A Geologic Time Scale 2004

Author by : Felix M. Gradstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : A new detailed international geologic time scale, including methodology and a wallchart.


A Geologic Time Scale 2004

Author by : F. M. Gradstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The latest research methods, including isotope geochronology, geomathematics & orbital turning, have been utilised to produce this new stratigraphic framework for the Precambrian & Phanerozoic periods


A Geologic Time Scale 2004

Author by : F. M. Gradstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
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Description : An international team of over forty stratigraphic experts have helped to build the most up-to-date international stratigraphic framework for the Precambrian and Phanerozoic. This successor to A Geologic Time Scale 1989 by W. Brian Harland et al. (CUP 0521 387655) begins with an introduction to the theory and methodology behind the construction of the new time scale. The main part of the book is devoted to the scale itself, systematically presenting the standard subdivisions at all levels using a variety of correlation markers. Extensive use is made of isotope geochronology, geomathematics and orbital tuning to produce a standard geologic scale of unprecedented detail and accuracy with a full error analysis. A wallchart summarising the whole time scale, with paleogeographic reconstructions throughout the Phanerozoic, is included in the back of the book. The time scale will be an invaluable reference source for academic and professional researchers and students.


The Geologic Time Scale 2012

Author by : F M Gradstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : The Geologic Time Scale 2012, winner of a 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date, international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This 2012 geologic time scale is an enhanced, improved and expanded version of the GTS2004, including chapters on planetary scales, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran periods/systems, a prehistory scale of human development, a survey of sequence stratigraphy, and an extensive compilation of stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable wall chart of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory or field. The most detailed international geologic time scale available that contextualizes information in one single reference for quick desktop access Gives insights in the construction, strengths, and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility Aids understanding by combining with the mathematical and statistical methods to scaled composites of global succession of events Meets the needs of a range of users at various points in the workflow (researchers extracting linear time from rock records, students recognizing the geologic stage by their content)


Geologic Time Scale 2020

Author by : Felix M. Gradstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Geologic Time Scale 2020 (2 volume set) contains contributions from 80+ leading scientists who present syntheses in an easy-to-understand format that includes numerous color charts, maps and photographs. In addition to detailed overviews of chronostratigraphy, evolution, geochemistry, sequence stratigraphy and planetary geology, the GTS2020 volumes have separate chapters on each geologic period with compilations of the history of divisions, the current GSSPs (global boundary stratotypes), detailed bio-geochem-sequence correlation charts, and derivation of the age models. The authors are on the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives surrounding the creation of an international geologic time scale. The included charts display the most up-to-date, international standard as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. As the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth, this book is essential for practicing Earth Scientists and academics. • Completely updated geologic time scale • Provides the most detailed integrated geologic time scale available that compiles and synthesize information in one reference • Gives insights on the construction, strengths and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility


A Concise Geologic Time Scale

Author by : J G Ogg
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : A Concise Geologic Time Scale: 2016 presents a summary of Earth's history over the past 4.5 billion years, as well as a brief overview of contemporaneous events on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable laminated card of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory, or field. Presents a summary of Earth's history over the past 4.5 billion years Includes a brief overview of contemporaneous events on the Moon, Mars, and Venus Includes full-color figures including charts, stratigraphic profiles, and photographs to enhance understanding of each geologic period Correlates regional geologic stages to the standard definitions approved by the International Commission on Stratigraphy Offers an explanation of the methods used to create the time scale


