A Geography Of Jihad

Author by : Stephanie Zehnle
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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Description : This book addresses the Jihad movement that created the largest African state of the 19th century: the Sokoto Caliphate, existing for 99 years from 1804 until its military defeat by European colonial troops in 1903. The author carves out the entanglements of jihadist ideology and warfare with geographical concepts at Africa’s periphery of the Islamic world: geographical knowledge about the boundary between the “Land of Islam” and the “Land of War”; the pre-colonial construction of “the Muslim” and “the unbeliever”; and the transfer of ideas between political elites and mobile actors (traders, pilgrims, slaves, soldiers), whose reports helped shape new definitions of the African frontier of Islam. Research for this book is based on the study of a very wide range of Arabic and West African (Hausa, Fulfulde) manuscripts. Their policies reveal the persistent reciprocity of jihadist warfare and territorial statehood, of Africa and the Middle East. Stephanie Zehnle is Assistant Professor (JProf) of Extra-European History at Kiel University (Christian-Albrechts-Universität). Her work on African and trans-continental history includes research on the history of Islam, human-animal relations, and comics in Africa.


The Geography Of The Jihad

Author by : Tom Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 61
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Description :


Landscapes Of The Jihad

Author by : Faisal Devji
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 38
Total Download : 901
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Description : The militant Islam represented by Al-Qaeda is often described as a global movement. Apart from the geographical range of its operations and support, little else is held to define it as 'global'. Landscapes of the Jihad explores the features that Al-Qaeda and other strands of militant Islam share in common with global movements. These include a decentralised organisation and an emphasis on ethical rather than properly political action. Devji brings these and other characteristics of Al-Qaeda together in an analysis of the jihad that locates it squarely within the transformation of political thought after the Cold War. The jihad emerges from the breakdown of traditional as well as modern forms of authority in the Muslim world. It is neither dogmatic in an old-fashioned way nor ideological in the modern sense, and concerned neither with correct doctrinal practice in the present nor with some revolutionary utopia of the future. Instead it is fragmented, dispersed and highly individualistic.


Africanistan

Author by : Serge Michailof
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
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Total Read : 74
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Description : In Africa, progress can be seen across the board. Yet is this upturn sustainable? And is it comprehensive enough ? Every day, migrants are dying in the Mediterranean. Should we really believe that all is well ? The continent is in fact a powder keg. The powder is demographics. And the detonator is unemployment. By 2050, the number of young people of working age in Africa will be three times that of China's. What jobs will be available ? What is troubling for the continent is even more dramatic for the Sahel, a huge region of about 100 million inhabitants where insecurity is spreading like a bushfire.The mass unemployment of young people, far more than jihadist propaganda, is the primary explanation for the dramatic collapse of Afghanistan. Despite major differences in geography and culture, there are huge similarities between the Sahel and Afghanistan: a demographic impasse, stagnating agriculture, widespread rural misery, high unemployment, deep ethnic and religious fault lines, weak states, regional instability, drug trafficking, and the spread of radical Islam.


The Mind Of Jihad

Author by : Laurent Murawiec
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 68
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Description : This book examines contemporary jihad as a cult of violence and power. Murawiec compares this belief structure to that of Europe's medieval millenarians and apocalyptics and traces their political technologies to the Bolsheviks, using history, anthropology, and theology to understand the mind of jihad, which has declared war on the West.


The Geography Of International Terrorism

Author by : Richard M. Medina
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 14
Total Download : 202
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Description : While geography is not the only factor to shape human behavior, its influence on terrorists motivations, behaviors, options, and activities is a primary consideration in understanding terrorism. Taking a different approach than many other books on terrorism, The Geography of International Terrorism: An Introduction to Spaces and Places of Violent


Onward Muslim Soldiers

Author by : Robert Spencer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Regnery Publishing
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Total Read : 81
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Description : In this shocking new book, author Robert Spencer details how jihad warriors have already established numerous footholds right here in America, and are an established growing, and ominous threat in Europe. Onward Muslim Soldiers reveals the openly violent contempt that radical Muslims in the United States and around the world have for Western freedom and tolerance, and details why a clash of civilizations is already upon us. Using Muslim sources, Robert Spencer uncovers the tracts that influence radical Muslims - material full of naked hatred and intolerance, material that is freely and popularly available and that is almost completely ignored by the establishment media. This explosive book concludes with a series of practical steps that we must take to combat jihad terrorism - before it's too late.


