar, entirely devoted to the Book of Parables in light of Second Temple Judaism and Christian origins. The unusual and compelling collection of essays found here reflects the spirit of sharing and dialogue that has made these seminars so popular and intriguing to scholars throughout the world.This third collection of essays from these historic meetings contains the observations and contemplations of forty-four scholars, includes a helpful introduction by Boccaccini detailing the history of the movement, and ends with likely prospects for future research and an extensive bibliography compiled by associate editor Jason von Ehrenkrook for further study.Enoch and the Messiah Son of Man will be a significant contribution for the understanding and discussion of ancient Judaism.


The Tension Between God As Righteous Judge And As Merciful In Early Judaism

Author by : Barry D. Smith
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Publisher by : University Press of America
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Description : In recent years, the scholarly consensus has emerged that early Judaism should no longer be classified as a religion of legalistic works on righteousness, but rather defined primarily by God's covenant with Israel. In this work, it is argued, instead, that there is actually a tension in early Judaism between God as righteous judge and as merciful. As E. Sjöberg maintained in his Gott und Sünder im palästinischen Judentum, in the sources used for a reconstruction of early Judaism, there are two mutually exclusive ways in which God is said to relate to human beings. First, God as righteous judge deals with human beings as they deserve. They are assumed to be morally free and responsible, and God judges and recompenses them in history and eschatologically. Not only are the wicked punished for their sins, but the righteous are also rewarded for their obedience. And second, God as merciful does not deal with human beings as they deserve. Rather, he removes the guilt resulting from disobedience to the Law, sometimes on the simple condition of repentance. This means that a person can escape the consequences of disobedience. The understanding of God in the sources vacillates between God as righteous judge and God as merciful, without coming down definitively on one side to the exclusion of the other.


From Enoch To Tobit

Author by : Devorah Dimant
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Publisher by : Mohr Siebeck
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Description : Publisher's description: The volume assembles twenty previously published studies by Devorah Dimant, which have been re-edited, updated, and furnished with an introductory essay written especially for this collection. The studies survey and analyze Jewish works composed in Hebrew, Aramaic or Greek during the Second Temple period, and discuss their contents, ideas, and connections to the Dead Sea Scrolls. Particular attention is paid to central issues, such as the apocalyptic worldview and literature and its relationship to the Dead Sea Scrolls. Among others, specific themes related to the Aramaic Tobit and 1 Enoch are analyzed as well as the links detected between the Hebrew Qumran writings Pseudo-Ezekiel and the Apocryphon of Jeremiah and the later apocalyptic works 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch. The introductory essay provides a general framework and pertinent terminology for discussing the literature in question. Together these essays offer a broad and fresh perspective of the Jewish literary scene in antiquity, with special attention to the one nurtured in the land of Israel.


The Idea Of Biblical Interpretation

Author by : James L. Kugel
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Publisher by : BRILL
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Description : In this Festschrift, James Kugel's creative scholarship in biblical interpretation provides the inspiration for a wide-ranging collection of essays that treat the history of Jewish and Christian scriptural interpretation from antiquity to the present


Priests In Exile

Author by : Meron M. Piotrkowski
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Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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Description : Priests in Exile is the first comprehensive scholarly opus in English to reconstruct the history of the mysterious Temple of Onias, a Jewish temple built by a Jerusalemite high priest in his Egyptian exile that functioned in parallel with the Temple of Jerusalem. Piotrkowski’s book addresses a topic that is mysterious, important and anomalous: a Jewish community of mercenary priests in the (Egyptian) Diaspora in which the priestly sacrificial ritual was carried out daily over a period of more than two hundred years until the first century CE, outlasting the Jerusalem Temple by about three years. Although the book focuses on the very circumscribed topic of the parallel Temple it casts a wide net, placing the story in the context of Jewish Diaspora life in ancient times. Ancient topics and texts are brought to bear, including papyri, epigraphy, archaeology, as well as the modern literature. Piotrkowski throws new light on a fascinating episode of ancient Jewish history that is usually left in the dark.


