A Complex Culture Of The British Columbia Plateau

Author by : Brian Hayden
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
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Description : Early hunter/gatherer societies have traditionally been considered basically egalitarian in nature. This assumption, however, has been challenged by contemporary archaeological and anthropological research, which has demonstrated that many of these societies had complex social, economic, and political structures. This volume considers two British Columbia Native communities -- the Lillooet and Shuswap communities of Fountain and Pavilion - and traces their development into complex societies. The authors explore the relation between resource characteristics and hunter/gatherer adaptations and examine the use of fish, animal, and plant species, documenting their availability and the techniques used in their gathering, processing, and storing. The book also shows how cultural practices, such as raiding, potlatching, and stewardship of resources, can be explained from a cultural ecological point of view. An important contribution to the study of hunting and gathering cultures in the Northwest, this book is the most detailed examination of the subsistence base of a particular hunting and gathering group to date. Its exploration of the reasons why complex hunting and gathering societies emerge, as well as the ecological relationships between cultures and resources, will make an important contribution to the study of cultural ecology and contemporary archaeology.


The Prehistory Of The Northwest Coast

Author by : R. G. Matson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Left Coast Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 88
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Description : This volume provides a descriptive overview of the cultural complexity on the northwest coast that stretches from northern California to Alaska. Topics covered range from the earliest settlements to the subsequent cultural diversities in Native American populations. Maps, charts, and illustrations further enhance the book's interest and appeal.


Northwest Anthropological Research Notes

Author by : Roderick Sprague
Languange : en
Publisher by : Northwest Anthropology
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Total Read : 82
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Description : On the Pow Wow Circuit in the Interior Northwest - Kathleen A. Dahl The Southeastern Idaho Prehistoric Sequence - Ernest S. Lohse Towards an Early Social History of Chinook Jargon - Christopher F. Roth Notes on Indian .Houses of the Wappato Valley - Yvonne Hajda Changes in Subsistence Stategies at the Tsawwassen Site, a Southwestern British Columbia Shell Midden - Karla D. Kusmer A Bibliography of Plateau Ethnobotany - Debra Welch & Michael Striker


Foundations Of Social Inequality

Author by : T. Douglas Price
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
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Description : In this authoritative volume, leading researchers offer diverse theoretical perspectives and a wide-range of information on the beginnings and nature of social inequality in past human societies. Their illuminating work investigates the role of status differentiation in traditional archaeological debates and major societal transitions. This volume features numerous case studies from the Old and New World spanning foraging societies to agricultural groups and complex states. Diachronic in view and archaeological in focus, this book will be of significant interest to archaeologists, anthropologists, and students.


The Archaeology Of Inequality

Author by : Orlando Cerasuolo
Languange : en
Publisher by : SUNY Press
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Total Read : 51
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Description : Brings together archaeologists, art historians, sociologists, and classicists to explore the origins and development of unequal relationships in ancient societies. The Archaeology of Inequality explores the different aspects of social boundaries and articulation by comparing several interdisciplinary approaches for the analysis of the archaeological data, as well as actual case studies from the Prehistory to the Classical world. The book explores slavery, gender, ethnicity and economy as intersecting areas of study within the larger framework of inequality and exemplifies to what degree archaeologists can identify and analyze different patterns of inequality. Orlando Cerasuolo is Adjunct Professor of Etruscan and Pre-Roman Archaeology at the Eastern University of Naples.


Fish Law And Colonialism

Author by : Douglas Colebrook Harris
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Toronto Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
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Description : An engrossing history, Fish, Law, and Colonialism recounts the human conflict over fish and fishing in British Columbia and of how that conflict was shaped by law. Pacific salmon fisheries, owned and managed by Aboriginal peoples, were transformed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by commercial and sport fisheries backed by the Canadian state and its law. Through detailed case studies of the conflicts over fish weirs on the Cowichan and Babine rivers, Douglas Harris describes the evolving legal apparatus that dispossessed Aboriginal peoples of their fisheries. Building upon themes developed in literatures on state law and local custom, and law and colonialism, he examines the contested nature of the colonial encounter on the scale of a river. In doing so, Harris reveals the many divisions both within and between government departments, local settler societies, and Aboriginal communities. Drawing on government records, statute books, case reports, newspapers, missionary papers and a secondary anthropological literature to explore the roots of the continuing conflict over the salmon fishery, Harris has produced a superb, and timely, legal and historical study of law as contested terrain in the legal capture of Aboriginal salmon fisheries in British Columbia.


