Description : The book is important because it reflects a trend, especially in microelectronics manufacture toward recyclability. Europe and Asia are moving towards legislation to ban the use of lead in solders and public demand in the US will likely have the same result. Producers of solders and manufacturers who use them will have to invent and employ suitable substitutes and A Guide to Lead-free Solders will show them how to do so.
Description : This reference provides a complete discussion of the conversion from standard lead-tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end applications. Written by more than 45 world-class researchers and practitioners, the book discusses general reliability issues concerning microelectronic assemblies, as well as factors specif
Description : This book provides the most up-to-date knowledge and data available on the reliability of lead-free solder interconnects. The content has been written by leading experts working in this important technology area. Both fundamental research and practical considerations are addressed. Environmental regulations are driving the worldwide adoption of lead-free soldering technology for electronics packaging, board assembly, and related manufacturing operations. While a significant amount of research and development work has been conducted in recent years on manufacturing issues to enable the conversion to lead-free solders, data from studies related to the reliability of lead-free solder interconnects are still emerging. Many research projects around the world have been undertaken to study lead-free solder reliability under different loading conditions. This book is the first comprehensive guide to reliability of lead-free solder interconnects.
Description : This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the concepts behind lead-free soldering techniques. Readers will find a description of the physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders, in addition to lead-free electronics and solder alloys. Additional topics covered include the reliability of lead-free soldering, tin whiskering and electromigration, in addition to emerging technologies and research.
Description : This thesis presents a series of mechanical test methods and comprehensively investigates the deformation and damage behavior of Cu/Pb-free solder joints under different loading conditions. The fracture behavior of Pb-free joint interfaces induced by stress, deformation of solder and substrate are shown, the shear fracture strength of the Cu6Sn5 IMC is measured experimentally for the first time, and the dynamic damage process and microstructure evolution behavior of Pb-free solder joints are revealed intuitively. The thesis puts forward the argument that the local cumulative damage is the major cause of failure in solder joints. The research results provide the experimental and theoretical basis for improving the reliability of solder joints.
Description : A guide to better understanding how lead enters the drinking water system in the U.S. and how the government has implemented and subsequently updated regulations to limit lead contamination to its citizens. In addition, details of who is affected by these new regulations and how they can stay compliant.
Description : Proven 2D and 3D IC lead-free interconnect reliability techniques Reliability of RoHS-Compliant 2D and 3D IC Interconnects offers tested solutions to reliability problems in lead-free interconnects for PCB assembly, conventional IC packaging, 3D IC packaging, and 3D IC integration. This authoritative guide presents the latest cutting-edge reliability methods and data for electronic manufacturing services (EMS) on second-level interconnects, packaging assembly on first-level interconnects, and 3D IC integration on microbumps and through-silicon-via (TSV) interposers. Design reliable 2D and 3D IC interconnects in RoHS-compliant projects using the detailed information in this practical resource. Covers reliability of: 2D and 3D IC lead-free interconnects CCGA, PBGA, WLP, PQFP, flip-chip, lead-free SAC solder joints Lead-free (SACX) solder joints Low-temperature lead-free (SnBiAg) solder joints Solder joints with voids, high strain rate, and high ramp rate VCSEL and LED lead-free interconnects 3D LED and 3D MEMS with TSVs Chip-to-wafer (C2W) bonding and lead-free interconnects Wafer-to-wafer (W2W) bonding and lead-free interconnects 3D IC chip stacking with low-temperature bonding TSV interposers and lead-free interconnects Electromigration of lead-free microbumps for 3D IC integration