Encyclopedia Of Time

Author by : H. James Birx
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE Publications
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Description : "With a strong interdisciplinary approach to a subject that does not lend itself easily to the reference format, this work may not seem to support directly academic programs beyond general research, but it is a more thorough and up-to-date treatment than Taylor and Francis's 1994 Encyclopedia of Time. Highly recommended." —Library Journal STARRED Review Surveying the major facts, concepts, theories, and speculations that infuse our present comprehension of time, the Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture explores the contributions of scientists, philosophers, theologians, and creative artists from ancient times to the present. By drawing together into one collection ideas from scholars around the globe and in a wide range of disciplines, this Encyclopedia will provide readers with a greater understanding of and appreciation for the elusive phenomenon experienced as time. Features Surveys historical thought about time, including those ideas that emerged in ancient Greece, early Christianity, the Italian Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, and other periods Covers the original and lasting insights of evolutionary biologist Charles Darwin, physicist Albert Einstein, philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, and theologian Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Discusses the significance of time in the writings of Isaac Asimov, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Fyodor M. Dostoevsky, Francesco Petrarch, H. G. Wells, and numerous other authors Contains the contributions of naturalists and religionists, including astronomers, cosmologists, physicists, chemists, geologists, paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers, and theologians Includes artists' portrayals of the fluidity of time, including painter Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory and The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, and writers Gustave Flaubert's The Temptation of Saint Anthony and Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis Provides a truly interdisciplinary approach, with discussions of Aztec, Buddhist, Christian, Egyptian, Ethiopian, Hindu, Islamic, Navajo, and many other cultures' conceptions of time Key Themes Biography Biology/Evolution Culture/History Geology/Paleontology Philosophy Physics/Chemistry Psychology/Literature Religion/Theology Theories/Concepts


Encyclopedia Of Geology

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
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Description : Encyclopedia of Geology, Second Edition presents in six volumes state-of-the-art reviews on the various aspects of geologic research, all of which have moved on considerably since the writing of the first edition. New areas of discussion include extinctions, origins of life, plate tectonics and its influence on faunal provinces, new types of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, new methods of dating rocks, and geological processes. Users will find this to be a fundamental resource for teachers and students of geology, as well as researchers and non-geology professionals seeking up-to-date reviews of geologic research. Provides a comprehensive and accessible one-stop shop for information on the subject of geology, explaining methodologies and technical jargon used in the field Highlights connections between geology and other physical and biological sciences, tackling research problems that span multiple fields Fills a critical gap of information in a field that has seen significant progress in past years Presents an ideal reference for a wide range of scientists in earth and environmental areas of study


Strata And Time

Author by : D.G. Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
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Description : This Special Publication explores the relationship between the preserved strata of the rock record and the passage of time. It covers the controls on preservation of strata in the record, through the qualitative and statistical properties of statigraphic data, to the implications for analysis, interpretation, modelling and prediction.


The Timetree Of Life

Author by : S. Blair Hedges
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
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Description : The evolutionary history of life includes two primary components: phylogeny and timescale. Phylogeny refers to the branching order (relationships) of species or other taxa within a group and is crucial for understanding the inheritance of traits and for erecting classifications. However, a timescale is equally important because it provides a way to compare phylogeny directly with the evolution of other organisms and with planetary history such as geology, climate, extraterrestrial impacts, and other features. The Timetree of Life is the first reference book to synthesize the wealth of information relating to the temporal component of phylogenetic trees. In the past, biologists have relied exclusively upon the fossil record to infer an evolutionary timescale. However, recent revolutionary advances in molecular biology have made it possible to not only estimate the relationships of many groups of organisms, but also to estimate their times of divergence with molecular clocks. The routine estimation and utilization of these so-called 'time-trees' could add exciting new dimensions to biology including enhanced opportunities to integrate large molecular data sets with fossil and biogeographic evidence (and thereby foster greater communication between molecular and traditional systematists). They could help estimate not only ancestral character states but also evolutionary rates in numerous categories of organismal phenotype; establish more reliable associations between causal historical processes and biological outcomes; develop a universally standardized scheme for biological classifications; and generally promote novel avenues of thought in many arenas of comparative evolutionary biology. This authoritative reference work brings together, for the first time, experts on all major groups of organisms to assemble a timetree of life. The result is a comprehensive resource on evolutionary history which will be an indispensable reference for scientists, educators, and students in the life sciences, earth sciences, and molecular biology. For each major group of organism, a representative is illustrated and a timetree of families and higher taxonomic groups is shown. Basic aspects of the evolutionary history of the group, the fossil record, and competing hypotheses of relationships are discussed. Details of the divergence times are presented for each node in the timetree, and primary literature references are included. The book is complemented by an online database (www.timetree.net) which allows researchers to both deposit and retrieve data.