People Of The Middle Fraser Canyon

Author by : Anna Marie Prentiss
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 250
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Description : The Middle Fraser Canyon contains some of the most important archaeological sites in British Columbia, including the remains of ancient villages that supported hundreds, if not thousands, of people. How and why did these villages come into being? Why were they abandoned? In search of answers to these questions, Prentiss and Kuijt take readers on a voyage of discovery into the ancient history of the St’át’imc, or Upper Lillooet, a people whose struggles and successes are brought to vivid life through photographs, artistic and fictionalized reconstructions of life in the villages, and discussions of evidence from archaeological surveys and excavations.


Fish Versus Power

Author by : Matthew D. Evenden
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Total Read : 84
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Description : Fish versus Power is an environmental history of the Fraser River (British Columbia) and the attempts to dam it for power and to defend it for salmon. Amid contemporary debates over large dam development and declines in fisheries, this book offers a case study of a river basin where development decisions did not ultimately dam the river, but rather conserved its salmon. Although the case is local, its implications are global as Evenden explores the transnational forces that shaped the river, the changing knowledge and practices of science, and the role of environmental change in shaping environmental debate. The Fraser is the world's most productive salmon river; it is also a large river with enormous waterpower potential. Very few rivers in the developed world have remained undammed. On the Fraser, however, fish - not dams - triumphed, and this book seeks to explain why.


People And Plants In Ancient Western North America

Author by : Paul E. Minnis
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Arizona Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 35
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Description : "The environmental diversity of western North America is astounding: from the wind-scoured tundra of the high mountains to the seemingly desolate lowland deserts. No less remarkable is the record of plant usage by the various indigenous peoples who have been living there for more than twelve millennia. For the vast majority of this time, their livelihood, food, shelter, fuel, and medicine depended on their knowledge and use of the plants that surrounded them. The most comprehensive overview in more than half a century on the interconnectedness of people and plants, this book and its companion volume, People and Plants in Ancient Eastern North America, present the latest information on three major topics: the uses of native plants, the history of crops and their uses, and the impact of humans on their environment. They not only contribute to our understanding of the lives of prehistoric people but also serve as guides for designing sustainable living today."--NHBS Environment Bookstore.


First Peoples In Canada

Author by : Alan D. McMillan
Languange : en
Publisher by : D & M Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 617
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Description : First Peoples in Canada provides an overview of all the Aboriginal groups in Canada. Incorporating the latest research in anthropology, archaeology, ethnography and history, this new edition describes traditional ways of life, traces cultural changes that resulted from contacts with the Europeans, and examines the controversial issues of land claims and self-government that now affect Aboriginal societies. Most importantly, this generously illustrated edition incorporates a Nativist perspective in the analysis of Aboriginal cultures.


Northwest Anthropological Research Notes

Author by : Kathryn Bernick
Languange : en
Publisher by : Northwest Anthropology
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
Total Download : 788
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Description : FEMINIST APPROACHES TO PACIFIC NORTHWEST ARCHAEOLOGY Kathryn Bernick, Volume Editor Introduction: Feminist Approaches to Pacific Northwest Archaeology - Kathryn Bernick A Working Woman Needs a Good Toolkit - Sylvia Albright The Cutting Edge: A New Look at Microcore Technology - Sheila Greaves Feminist Methodologies in Archaeology: Implications for the Northern Northwest Coast - Sandra Zacharias The Search for Gender in Early Northwest Coast Prehistory - Heather Pratt A Post-Androcentric View of Fraser Delta Archaeology - Kathryn Bernick Engendering Archaeology in the Pacific Northwest - Madonna L. Moss


The First Nations Of British Columbia Second Edition

Author by : Robert J. Muckle
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 41
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Description : The First Nations of British Columbia, Second Edition, is a concise and accessible overview of First Nations peoples, cultures, and issues in the province. Robert Muckle familiarizes readers with the history, diversity, and complexity of First Nations to provide a context for contemporary concerns and initiatives. This fully revised edition explains the current treaty negotiation process and provides highlights of agreements between First Nations and governments. It also details past and present government policies, identifies the territories of major groups in the province, gives information on populations, reserves, bands, and language groups, and summarizes archaeological, ethnographic, historical, legal, and political issues.


The Archive Of Place

Author by : William Turkel
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
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Description : The Archive of Place weaves together a series of narratives about environmental history in a particular location � British Columbia's Chilcotin Plateau. In the mid-1990s, the Chilcotin was at the centre of three territorial conflicts. Opposing groups, in their struggle to control the fate of the region and its resources, invoked different understandings of its past � and different types of evidence � to justify their actions. These controversies serve as case studies, as William Turkel examines how people interpret material traces to reconstruct past events, the conditions under which such interpretation takes place, and the role that this interpretation plays in historical consciousness and social memory. It is a wide-ranging and original study that extends the span of conventional historical research.