Jih D In West Africa During The Age Of Revolutions

Author by : Paul E. Lovejoy
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ohio University Press
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Total Read : 30
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Description : In Jihād in West Africa during the Age of Revolutions, a preeminent historian of Africa argues that scholars of the Americas and the Atlantic world have not given Africa its due consideration as part of either the Atlantic world or the age of revolutions. The book examines the jihād movement in the context of the age of revolutions—commonly associated with the American and French revolutions and the erosion of European imperialist powers—and shows how West Africa, too, experienced a period of profound political change in the late eighteenth through the mid-nineteenth centuries. Paul E. Lovejoy argues that West Africa was a vital actor in the Atlantic world and has wrongly been excluded from analyses of the period. Among its chief contributions, the book reconceptualizes slavery. Lovejoy shows that during the decades in question, slavery expanded extensively not only in the southern United States, Cuba, and Brazil but also in the jihād states of West Africa. In particular, this expansion occurred in the Muslim states of the Sokoto Caliphate, Fuuta Jalon, and Fuuta Toro. At the same time, he offers new information on the role antislavery activity in West Africa played in the Atlantic slave trade and the African diaspora. Finally, Jihād in West Africa during the Age of Revolutions provides unprecedented context for the political and cultural role of Islam in Africa—and of the concept of jihād in particular—from the eighteenth century into the present. Understanding that there is a long tradition of jihād in West Africa, Lovejoy argues, helps correct the current distortion in understanding the contemporary jihād movement in the Middle East, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Africa.


Jihad In The Arabian Sea

Author by : Camille Pecastaing
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hoover Inst Press
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Total Read : 38
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Description : The lands and coasts across the Bab el Mandeb—the tiny strait that separates the Red Sea from the Indian Ocean—at the southern tip of the Red Sea, have for centuries had a forbidding reputation as lands of piracy and privation. In Jihad in the Arabian Sea, Camille Pecastaing examines the twenty-first-century challenges facing this troubled and treacherous region. He looks at the past and present of the key players in the area, including Somalia, Yemen, Eritrea, Djibouti, the Sudan, and Ethiopia, reviewing the terrorist activities of Al Qaeda, the state of lawlessness that has led to the rise of piracy in the western Indian Ocean, the rise of the radical Shabab group, and the spread of extremist forms of Islam in the south. Pecastaing displays a real feel for the land, seamlessly blending history and current headlines to paint a picture of a region that, for most of the past two thousand years, has never quite evolved into the era of the modern state. He shows how the current challenges of civil war, piracy, radical Islamism, and terrorism, along with a real risk of environmental and economic failure on both sides of the strait, could lead to still more social dislocation and violence in this strategically important area.


Al Tabari S Book Of Jihad

Author by : Ṭabarī
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The Book of Jihad (Kitab al-Jihad) is part of the fragmentary Book of the Disagreement among Muslim Jurists (Kitab Ikhtilaf al Fuqaha') by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (ca. 839 - ca. 923 C.E.), the famous Muslim historian and Qur'anic commentator. It consists of several sections that deal with different issues related to jihad in classical Islam such as the rules of declaring and conducting war against enemy states and the rules of making peace with the enemy. The present annotated translation of the Book of Jihad is based on the original manuscript located in Istanbul, Turkey. This work will appeal to scholars of Islamic Studies as well as Religion, History and Political Science.