The Sedimentary Basins Of The United States And Canada

Author by : Andrew D. Miall
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
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Description : In recent years there have been rapid strides in our understanding of plate-tectonic processes, many developments in methods of basin analysis, and the accumulation of much new surface and subsurface geological and geophysical data. Projects such as COCORP (in the United States) and Lithoprobe (in Canada) have provided essential insights into the deep crustal structure of the continent. Synthesis of all the available information about North America’s geological regions has not been attempted systematically since the “Decade of North American Geology project undertaken by the Geological Society of America and the Geological Survey of Canada nearly twenty years ago. The book commences with a summary of the Phanerozoic geological history of the United States and Canada, illustrated with a suite of new paleogeographic maps, and tying in each of the subsequent regional chapters by the inclusion of numerous cross-references. This followed by a set of fifteen regional syntheses of the principal tectonic regions of the United States and Canada, focusing on the stratigraphic and tectonic history of the major sedimentary basins. Most of these chapters have been contributed by specialists, drawing on their own research, and providing interpretive summaries of a type not previously attempted. * Up-to-date synthesis of the sedimentary/tectonic history of the major areas of the United States and Canada * Up-to-date references * Many new color maps


The Anthropocene As A Geological Time Unit

Author by : Jan Zalasiewicz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : Reviews the evidence underpinning the Anthropocene as a geological epoch written by the Anthropocene Working Group investigating it. The book discusses ongoing changes to the Earth system within the context of deep geological time, allowing a comparison between the global transition taking place today with major transitions in Earth history.


Geostatistical And Geospatial Approaches For The Characterization Of Natural Resources In The Environment

Author by : N. Janardhana Raju
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 41
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Description : These proceedings of the IAMG 2014 conference in New Delhi explore the current state of the art and inform readers about the latest geostatistical and space-based technologies for assessment and management in the contexts of natural resource exploration, environmental pollution, hazards and natural disaster research. The proceedings cover 3D visualization, time-series analysis, environmental geochemistry, numerical solutions in hydrology and hydrogeology, geotechnical engineering, multivariate geostatistics, disaster management, fractal modeling, petroleum exploration, geoinformatics, sedimentary basin analysis, spatiotemporal modeling, digital rock geophysics, advanced mining assessment and glacial studies, and range from the laboratory to integrated field studies. Mathematics plays a key part in the crust, mantle, oceans and atmosphere, creating climates that cause natural disasters, and influencing fundamental aspects of life-supporting systems and many other geological processes affecting Planet Earth. As such, it is essential to understand the synergy between the classical geosciences and mathematics, which can provide the methodological tools needed to tackle complex problems in modern geosciences. The development of science and technology, transforming from a descriptive stage to a more quantitative stage, involves qualitative interpretations such as conceptual models that are complemented by quantification, e.g. numerical models, fast dynamic geologic models, deterministic and stochastic models. Due to the increasing complexity of the problems faced by today’s geoscientists, joint efforts to establish new conceptual and numerical models and develop new paradigms are called for.