Hunter Gatherer Archaeobotany

Author by : Sarah L.R. Mason
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 87
Total Download : 266
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Description : Hunter-Gatherer Archaeobotany shows how archaeobotanical investigations can broaden our understanding of the much wider range of plants that have been of use to people in the recent and more distant past. The book compromises sixteen papers covering aspects of the archaeobotany of wild plants ranging across the northern hemisphere from Japan, across America, Europe and into the Near East. Sites examined span the Upper Palaeolithic to the recent past and demonstrate how such studies can extend our understanding of human interaction with plants throughout our history.


The First Nations Of British Columbia

Author by : Robert James Muckle
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 109
File Size : 40,9 Mb
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Description : The First Nations of British Columbia presents a concise andaccessible overview of First Nations' peoples, cultures, and issuesin the province. Its primary purpose is to provide an understanding oftoday's pertinent concerns and initiatives by familiarizing readerswith the history, diversity, and complexity of First Nations. It doesso from an anthropological perspective from which crucialarchaeological ethnographic, historic, and legal-political issues areexplored.


Macroevolution In Human Prehistory

Author by : Anna Prentiss
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
Total Download : 250
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Description : Cultural evolution, much like general evolution, works from the assumption that cultures are descendent from much earlier ancestors. Human culture manifests itself in forms ranging from the small bands of hunters, through intermediate scale complex hunter-gatherers and farmers, to the high density urban settlements and complex polities that characterize much of today’s world. The chapters in the volume examine the dynamic interaction between the micro- and macro-scales of cultural evolution, developing a theoretical approach to the archaeological record that has been termed evolutionary processual archaeology. The contributions in this volume integrate positive elements of both evolutionary and processualist schools of thought. The approach, as explicated by the contributors in this work, offers novel insights into topics that include the emergence, stasis, collapse and extinction of cultural patterns, and development of social inequalities. Consequently, these contributions form a stepping off point for a significant new range of cultural evolutionary studies.


Secw Pemc People Land And Laws

Author by : Marianne Ignace
Languange : en
Publisher by : McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
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Total Read : 24
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Description : Secwépemc People, Land, and Laws is a journey through the 10,000-year history of the Interior Plateau nation in British Columbia. Told through the lens of past and present Indigenous storytellers, this volume detail how a homeland has shaped Secwépemc existence while the Secwépemc have in turn shaped their homeland. Marianne Ignace and Ronald Ignace, with contributions from ethnobotanist Nancy Turner, archaeologist Mike Rousseau, and geographer Ken Favrholdt, compellingly weave together Secwépemc narratives about ancestors’ deeds. They demonstrate how these stories are the manifestation of Indigenous laws (stsq'ey') for social and moral conduct among humans and all sentient beings on the land, and for social and political relations within the nation and with outsiders. Breathing new life into stories about past transformations, the authors place these narratives in dialogue with written historical sources and knowledge from archaeology, ethnography, linguistics, earth science, and ethnobiology. In addition to a wealth of detail about Secwépemc land stewardship, the social and political order, and spiritual concepts and relations embedded in the Indigenous language, the book shows how between the mid-1800s and 1920s the Secwépemc people resisted devastating oppression and the theft of their land, and fought to retain political autonomy while tenaciously maintaining a connection with their homeland, ancestors, and laws. An exemplary work in collaboration, Secwépemc People, Land, and Laws points to the ways in which Indigenous laws and traditions can guide present and future social and political process among the Secwépemc and with settler society.