Apocalyptic Thinking In Early Judaism

Author by : Cecilia Wassen
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Publisher by : BRILL
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Description : In Apocalyptic Thinking leading experts critically engage with John Collins’ seminal study The Apocalyptic Imagination and advance the debate on ancient Jewish apocalyptic with articles on current topics with a special focus on the Dead Sea Scrolls.


Godly Fear Or Ungodly Failure

Author by : Michael Kibbe
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Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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Description : A cursory glance at Hebrews' critique of Israel's fear at Sinai in Heb 12:18-29 suggests that the author has misunderstood or manipulated his sources. In the Pentateuch, the appointment of Moses as Israel's mediator receives explicit approval (Exod 19:9; Deut 5:28), while Heb 12:25 labels their request for mediation a "refusal" to heed the word of God.This bookargues that Hebrews' use of the Sinai narratives resides on a complex trajectory established by four points: the Sinai covenant according to Exodus, the reenactment of that covenant according to Deuteronomy, the call for a NEW covenant according to Jeremiah, and the present reality of that covenant established by God and mediated by Jesus Christ. The basis for Hebrews' critique arises from its insight that while Israel's request established covenant-from-a-distance, Jesus demonstrates that true covenant mediation brings two parties into a single space. The purpose for Hebrews critique lies in its summons to Zion, the mountain on which Jesus sits at the right hand of God as the high priestly mediator of the new covenant.


Apocalypse Against Empire

Author by : Anathea E. Portier-Young
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Publisher by : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
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Description : The year 167 B.C.E. marked the beginning of a period of intense persecution for the people of Judea, as Seleucid emperor Antiochus IV Epiphanes attempted -- forcibly and brutally -- to eradicate traditional Jewish religious practices. In Apocalypse against Empire Anathea Portier-Young reconstructs the historical events and key players in this traumatic episode in Jewish history and provides a sophisticated treatment of resistance in early Judaism. Building on a solid contextual foundation, Portier-Young argues that the first Jewish apocalypses emerged as a literature of resistance to Hellenistic imperial rule. In particular, Portier-Young contends, the book of Daniel, the Apocalypse of Weeks, and the Book of Dreams were written to supply an oppressed people with a potent antidote to the destructive propaganda of the empire -- renewing their faith in the God of the covenant and answering state terror with radical visions of hope.


The Things That Make For Peace

Author by : Jesse P. Nickel
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Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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Description : This study offers fresh insight into the place of (non)violence within Jesus' ministry, by examining it in the context of the eschatologically-motivated revolutionary violence of Second Temple Judaism. The book first explores the connection between violence and eschatology in key literary and historical sources from Second Temple Judaism. The heart of the study then focuses on demonstrating the thematic centrality of Jesus’ opposition to such “eschatological violence” within the Synoptic presentations of his ministry, arguing that a proper understanding of eschatology and violence together enables appreciation of the full significance of Jesus’ consistent disassociation of revolutionary violence from his words and deeds. The book thus articulates an understanding of Jesus’ nonviolence that is firmly rooted in the historical context of Second Temple Judaism, presenting a challenge to the "seditious Jesus hypothesis"—the claim that the historical Jesus was sympathetic to revolutionary ideals. Jesus’ rejection of violence ought to be understood as an integral component of his eschatological vision, embodying and enacting his understanding of (i) how God’s kingdom would come, and (ii) what would identify those who belonged to it.


The Idea Of Israel In Second Temple Judaism

Author by : Jason A. Staples
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Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : In this book, Jason Staples proposes a new paradigm regarding the biblical concept of Israel and how it was shaped by Jewish apocalyptic hopes for restoration after the Babylonian Exile. Challenging conventional assumptions about Israelite identity in antiquity, his argument is based on a close analysis of a vast corpus of biblical and other early Jewish literature and material evidence. Staples demonstrates that continued aspirations for Israel's restoration in the context of diaspora and imperial domination remained central to Jewish conceptions of Israelite identity throughout the final centuries before Christianity and even into the early part of the Common Era. He also shows that Israelite identity was more diverse in antiquity than is typically appreciated in modern scholarship. His book lays the groundwork for a better understanding of the so-called 'parting of the ways' between Judaism and Christianity and how earliest Christianity itself grew out of hopes for Israel's restoration.