The Complete Dinosaur

Author by : M. K. Brett-Surman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Indiana University Press
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Description : A new edition of the illustrated compendium that is “a gift to serious dinosaur enthusiasts” (Science). What do we know about dinosaurs, and how do we know it? How did they grow, move, eat, and reproduce? Were they warm-blooded or cold-blooded? How intelligent were they? How are the various groups of dinosaurs related to each other, and to other kinds of living and extinct vertebrates? What can the study of dinosaurs tell us about the process of evolution? And why did typical dinosaurs become extinct? These questions and more are addressed in this new, expanded edition of The Complete Dinosaur. Written by leading experts on the “fearfully great” reptiles, the book covers what we have learned about dinosaurs, from the earliest discoveries to the most recent controversies. Where scientific contention exists, the editors have let the experts agree to disagree. The Complete Dinosaur is a feast for serious dinosaur lovers, from the enthusiastic amateur to the professional paleontologist. Praise for the first edition: “An excellent encyclopedia that serves as a nice bridge between popular and scholarly dinosaur literature.” —Library Journal (starred review) “Stimulating armchair company for cold winter evenings. . . . Best of all, the book treats dinosaurs as intellectual fun.” —New Scientist “Useful both as a reference and as a browse-and-enjoy compendium.” —Natural History “Copiously illustrated and scrupulously up-to-date.” —Publishers Weekly “The amount of information in [these] pages is amazing. This book should be on the shelves of dinosaur freaks as well as those who need to know more about the paleobiology of extinct animals. It will be an invaluable library reference.” —American Reference Books Annual


Crystals Ii

Author by : Antonis Anastasiadis
Languange : en
Publisher by : AKAKIA Publications
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Description : The Crystals series - as you may already know - will hopefully be completed in a decalogy which will start from the creation of the universe, will transcend all human civilization, will come to the present and continue into the future, summarily showing the development of human civilization. In the first book, we saw the discovery of an object with strange properties, the study and finally the ‘cosmic’ journey in which we observed the Big Bang, the creation of galaxies and star systems.The 2nd book refers to the creation of the solar system, the creation and structure of the earth, the appearance of life on earth and its developmental course. This whole period, which in fact was initiated about five billion years ago, is elaborated with mythological fights and dwells, fitting in reality to mythological forms as natural forces, and that is why they are named ‘Supernatural’. Thus, we observe the drama of archetypal life on planet earth in the form of Supernatural Powers.The Titans with their leader, Cronos dominate the scene in the 2nd book. The structural upheavals on planet earth are presented in the form of epic battles and struggles, as well as the calamities and extinction of life but also the emergence of new life forms on earth. The 2nd Clash of the Titans brings us to about 50 million years ago with the final triumph of the Supernatural Powers in their fight against the Hypercosmic Powers followed by their slippage into the arrogance of power which will cause the 3rd Clash of the Titans.Continuing on this magic journey and keeping the White Crystal as the ‘vehicle’ of our transport, the reader of this and the other books in the series will observe the development of the human civilization from the creation of the universe to this day, through the use of myth, allegory and real events and scientific knowledge.The following 10 books with follow with the following proposed titles:1st Battle of the Titans: Clash between Vacuum and the Hypercosmic (Creation) 2nd Battle of the Titans: Clash between Hypercosmic and the Supernatural (Celestial Battle) 3rd Battle of the Titans: Clash between Natural and the Supernatural (Zeus-Cronos) 4th Battle of the Titans: Clash between Natural and the Paranormal (Battle of Giants) 5th Battle of the Titans: Clash between Natural and the Metaphysical (Prometheus) 6th Battle of the Titans: Clash between the Good and the Evil (White-Dark Crystal) 7th Battle of the Titans: Clash between the Sociopolitical and the Counter-sociopolitical (Early Civilizations) 8th Battle of the Titans: Clash between Humanism and Technocracy (Later Periods) 9th Battle of the Titans: Clash between Civilization and Barbarism (Current Times) 10th Battle of the Titans: Clash between Earthlings and Extraterrestrials (Intergalactic Travel)


The Vegetation Of Antarctica Through Geological Time

Author by : David J. Cantrill
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : The fossil history of plant life in Antarctica is central to our understanding of the evolution of vegetation through geological time and also plays a key role in reconstructing past configurations of the continents and associated climatic conditions. This book provides the only detailed overview of the development of Antarctic vegetation from the Devonian period to the present day, presenting Earth scientists with valuable insights into the break up of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana. Details of specific floras and ecosystems are provided within the context of changing geological, geographical and environmental conditions, alongside comparisons with contemporaneous and modern ecosystems. The authors demonstrate how palaeobotany contributes to our understanding of the palaeoenvironmental changes in the southern hemisphere during this period of Earth history. The book is a complete and up-to-date reference for researchers and students in Antarctic palaeobotany and terrestrial palaeoecology.