International Relations And States Of Exception

Author by : Shampa Biswas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 85
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Description : Critically but sympathetically interrogating Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben’s analysis of the logic of sovereign power, this volume draws attention to the multiple zones of exclusion in and through which contemporary international politics constitutes itself. Beginning from the margins and peripheries of world politics, this book emphasises the colonial processes through which contemporary "third world" spaces of exception have been shaped and particular bodies made susceptible to the conditions of "bare life". The authors contend that these bodies inhabit a variety of spaces or "zones of indistinction" that include political detainees, refugees, asylum-seekers, poor migrants, sweatshop workers, and unassimilated indigenous populations. These are the "expendable bodies" that the territorial and market-driven logic of current international relations simultaneously produces, polices and excludes. Focussing on the locally and socio-historically specific ways that sovereign power works, the individual chapters provide the volume with a wide geographical reach. Drawing on diverse approaches, this text constitutes an important intervention in critical international relations, providing grounded theory and sophisticated analyses of how contemporary international relations works through the production of ‘exceptions’. Bringing together a range of internationally-renowned scholars, International Relations and States of Exception will be of vital interest to students and scholars of International Relations, Critical Theory and Postcolonial Studies.


The Metacolonial State

Author by : Najeeb A. Jan
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : 'An urgent and extraordinary book. Weaving a philosophical analysis of Heidegger, Agamben and Foucault, Jan draws out the implications of their thought for a radical analysis of the ontological politics of Islam and Pakistan. Whether writing about the 'Ulama and Deoband schools, blasphemy laws, the military, beards, or the Bamiyan Buddhas, Jan provokes and challenges our thinking while unearthing the ground on which Pakistan—and our world—are built.' —Joel Wainwright, Department of Geography, Ohio State University, USA 'In this exceptionally inventive and important book, Jan shows us that the problems besetting political life in Pakistan are part of a more troubling crisis in modern forms of power. Challenging accounts that cordon off "political Islam" from "the West," Jan discloses their fundamental indistinction and thus, through his practice of critical ontology, reorients our understanding of how power and violence are at work in the world.' —Joshua Barkan, Department of Geography, University of Georgia, USA The Metacolonial State presents a novel rethinking of the relationship between Islam and the Political. Key to the text is an original argument regarding the "biopoliticization of Islam" and the imperative need for understanding sovereign power and the state of exception in resolutely ontological terms. Through the formulation of a critical ontology of political violence, The Metacolonial State endeavors to shed new light on the signatures of power undergirding postcolonial life, while situating Pakistan as a paradigmatic site for reflection on the nature of modernity's precarious present. The cross-disciplinary approach of Dr. Jan's work is certain to have broad appeal among geographers, historians, anthropologists, postcolonial theorists, and political scientists, among others. At the same time, his explication of critical ontology – with its radical reading of the interlacement of history, power and the event – promises to add a bold new dimension to social science research on Islamism and biopolitics.


Jihad In The West

Author by : Paul Fregosi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 94
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Description : Chronicles the Muslim holy war against Christians, from the military invasions of the Dark Ages to today's random acts of terrorism


Jihad Beyond Islam

Author by : Gabriele Marranci
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury USA Academic
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Total Read : 75
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Description : By observing the current crisis of identity among ordinary Muslims, this book explores why, and in what circumstances Muslims speak of jihad. In the end, jihad is what Muslims say it is. Marranci offers us a nuanced and anthropolitical understanding of Muslims' lives beyond the predictable clichés.


The Geography Of International Terrorism

Author by : Richard M. Medina
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 823
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : While geography is not the only factor to shape human behavior, its influence on terrorists’ motivations, behaviors, options, and activities is a primary consideration in understanding terrorism. Taking a different approach than many other books on terrorism, The Geography of International Terrorism: An Introduction to Spaces and Places of Violent Non-State Groups presents an accessible, cross-disciplinary approach to managing terrorism on a global scale. The authors articulate the role of physical and human geography in terrorist ideology, operations, haven formation, and control. Providing the wider perspective required for preempting and countering terrorism, the book focuses on the geographic perspective in a more explicit manner than previous treatments of the topic. The authors examine networks as global systems and discuss new geospatial technologies in counterterrorism, supplying a blend of concepts and techniques that support policy development within the governing counter terrorist community. There are hundreds of books on terrorism, but few if any focus on the influence of geography, geospatial analysis, and geospatial intelligence approaches. A combination of academic theory and practical applications, this book provides the vertical linkage between topics at the high resolution level, such as sense of place and cultural identity of a clan or tribe with regional and global geographic-scale issues critical to understanding 21st century international terrorist groups.