The Curse Of Ham

Author by : David M. Goldenberg
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Publisher by : Princeton University Press
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Description : How old is prejudice against black people? Were the racist attitudes that fueled the Atlantic slave trade firmly in place 700 years before the European discovery of sub-Saharan Africa? In this groundbreaking book, David Goldenberg seeks to discover how dark-skinned peoples, especially black Africans, were portrayed in the Bible and by those who interpreted the Bible--Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Unprecedented in rigor and breadth, his investigation covers a 1,500-year period, from ancient Israel (around 800 B.C.E.) to the eighth century C.E., after the birth of Islam. By tracing the development of anti-Black sentiment during this time, Goldenberg uncovers views about race, color, and slavery that took shape over the centuries--most centrally, the belief that the biblical Ham and his descendants, the black Africans, had been cursed by God with eternal slavery. Goldenberg begins by examining a host of references to black Africans in biblical and postbiblical Jewish literature. From there he moves the inquiry from Black as an ethnic group to black as color, and early Jewish attitudes toward dark skin color. He goes on to ask when the black African first became identified as slave in the Near East, and, in a powerful culmination, discusses the resounding influence of this identification on Jewish, Christian, and Islamic thinking, noting each tradition's exegetical treatment of pertinent biblical passages. Authoritative, fluidly written, and situated at a richly illuminating nexus of images, attitudes, and history, The Curse of Ham is sure to have a profound and lasting impact on the perennial debate over the roots of racism and slavery, and on the study of early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.


After Apocalyptic And Wisdom

Author by : Richard A. Horsley
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Publisher by : Wipf and Stock Publishers
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Description : CONTENTS Introduction PART ONE: The Social-Political Context of Apocalyptic and Wisdom Texts 1. Ben Sira and the Sociology of the Second Temple 2. The Politics of Cultural Production 3. The Social Settings of the Components of 1 Enoch PART TWO: Reconsiderations of Texts in Historical Contexts 4. Israel at the Mercy of Demonic Powers: An Enochic Interpretation of Imperialism 5. Social Relations and Social Conflict in the Epistle of Enoch 6. Fourth Ezra: Anti-Apocalyptic Apocalypse 7. Late Twentieth-Century Scribes' Study of Late Second Temple Scribes PART THREE: Questioning the Categories as Applied to the Gospels and James 8. Questions about Wisdom and Apocalypticism 9. Sayings of the Sages or Speeches of the Prophets? Reflections on the Genre of Q 10. Apocalypticism and Wisdom: Missing in Mark 11. Apocalypticism in the Gospels? The Kingdom of God and the Renewal of Israel 12. The Rich and Poor in James: An Apocalyptic Ethic


The Lamb Christology Of The Apocalypse Of John

Author by : Loren L. Johns
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Publisher by : Mohr Siebeck
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Description : "What did ""Lamb"" symbolize in the ancient near Eastern world? What did it convey to the first-century audience of the Revelation? And why did the author use this symbol? Loren J. Johns analyzes the symbolic meaning of apviov in the Apocalypse of John as the Central feature of the Christology of Revelation."


