Description : The aim of the present volume is two-fold: to give a coherent account of the locative alternation in English, and to develop a constructional theory that overcomes a number of problems in earlier constructional accounts. The lexical-constructional account proposed here is characterized by two main features. On the one hand, it emphasizes the need for a detailed examination of verb meanings. On the other, it introduces lower-level constructions such as verb-class-specific constructions and verb-specific constructions, and makes full use of these lower-level constructions in accounting for alternation phenomena. Rather than being a completely new version of construction grammar, the proposed lexical-constructional account is an automatic consequence of the basic tenet of constructional approaches as being usage-based.
Description : This monograph deals with the locative alternation in German, a change in the argument structure of verbs like spray and load. Like most argument structure changes, the alternation is both productive and constrained: new forms may be derived, but not from all candidate verbs. This raises a learnability problem: how can children determine, in the absence of negative evidence, which verbs participate in the alternation? The Locative Alternation in German tries to answer this question by providing an in-depth analysis of the conditions that verbs must meet in order to participate in the alternation. Most importantly, transitive verbs must allow speakers to presuppose the existence of their theme argument. This condition requires the theme to be incremental so that it can be conceived of as nonindividuated (or unbounded) when the verb is used in the alternative syntactic frame. The Nonindividuation Hypothesis splits locative verbs into two types, mass verbs (like spray) and count verbs (like load), and it predicts that children acquire the alternation first for mass verbs, whose theme must be a substance and so is nonindividuated by default. Support for this hypothesis is provided in the empirical part of the book, which also provides evidence against claims in the literature that children acquire the alternation by drawing on an innate Affectness Linking Rule.
Description : This volume brings together descriptions and analyses of the conjoint/disjoint alternation, a typologically significant phenomenon found in many Bantu languages. The chapters provide in-depth documentation, comparative studies and theoretical analyses of the alternation from a range of Bantu languages, showing its crosslinguistic variation in constituent structure, morphology, prosody and information structure.
Description : Ember is Erica's older sister a girl who battles demons, coming to her rescue is a protector from another realm, but the demons who are actually aliens will not leave without her essence. She battles on courageously, while the demons play with her mind.
Description : A wide variety of species, including human beings, exhibits a remarkably reliable behavior pattern, known as spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB), that has intrigued researchers for over seven decades. Though the details may vary depending on species and setting, SAB essentially entails first choosing one member of a pair of alternatives and then the other, without instructions or incen tives to do so. Spontaneous alternation is manifested even in the early trials of a discrimination-learning experiment, where only one of the choices is reinforced. Indeed, that was the setting in which SAB was first noted (Hunter, 1914). Rein forcement contingencies, evidently, are superimposed, not on a random sequence of choices, but on a potent, systematic behavior pattern. This book is the first to be devoted entirely to SAB and closely related phenomena, such as habituation and exploration. The literature on SAB is vast, covering a host of questions ranging from the cues that guide alternation to its phylogenetic and ontogenetic generality, its relation to learning and motivation, and its neurochemical substrates. In separate chapters we take up each of the major issues, reviewing what is known about the several facets of SAB and revealing areas of ignorance. The chapter authors were encouraged to discuss their own research where pertinent, some of it as yet unpublished, indeed some conducted specifically for this volume.
Description : In 12,000 B.C., the first werewolves came to our world. The werewolves were out-casts in the Galaxy, they were slaves, their freakish strength and agility were constructed by the aliens to mine gold, the aliens put them here thousands of years ago. If you know anything about the plight of the Pearls, you know you've got to avoid the heat. I received some gifts for my birthday, which changed my little life forever; the gifts changed me into a wolf, other people, etc, and opened portals to other realms. If I don't get a handle on these things, I may find I'm faced with an apocalypse and possibly my end.
Description : This handbook on garment construction includes detailed instructions on how to alter patterns to fit different sized construction. Includes shoulders, blouses, sleeves, length, and more.