Muslims In Europe

Author by : Manfred Wolf
Languange : en
Publisher by : iUniverse
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Total Read : 64
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Description : This book probes questions and gives provocative answers for one of the crucial issues of our time. Are two cultures ever incompatible in one society? In a series of essays spanning more than a decade, Manfred Wolf examines the topic of Muslims in Europe, exploring various aspects of the subject, including cultural affinities or their absence; several approaches to handling immigration; the roots of radicalization and terrorism; and the assimilation of Muslims in Europe versus the United States. From Elusive Affinities: Assimilation is always hardest when the culture of origin differs radically from the culture of the new society. Arab cultures of the Middle East and North Africa revolve around a kind of Islam-induced authoritarianism, an absolutist impulse, which the new country sets itself against. Certain standardsdeference to parents, obedience to government, respect for forceare in those parts of the world accepted almost without question, while European cultures encourage their citizens to question them. The newcomer, especially if hes young, mistakes this seeming laxness for total permissiveness, an absence of all standards, and is almost surprised when the host culture clamps down and jails him for a criminal offense. European culture seems amorphous, without clear values and beliefs. Freedom looks like the absence of morality. Since so few absolute standards obtain, why shouldnt you grope and fondle women at a public celebrationespecially when theyre so provocatively dressed? This disaffinity between the two cultures makes assimilation extraordinarily difficult, especially since assimilation entails accepting the morals, the norms, the mores, of the new culture. Genuine multiculturalism is an abstraction; one culture has to dominate.


Unfolding Islam

Author by : Phillip Stewart
Languange : en
Publisher by : Garnet Publishing Ltd
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 87
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Description : Thoroughly revised in the light of the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent climate of fear and hostility towards Muslims, this new edition of the acclaimed Unfolding Islam sets out to present Islam to non-Muslim readers, and to describe for the general reader - whether Muslim or not - how Islam has unfolded over the course of time, and how it continues to do so. Set in the context of the geography and history of what may be called the super-continent of Afro-Eurasia, the book centres on the Koran and the life of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions, showing how later developments are rooted there, right down to questions of contemporary relevance such as the difference between Sunni Muslims and Shiites, Sufis and literalists, reformists and ''fundamentalists''.Though the book is written with the non-specialist in mind, specialists will find new contributions to such topics as the first writing down of the Koran, jihad (holy war) and Islamic attitudes to our environment. Seen as a whole, the story of the unfolding of Islam shows how it has achieved its special balance of constancy and flexibility. The controlling position of the Prophet, the unique authority of the Koran and the strength of the Muslim family give the religion its enduring central core.


Jihad Vs Mcworld

Author by : Benjamin R. Barber
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 43
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Description : Analyzes the conflict between free-market capitalism and religious and tribal fundamentalism


Managing Muslim Mobilities

Author by : A. Fábos
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 391
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Description : Fábos and Isotalo address the issue of forced migration and mobility in the Muslim world. Their work explores the tensions between Muslim religious conceptions of space and place and new policies of 'migration management' and secure borders.


The Last Civilized Place

Author by : Ronald A. Messier
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Texas Press
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Total Read : 82
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Description : Set along the Sahara's edge, Sijilmasa was an African El Dorado, a legendary city of gold. But unlike El Dorado, Sijilmasa was a real city, the pivot in the gold trade between ancient Ghana and the Mediterranean world. Following its emergence as an independent city-state controlling a monopoly on gold during its first 250 years, Sijilmasa was incorporated into empire—Almoravid, Almohad, and onward—leading to the "last civilized place" becoming the cradle of today's Moroccan dynasty, the Alaouites. Sijilmasa's millennium of greatness ebbed with periods of war, renewal, and abandonment. Today, its ruins lie adjacent to and under the modern town of Rissani, bypassed by time. The Moroccan-American Project at Sijilmasa draws on archaeology, historical texts, field reconnaissance, oral tradition, and legend to weave the story of how this fabled city mastered its fate. The authors' deep local knowledge and interpretation of the written and ecological record allow them to describe how people and place molded four distinct periods in the city's history. Messier and Miller compare models of Islamic cities to what they found on the ground to understand how Sijilmasa functioned as a city. Continuities and discontinuities between Sijilmasa and the contemporary landscape sharpen questions regarding the nature of human life on the rim of the desert. What, they ask, allows places like Sijilmasa to rise to greatness? What causes them to fall away and disappear into the desert sands?