Game Over

Author by : Christophe Chalamet
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Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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Description : Modern science informs us about the end of the universe: "game over" is the message which lies ahead of our world. Christian theology, on the other hand, sees in the end not the cessation of all life, but rather an invitation to play again, in God's presence. Is there a way to articulate together such vastly different claims? Eschatology is a theological topic which merits being considered from several different angles. This book seeks to do this by gathering contributions from esteemed and fresh voices from the fields of biblical exegesis, history, systematic theology, philosophy, and ethics. How can we make sense, today, of Jesus' (and the New Testament's) eschatological message? How did he, his early disciples, and the Christian tradition, envision the "end" of the world? Is there a way for us to articulate together what modern science tells us about the end of the universe with the biblical and Christian claims about God who judges and who will wipe every tear? Eschatology has been at the heart of Christian theology for 100 years in the West. What should we do with this legacy? Are there ways to move our reflection forward, in our century? Scholars and other interested readers will find here a wealth of insights.


Creation Covenant And The Beginnings Of Judaism

Author by : Ari Mermelstein
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Publisher by : BRILL
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Description : In Creation, Covenant, and the Beginnings of Judaism, Ari Mermelstein examines Second Temple writers who described creation, rather than a historical event, as the beginning of Jewish history in order to resolve a perceived sense of temporal rupture with Israel’s covenantal past.


Primaeval History Interpreted

Author by : Jacques T. A. G. M. Ruiten
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Publisher by : BRILL
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Description : "The aim of this study is to investigate the way Genesis 1:1-11:19 was rewritten in the Book of Jubilees."--P. 5.


Apocalypse Prophecy And Pseudepigraphy

Author by : John J. Collins
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Publisher by : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
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Description : A highly regarded expert on the Jewish apocalyptic tradition, John J. Collins has written extensively on the subject. Nineteen of his essays written over the last fifteen years, including previously unpublished contributions, are brought together for the first time in this volume. Its thematic essays organized in five sections, Apocalypse, Prophecy, and Pseudepigraphy complements and enriches Collins’s well-known book The Apocalyptic Imagination.


The Enoch Metatron Tradition

Author by : Andrei A. Orlov
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Publisher by : Mohr Siebeck
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Description : Andrei A. Orlov examines the tradition about the seventh antediluvian patriarch Enoch, tracing its development from its roots in the Mesopotamian lore to the Second Temple apocalyptic texts and later rabbinic and Hekhalot materials where Enoch is often identified as the supreme angel Metatron. The first part of the book explores the imagery of the celestial roles and titles of the seventh antediluvian hero in Mesopotamian, Enochic and Hekhalot materials. The analysis of the celestial roles and titles shows that the transition from the figure of patriarch Enoch to the figure of angel Metatron occurred already in the Second Temple Enochic materials, namely, in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch, a Jewish work, traditionally dated to the first century CE. The second part of the book demonstrates that mediatorial polemics with the traditions of the exalted patriarchs and prophets played an important role in facilitating the transition from Enoch to Metatron in the Second Temple period.


Exile

Author by : James M. Scott
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Publisher by : BRILL
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Description : The exiles of Israel and Judah cast a long shadow over the biblical text and the whole subsequent history of Judaism. Scholars have long recognized the importance of the theme of exile for the Hebrew Bible. Indeed, critical study of the Old Testament has, at least since Wellhausen, been dominated by the Babylonian exile of Judah. In 586 BC, several factors, including the destruction of Jerusalem, the cessation of the sacrificial cult and of the monarchy, and the experience of the exile, began to cause a transformation of Israelite religion which supplied the contours of the larger Judaic framework within which the various forms of Judaism, including the early Christian movement, developed. Given the importance of the exile to the development of Judaism and Christianity even to the present day, this volume delves into the conceptions of exile which contributed to that development during the formative period.


Goy

Author by : Adi Ophir
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Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : Goy: Israel's Others and the Birth of the Gentile traces the development of the term and category of the goy from the Bible to rabbinic literature. Adi Ophir and Ishay Rosen-Zvi show that the category of the goy was born much later than scholars assume; in fact not before the first century CE. They explain that the abstract concept of the gentile first appeared in Paul's Letters. However, it was only in rabbinic literature that this category became the center of a stable and long standing structure that involved God, the Halakha, history, and salvation. The authors narrate this development through chronological analyses of the various biblical and post biblical texts (including the Dead Sea scrolls, the New Testament and early patristics, the Mishnah, and rabbinic Midrash) and synchronic analyses of several discursive structures. Looking at some of the goy's instantiations in contemporary Jewish culture in Israel and the United States, the study concludes with an examination of the extraordinary resilience of the Jew/goy division and asks how would Judaism look like without the gentile as its binary contrast.