Paleobiology Of The Polycystine Radiolaria

Author by : David Lazarus
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : Polycystine radiolaria are exclusively marine protists and are found in all ocean waters, from polar regions to the tropics, and at all water depths. There are approximately 600 distinct described living species and several thousand fossil species of polycystines. Radiolarians in general, and polycystines in particular, have recently been shown to be a major component of the living plankton and important to the oceanic carbon cycle. As fossils radiolarians are also fairly common, and often occur in sediments where other types of fossils are absent. This has made them very valuable for certain types of geologic research, particularly estimating the geologic age of the sediments containing them, and as guides to past oceanic water conditions. As our current understanding of the biology, and even taxonomy of the living fauna is still very incomplete, evolutionary studies based on living polycystines are still rare. However, the common occurrence of numerous specimens for many species, and in a wide variety of oceanic environments, provides an excellent opportunity to study the processes of biologic evolution in the fossil record. Paleobiology of the Polycystine Radiolaria is the first major book on radiolarians to appear in the western literature since 2001. Focusing on living and fossil siliceous shelled radiolarians, it is notable for its emphasis not upon morphologic or taxonomic detail but on concepts and applications. The book attempts to provide a balanced, critical review of what is known of the biology, ecology, and fossil record of the group, as well as their use in evolutionary, biostratigraphic and paleoceanographic research. Full chapters on the history of study, and molecular biology, are the first ever in book form. Written for an audience of advanced undergraduate to doctoral students, as well as for a broad range of professionals in the biological and Earth sciences, Paleobiology of the Polycystine Radiolaria summarizes current understanding of the marine planktonic protist group polycystine radiolaria, both in living and fossil form.


The Carboniferous Permian Transition

Author by : Spencer G. Lucas
Languange : en
Publisher by : New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
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Progress In Geomathematics

Author by : Graeme Bonham-Carter
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
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Description : Celebrating Frits Agterberg’s half-century of publication activity in geomathematics, this volume’s 28 timely papers, written by his friends and colleagues, treat a variety of subjects of current interest, many of them also studied by Frits, including: spatial analysis in mineral resource assessment, quantitative stratigraphy, nonlinear multifractal models, compositional data analysis, time series analysis, image analysis, and geostatistics. Professor Agterberg published his first paper as a graduate student in 1958 and has since produced (and continues to publish) a steady stream of research papers on a wide variety of subjects of interest to geomathematical practitioners. Most of the papers included here address methodology and feature practical case studies, so that the book likely has broad appeal to those interested in mathematical geosciences, both to academic researchers seeking a comprehensive overview and also to practitioners of geomathematical approaches in industry.


Magnetic Susceptibility Application

Author by : A.C. Da Silva
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 275
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Description : Magnetic susceptibility (MS) is a tool frequently used by geologists on sediments or rocks to perform correlations and sea-level or climatic reconstructions. Applied measurements are made on unoriented, bulk samples and bulk MS is mostly influenced by the magnetic mineral content of the rock and often interpreted as influenced by detrital inputs. Magnetic data acquisition is fast and straightforward and this allows the high-resolution sampling needed for palaeoclimatic research (e.g. spectral analysis). However, the link with detrital inputs is not always preserved and the impact of diagenesis on the final MS signal can blur primary information. This volume includes contributions dealing with the origin of the magnetic minerals, and the application of MS as a palaeoenvironmental or palaeoclimatic proxy and also as a tool to provide astronomical calibration in order to improve the chronology of selected time intervals.