Ancient Pathways Ancestral Knowledge

Author by : Nancy Turner
Languange : en
Publisher by : McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
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Description : Volume 1: The History and Practice of Indigenous Plant Knowledge Volume 2: The Place and Meaning of Plants in Indigenous Cultures and Worldviews Nancy Turner has studied Indigenous peoples' knowledge of plants and environments in northwestern North America for over forty years. In Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge, she integrates her research into a two-volume ethnobotanical tour-de-force. Drawing on information shared by Indigenous botanical experts and collaborators, the ethnographic and historical record, and from linguistics, palaeobotany, archaeology, phytogeography, and other fields, Turner weaves together a complex understanding of the traditions of use and management of plant resources in this vast region. She follows Indigenous inhabitants over time and through space, showing how they actively participated in their environments, managed and cultivated valued plant resources, and maintained key habitats that supported their dynamic cultures for thousands of years, as well as how knowledge was passed on from generation to generation and from one community to another. To understand the values and perspectives that have guided Indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge and practices, Turner looks beyond the details of individual plant species and their uses to determine the overall patterns and processes of their development, application, and adaptation. Volume 1 presents a historical overview of ethnobotanical knowledge in the region before and after European contact. The ways in which Indigenous peoples used and interacted with plants - for nutrition, technologies, and medicine - are examined. Drawing connections between similarities across languages, Turner compares the names of over 250 plant species in more than fifty Indigenous languages and dialects to demonstrate the prominence of certain plants in various cultures and the sharing of goods and ideas between peoples. She also examines the effects that introduced species and colonialism had on the region's Indigenous peoples and their ecologies. Volume 2 provides a sweeping account of how Indigenous organizational systems developed to facilitate the harvesting, use, and cultivation of plants, to establish economic connections across linguistic and cultural borders, and to preserve and manage resources and habitats. Turner describes the worldviews and philosophies that emerged from the interactions between peoples and plants, and how these understandings are expressed through cultures’ stories and narratives. Finally, she explores the ways in which botanical and ecological knowledge can be and are being maintained as living, adaptive systems that promote healthy cultures, environments, and indigenous plant populations. Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge both challenges and contributes to existing knowledge of Indigenous peoples' land stewardship while preserving information that might otherwise have been lost. Providing new and captivating insights into the anthropogenic systems of northwestern North America, it will stand as an authoritative reference work and contribute to a fuller understanding of the interactions between cultures and ecological systems.


Landing Native Fisheries

Author by : Douglas C. Harris
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
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Description : Landing Native Fisheries reveals the contradictions and consequences of an Indian land policy premised on access to fish, on one hand, and a program of fisheries management intended to open the resource to newcomers, on the other. Beginning with the first treaties signed on Vancouver Island between 1850 and 1854, Douglas Harris maps the connections between the colonial land policy and the law governing the fisheries. In so doing, Harris rewrites the history of colonial dispossession in British Columbia, offering a new and nuanced examination of the role of law in the consolidation of power within the colonial state.


Prehistoric Exchange Systems In North America

Author by : Timothy G. Baugh
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 817
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Description : In this unique volume, archaeologists examine the changing economic structure of trade in North America over a period of 6,000 years. Organined by geographical and chronological divisions, each chapter focuses on trade in one of nine regions from the Arachiac through the late prehistoric period. Each contribution explores neighboring areas to llustrate the complexity of North American exchange. By charting the econmic structure of these regions, archaeologists, economic anthropologists, and economic geographers gain greater insight into the dynamics of North American trade and exchange on a continental wide basis.


British Columbia S Inland Rainforest

Author by : Susan Stevenson
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
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Description : The vast temperate rainforests of coastal British Columbia are world renowned, but much less is known about the other rainforest located 500 kilometres inland along the western slopes of the interior mountains. The unique integration of continentality and humidity in this region favours the development of lush rainforest communities that incorporate both coastal and boreal elements. In British Columbia's Inland Rainforest, scientists bring together, for the first time, a broad spectrum of information about this distinctive ecosystem. They also consider the ecological consequences of human activities in the rainforest and present strategies for its management and conservation.


Traders Tales

Author by : Elizabeth Vibert
Languange : en
Publisher by : Norman : University of Oklahoma Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 53
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Description : "This is the most original, most thoughtful piece of scholarship of our times on the fur trade of the Plateau."--WILLIAM R. SWAGERTY, University of Idaho.


Hidden Dimensions

Author by : Kathryn Bernick
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
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Description : Hidden Dimensions is a collection of essays drawn from papers presented at an international conference in Vancouver, British Columbia in April 1995. Scholars from around the globe examine several aspects of wetland archaeology in North America, Mexico, Europe, eastern Siberia, and New Zealand. Some of the essays in this volume explore environmental and historical contexts of wet-sites as well as past human adaptation to wetland environments. Others concentrate on the contributions of wetland archaeology to reconstructions of cultural history and the interpretation of unique perishable materials. In addition to discussions on the dynamic nature of wetlands and concern about the future of the cultural resources they contain, the authors look at practical issues of land management and object conservation. In Hidden Dimensions the authors seek to raise awareness of the significance of wetland archaeology issues at a time when wetlands around the globe are rapidly shrinking and their cultural contents are at risk of disappearing.


The Resettlement Of British Columbia

Author by : Cole Harris
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 44
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Description : In this beautifully crafted collection of essays, Cole Harris reflects on the strategies of colonialism in British Columbia during the first 150 years after the arrival of European settlers. The pervasive displacement of indigenous people by the newcomers, the mechanisms by which it was accomplished, and the resulting effects on the landscape, social life, and history of Canada's western-most province are examined through the dual lenses of post-colonial theory and empirical data. By providing a compelling look at the colonial construction of the province, the book revises existing perceptions of the history and geography of British Columbia.