America S Jihad

Author by : Dan Sockle
Languange : en
Publisher by : Aywn Publications
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Description : (Second Edition) Religion vs. Culture; Islam vs. ISIS; Politics vs. Truth; and the Media - Friend or Foe? America has dug itself into a hole. Our relative isolation, educationally speaking, has resulted in an often-dysfunctional foreign policy going back decades. Our public education system, including much of "higher education," public and private, has generally subordinated or ignored geography, other world languages, cultures and religions. Our legal system is built upon an adversarial process for resolving disputes. Like many of the tribal cultures we strive to understand, our own criminal justice system is generally retributive, not restorative. Our media thrives on the most extreme, outrageous, and bloody. Pundits and talking heads model shouting matches with little or no effort towards achieving mutual understanding, compromise and collaborative problem-solving. We are an instant gratification society with far too many impediments to constructive conversation about the issues that should matter most. Our "Greatest Generation" is dying and our "all volunteer" military has resulted in a miniscule percentage of our population ever having served any kind of cause greater than themselves. This further reduces our exposure to, understanding of, and respect for both our own disparate cultures across fifty states, and, of course, the multitudes outside our borders - about which we understand so very little. We are at a point in history where political and religious fundamentalism and extremism have brought the world to dangerous crossroads. Sadly, as evidenced by the increased suffering of innocents, most notably the worst refugee crisis since World War II, America is ill-prepared to effectively, and compassionately, sort it all out. There is no one magic bullet, no one expert, no one leader, and certainly no easy answers to save the day, unite the world, achieve World Peace, or resolve the "fact wars." Every individual has developed his or her own truth and view of the world around them based upon their individual life experiences and journeys. Hopefully, most human's instincts are to do right by those who are suffering, dying, or otherwise in distress or disadvantage through no fault of their own. Chaplains, Interfaith/Cultural Outreach, NGO's and veterans are among our most important assets. This book's intent is to take a definitive step towards gaining a better understanding and respect for those coming from backgrounds and places much different from your own. Muslims and non-Muslims, military and academia, you will read about the lives of twenty-four people from various parts of the world, but also very much like you in their hopes and dreams for a better tomorrow. You will agree with many and disagree with some, but the key is to gain a better understanding of how they have come to their views of the world around them - and their visions of a better future - for themselves, their children, grandchildren and future generations. Veterans, Rotarians, Mediators and others sharing common values, are arguably the best positioned, as individuals and through global affiliations, to turn the tide on radicalism. We are all humans. We are increasingly in this world together. Let's make the most of it.


The End Of The Jihad State

Author by : Khalid Yahya Blankinship
Languange : en
Publisher by : SUNY Press
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Total Read : 53
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Description : Demonstrates for the first time that the cause of the Umayyad caliphate's collapse came not just from internal conflict, but from a number of external and concurrent factors that exceeded the caliphate's capacity to respond.


The Muslim Empire And The Land Of Gold

Author by : Rodney J. Phillips
Languange : en
Publisher by : Strategic Book Publishing
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Total Read : 74
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Description : Lying at the edge of the Rift Valley in Saudi Arabia is perhaps one of the most stunning places uncovered in history. Rediscovered in May of 2007, the Gold Fields of Ophir had once disappeared from man, hiding a veritable treasure trove of ancient history. The Muslim Empire gives us a closer look at the history and geography of this ancient Biblical culture.