The Late Eocene Earth

Author by : Christian Koeberl
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of America
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
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Description : The Late Eocene and the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) transition mark the most profound oceanographic and climatic changes of the past 50 million years of Earth history, with cooling beginning in the middle Eocene and culminating in the major earliest Oligocene Oi-1 isotopic event. The Late Eocene is characterized by an accelerated global cooling, with a sharp temperature drop near the E-O boundary, and significant stepwise floral and faunal turnovers. These global climate changes are commonly attributed to the expansion of the Antarctic ice cap following its gradual isolation from other continental masses. However, multiple extraterrestrial bolide impacts, possibly related to a comet shower that lasted more than 2 million years, may have played an important role in deteriorating the global climate at that time. This book provides an up-to-date review of what happened on Earth at the end of the Eocene Epoch.


Geomathematics Theoretical Foundations Applications And Future Developments

Author by : Frits Agterberg
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
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Description : This book provides a wealth of geomathematical case history studies performed by the author during his career at the Ministry of Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada (NRCan-GSC). Several of the techniques newly developed by the author and colleagues that are described in this book have become widely adopted, not only for further research by geomathematical colleagues, but by government organizations and industry worldwide. These include Weights-of-Evidence modelling, mineral resource estimation technology, trend surface analysis, automatic stratigraphic correlation and nonlinear geochemical exploration methods. The author has developed maximum likelihood methodology and spline-fitting techniques for the construction of the international numerical geologic timescale. He has introduced the application of new theory of fractals and multi fractals in the geostatistical evaluation of regional mineral resources and ore reserves and to study the spatial distribution of metals in rocks. The book also contains sections deemed important by the author but that have not been widely adopted because they require further research. These include the geometry of preferred orientations of contours and edge effects on maps, time series analysis of Quaternary retreating ice sheet related sedimentary data, estimation of first and last appearances of fossil taxa from frequency distributions of their observed first and last occurrences, tectonic reactivation along pre-existing schistosity planes in fold belts, use of the grouped jackknife method for bias reduction in geometrical extrapolations and new applications of the theory of permanent, volume-independent frequency distributions.


Stratigraphy

Author by : Jacques Rey
Languange : en
Publisher by : Editions TECHNIP
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 382
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Description : This book, written by 33 stratigraphic experts, presents various processes available which will enable the location in time of all rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, plutonic, and eruptive, whether they are in outcrop or at subsurface. The terminology and the appropriate practices for each method are presented in separate chapters and illustrated with concrete examples. The order of the chapters is modeled on the progression of the stratigraphic process, from the descriptive to the interpretative, from the methods of the geometric stratigraphy (lithostratigraphy and genetic stratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy) to the chronological stratigraphy (biostratigraphy), followed by the chronometric stratigraphy (isotopic geochronology). The final two chapters are dedicated to chronostratigraphic units and correlations which combine the contributions of various methods and to the presentation of the 2007 version of the Geological Time Scale. The definitions of stratigraphic terms can be found in a glossary at the end of the work. The book is addressed to all professional geologists, from the industrial sector as well as those in universities, including teachers and researchers who would like to deepen their knowledge of the vocabulary, the concepts, the methods and the practical applications of different approaches of stratigraphy, a reference discipline for the entirety of the geological sciences.


The Triassic Timescale

Author by : Spencer G. Lucas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 459
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Description : The Mesozoic Era begins with the approximately 50-million-year-long Triassic Period, a major juncture in Earth history when the vast Pangaean supercontinent completed its assembly and began its fragmentation, and the global biota diversified and modern-ized after the end-Permian mass extinction, the most extensive biotic decimation of the Phanerozoic. The temporal ordering of geological and biotic events during Triassic time thus is critical to the interpretation of some unique and pivotal events in Earth his-tory. This temporal ordering is mostly based on the Triassic time-scale, which has been developed and refined for nearly two centu-ries. This book reviews the state of the art of the Triassic timescale and includes comprehensive analyses of Triassic radio-isotopic ages, magnetostratigraphy, isotope-based and cyclostratigraphic correlations and timescale -relevant marine and non-marine bio-stratigraphy.