The Oxford Handbook Of The Archaeology And Anthropology Of Hunter Gatherers

Author by : Vicki Cummings
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
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Description : For more than a century, the study of hunting and gathering societies has been central to the development of both archaeology and anthropology as academic disciplines, and has also generated widespread public interest and debate. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers provides a comprehensive review of hunter-gatherer studies to date, including critical engagements with older debates, new theoretical perspectives, and renewed obligations for greater engagement between researchers and indigenous communities. Chapters provide in-depth archaeological, historical, and anthropological case-studies, and examine far-reaching questions about human social relations, attitudes to technology, ecology, and management of resources and the environment, as well as issues of diet, health, and gender relations—all central topics in hunter-gatherer research, but also themes that have great relevance for modern global society and its future challenges. The Handbook also provides a strategic vision for how the integration of new methods, approaches, and study regions can ensure that future research into the archaeology and anthropology of hunter-gatherers will continue to deliver penetrating insights into the factors that underlie all human diversity.


Theories Of Culture In Postmodern Times

Author by : Marvin Harris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman Altamira
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
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Description : In this book, Marvin Harris presents his current views on the nature of culture addressing such issues as the mental/behavioral debate, emics and etics, and anthropological holism.


Athapaskan Migrations

Author by : R. G. Matson
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Arizona Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
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Description : Migration as an instrument of cultural change is an undeniable feature of the archaeological record. Yet reliable methods of identifying migration are not always accessible. In Athapaskan Migrations, authors R. G. Matson and Martin P. R. Magne use a variety of methods to identify and describe the arrival of the Athapaskan-speaking Chilcotin Indians in west central British Columbia. By contrasting two similar geographic areas—using the parallel direct historical approach—the authors define this aspect of Athapaskan culture. They present a sophisticated model of Northern Athapaskan migrations based on extensive archaeological, ethnographic, and dendrochronological research. A synthesis of 25 years of work, Athapaskan Migrations includes detailed accounts of field research in which the authors emphasize ethnic group identification, settlement patterns, lithic analysis, dendrochronology, and radiocarbon dating. Their theoretical approach will provide a blueprint for others wishing to establish the ethnic identity of archaeological materials. Chapter topics include basic methodology and project history; settlement patterns and investigation of both the Plateau Pithouse and British Columbia Athapaskan Traditions; regional surveys and settlement patterns; excavated Plateau Pithouse Tradition and Athapaskan sites and their dating; ethnic identification of recovered material; the Chilcotin migration in the context of the greater Pacific Athapaskan, Navajo, and Apache migrations; and summaries and results of the excavations. The text is abundantly illustrated with more than 70 figures and includes access to convenient online appendixes. This substantial work will be of special importance to archaeologists, anthropologists, linguists, and scholars in Athapaskan studies and Canadian First Nation studies.


The Archaeology Of North Pacific Fisheries

Author by : Madonna L. Moss
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Alaska Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 593
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Description : For thousands of years, fisheries were crucial to the sustenance of the First Peoples of the Pacific Coast. Yet human impact has left us with a woefully incomplete understanding of their histories prior to the industrial era. Covering Alaska, British Columbia, and Puget Sound, The Archaeology of North Pacific Fisheries illustrates how the archaeological record reveals new information about ancient ways of life and the histories of key species. Individual chapters cover salmon, as well as a number of lesser-known species abundant in archaeological sites, including pacific cod, herring, rockfish, eulachon, and hake. In turn, this ecological history informs suggestions for sustainable fishing in today’s rapidly changing environment.


Emerging From The Mist

Author by : Gary Graham Coupland
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 805
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Description : Ethnographic, ethnohistoric, and archaeological understanding of the pre-contact nature of the Northwest Coast has changed dramatically over the last twenty years. The ethnography of this area, which describes the most prominent examples of socially-complex hunters and gatherers, is known and studied across the globe but its archaeology is much less well known. Emerging from the Mist expands and updates our understanding of the nature and evolution of pre-contact Northwest Coast society. Addressing a wide range of topics, including original and penetrating analyses of the fur trade, pre-contact metallurgy and architecture, and migration, the collection makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the Northwest Coast. Scholars and students of archaeology and anthropology, and those with an interest in pre-contact Northwest Coast history will find this volume especially rewarding. This volume carries on the intellectual traditions of Wayne Suttles' grounded and empirical approach, and that of Donald H. Mitchell, who more than any other researcher integrated archaeology, ethnography and ethnohistory into his own research.