Domestic Extremism And The Case Of The Toronto 18

Author by : Jeremy Kowalski
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
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Description : This book examines domestic extremism and what is popularly referred to as radicalization. The fear of domestic extremism has been used to dismantle democracy and erect national security states throughout North America, Western Europe, and beyond. Yet, despite the enormous costs citizens have paid in the name of security, society has become less secure and less safe. In many respects, this situation has resulted from the misapprehension of the conditions that make the emergence of this threat probable. Kowalski focuses on the macro social relations and structures that make radicalization probable. As demonstrated through an analysis of the so-called Toronto 18—an extremist group arrested in June of 2006 for activities that contravened the Canadian Anti-Terrorism Act (ATA)—macro social relations and structures served a significant role in creating the conditions through which the process of radicalization became probable. If a comprehensive understanding of the processes of radicalization are to be reached and effective counter-terrorism policies developed, then the consideration this book provides of greater macro social relations and structures that make the emergence of extremist subjectivities probable is needed.


African Border Disorders

Author by : Olivier J. Walther
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
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Description : Since the end of the Cold War, the monopoly of legitimate organized force of many African states has been eroded by a mix of rebel groups, violent extremist organizations, and self-defence militias created in response to the rise in organized violence on the continent. African Border Disorders explores the complex relationships that bind states, transnational rebels and extremist organizations, and borders on the African continent. Combining cutting edge network science with geographical analysis, the first part of the book highlights how the fluid alliances and conflicts between rebels, violent extremist organizations and states shape in large measure regional patterns of violence in Africa. The second part of the book examines the spread of Islamist violence around Lake Chad through the lens of the violent Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram, which has evolved from a nationally-oriented militia group, to an internationally networked organization. The third part of the book explores how violent extremist organizations conceptualize state boundaries and territory and, reciprocally, how do the civil society and the state respond to the rise of transnational organizations. The book will be essential reading for all students and specialists of African politics and security studies, particularly those specializing on fragile states, sovereignty, new wars, and borders as well as governments and international organizations involved in conflict prevention and early intervention in the region.


Out Of The Blue

Author by : Richard Bernstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Macmillan
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Total Read : 50
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Description : Presents an account of the September 11 attacks, chronicling their historical roots through their aftermath; tracing the lives of its heroes, victims, and terrorists; and profiling the al-Qaeda organization.


Human Geography

Author by : Erin H. Fouberg
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 111
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Description : Fouberg/Murphy: Human Geography: People, Places, and Culture 12th edition teaches students to appreciate the diversity of people, places, and cultures, and understand the role people play in shaping our world. The goals of this edition are to provide geographic context to global, regional, national and local issues and to teach students to think geographically and critically about these issues. Human Geography features beautifully designed maps, dozens of vibrant photographs taken by the author team, and author and guest field notes that help students see how geographers read cultural landscapes and use fieldwork to understand places. Fouberg’s Human Geography, 12th Edition now integrates Threshold Concepts to help students develop their ability to think geographically. Once they learn and apply one of these concepts in the context of a given place, students integrate it into their thinking and can draw from it as they learn new material and explore other places.


Empire And Jihad

Author by : Neil Faulkner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Yale University Press
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Total Read : 42
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Description : A panoramic, provocative account of the clash between British imperialism and Arab jihadism in Africa between 1870 and 1920 The Ottoman Sultan called for a "Great Jihad" against the Entente powers at the start of the First World War. He was building on half a century of conflict between British colonialism and the people of the Middle East and North Africa. Resistance to Western violence increasingly took the form of radical Islamic insurgency. Ranging from the forests of Central Africa to the deserts of Egypt, Sudan, and Somaliland, Neil Faulkner explores a fatal collision between two forms of oppression, one rooted in the ancient slave trade, the other in modern "coolie" capitalism. He reveals the complex interactions between anti-slavery humanitarianism, British hostility to embryonic Arab nationalism, "war on terror" moral panics, and Islamist revolt. Far from being an enduring remnant of the medieval past, or an essential expression of Muslim identity, Faulkner argues that "Holy War" was a reactionary response to the violence of modern imperialism.