Extinction

Author by : Douglas H. Erwin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Princeton University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
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Description : Some 250 million years ago, the earth suffered the greatest biological crisis in its history. Around 95 percent of all living species died out—a global catastrophe far greater than the dinosaurs' demise 185 million years later. How this happened remains a mystery. But there are many competing theories. Some blame huge volcanic eruptions that covered an area as large as the continental United States; others argue for sudden changes in ocean levels and chemistry, including burps of methane gas; and still others cite the impact of an extraterrestrial object, similar to what caused the dinosaurs' extinction. Extinction is a paleontological mystery story. Here, the world's foremost authority on the subject provides a fascinating overview of the evidence for and against a whole host of hypotheses concerning this cataclysmic event that unfolded at the end of the Permian. After setting the scene, Erwin introduces the suite of possible perpetrators and the types of evidence paleontologists seek. He then unveils the actual evidence--moving from China, where much of the best evidence is found; to a look at extinction in the oceans; to the extraordinary fossil animals of the Karoo Desert of South Africa. Erwin reviews the evidence for each of the hypotheses before presenting his own view of what happened. Although full recovery took tens of millions of years, this most massive of mass extinctions was a powerful creative force, setting the stage for the development of the world as we know it today. In a new preface, Douglas Erwin assesses developments in the field since the book's initial publication.


The Permian Timescale

Author by : S.G. Lucas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 446
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Description : This volume brings together state-of-the-art reviews of the non-biostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data that are used to define and correlate Permian time intervals. It includes analyses of Permian radio-isotopic ages, magnetostratigraphy, isotope-based stratigraphy and timescale-relevant biostratigraphy. It is the first book devoted to this subject and represents the cutting edge of Permian time-scale research.


Strati 2013

Author by : Rogério Rocha
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 94
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File Size : 45,7 Mb
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Description : The 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy (STRATI 2013), hold in Lisbon, 1–7 July 2013, follows the decision to internationalize the conferences previously organized by the French Committee of Stratigraphy (STRATI), the last one of which was held in Paris in 2010. Thus, the congress possesses both the momentum gained from an established conference event and the excitement of being the first International Congress on Stratigraphy. It is held under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (IUGS) and it is envisaged that this first congress will lead to others being held in the future. This book includes all papers accepted for oral or poster presentation at the 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy. Papers include a short abstract, main text, figures, tables and references. Each paper has been reviewed by two internationally renowned scientists.


The Geology Of Australia

Author by : David Johnson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
Total Download : 949
File Size : 54,7 Mb
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Description : The Geology of Australia provides a vivid and informative account of the evolution of the Australian continent over the last 4400 million years. Starting with the Precambrian rocks that hold clues to the origins of life and the development of an oxygenated atmosphere, it goes on to cover the warm seas, volcanism and episodes of mountain building, which formed the eastern third of the Australian continent. This illuminating history details the breakup of the supercontinents Rodinia and Gondwana, the times of previous glaciations, the development of climates and landscapes in modern Australia, and the creation of the continental shelves and coastlines. Separate chapters cover the origin of the Great Barrier Reef, the basalts in Eastern Australia, and the geology of the Solar System. This second edition features two new chapters, covering the evolution of life on Earth while emphasising the fossil record in Australia, and providing a geological perspective on climate change. From Uluru to the Great Dividing Range, from earthquakes to dinosaurs, from sapphires to the stars The Geology of Australia is a comprehensive exploration of the timeless forces that have shaped this continent.