After Apocalyptic And Wisdom

Author by : Richard A. Horsley
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Description : CONTENTS Introduction PART ONE: The Social-Political Context of Apocalyptic and Wisdom Texts 1. Ben Sira and the Sociology of the Second Temple 2. The Politics of Cultural Production 3. The Social Settings of the Components of 1 Enoch PART TWO: Reconsiderations of Texts in Historical Contexts 4. Israel at the Mercy of Demonic Powers: An Enochic Interpretation of Imperialism 5. Social Relations and Social Conflict in the Epistle of Enoch 6. Fourth Ezra: Anti-Apocalyptic Apocalypse 7. Late Twentieth-Century Scribes' Study of Late Second Temple Scribes PART THREE: Questioning the Categories as Applied to the Gospels and James 8. Questions about Wisdom and Apocalypticism 9. Sayings of the Sages or Speeches of the Prophets? Reflections on the Genre of Q 10. Apocalypticism and Wisdom: Missing in Mark 11. Apocalypticism in the Gospels? The Kingdom of God and the Renewal of Israel 12. The Rich and Poor in James: An Apocalyptic Ethic ""These essays achieve a much needed demolition of two ill-defined concepts that have dominated the study of early Judaism and the New Testament. Turning from questions of worldview and genre to the historical and social realities confronting the authors of Sirach, 1 Enoch, the Epistle of James, and 4 Ezra, Horsley and Tiller demonstrate how these texts engage with the political realities of their time, especially imperial rule. This is an eloquent demonstration of the value of the social-scientific approach to the exegesis of biblical and parabiblical texts."" -- Professor Philip Davies University of Sheffield ""The terms wisdom and apocalyptic, the authors argue correctly, have been used in such a vague or simplistic way by many scholars that a series of corrections are necessary. Horsley and Tiller have worked separately and together on these issues for many years. Here they address the problems of genre definition, the social and political context of the texts, and the twentieth-century theological assumptions that lie behind the previous studies. They forge new conclusions about the interpretations of many important texts. The clarity with which they define the issues is admirable, and the debate will be illuminated for all parties. Now both the scholar and the student can in one volume reap the benefits of their results."" -- Lawrence M. Wills Episcopal Divinity School Richard Horsley is Distinguished Professor of Liberal Arts and the Study of Religion Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Boston and the author of numerous volumes, including Jesus and the Powers, Revolt of the Scribes, and Wisdom and Spiritual Transcendence at Corinth (Cascade Books, 2008). Patrick A. Tiller is a member of the Enoch Seminar and is the author of A Commentary on the Animal Apocalypse of 1 Enoch.


Early Jewish Writings

Author by : Eileen Schuller
Languange : en
Publisher by : SBL Press
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Description : New from the Bible and Women Series This collection of essays deals with aspects of women and gender relations in early Judaism (during the Persian, Greek, and Roman empires). Some essays focus on specific writings: the Greek (Septuagint) version of Esther, Judith, Joseph and Aseneth, and the Letter of Jeremiah. Others explore how certain biblical texts are reinterpreted: Eve in the Life of Adam and Eve, the mixing of the sons of God with the daughters of men from Genesis 6:1–4, the Egyptian princess at the birth of Moses, and how Josephus retells biblical stories. The third group of essays explore specific social contexts: Philo's views of women in the Roman empire, the Sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls, and women philosophers of the Therapeutae in Egyptian Alexandria. Features An International team of contributors from Europe and North America A breadth of materials covered, including many lesser-known early Jewish writings Focus is on a gendered perspective and gender specific questions