An Economic Analysis Of Farms Producing Grass Seed In The Willamette Valley With Special Attention To The Cultural Practice Of Field Burning

Author by : Douglas Earl Fisher
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : Grass seed producers in Oregon's Willamette Valley have employed the cultural practice of post-harvest open field burning since the mid-1940's for purposes of field sanitation and crop residue disposal This practice creates environmental quality problems of air pollution during the late summer Recent public concern over the valley's environmental quality has focused attention on the grass seed industry, resulting in measures passed by the 1971 state legislature to ban open field burning in Oregon by January 1, 1975. Several economic issues are raised by the prospect of field burning curtailment. These include identification of: (1) alternatives to open burning, and their associated costs; (2) income effects resulting from possible increases in production costs, reduction in seed yields and changes in seed quality; (3) possible loss of comparative advantage now enjoyed by Willamette Valley farmers; and, (4) possible organizational adjustments by farm operators including prospects for increased farm size and reduced farm numbers. This thesis is designed as a base study to provide descriptive information and an economic rationale as necessary precursors for evaluating possible and probable' economic consequences of a burning ban to the grass seed industry. The Willamette Valley was separated into five seed-production regions, based on soil characteristics and urban.influences. A ten percent random sample was drawn from the population of farm operators raising grass seed. Major grass seed types studied include Highland bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, fine fescue, tall fescue, orchard grass, annual ryegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Descriptive data includes farm family characteristics, income sources, age, family labor, farm organization, and resource returns. Analysis of data identified wide variability in resource use. A significant component involved large differences in operating costs for machinery, labor, fertilizer, and chemicals within each seed type. This suggests internal adjustments in resource use efficiency and cost management are necessary for high-cost farms to survive in the short run regardless of whether or not a burning ban threat exists. Some farms are successfully competing now and will continue to do so with limited operating resource adjustments. Orchardgrass and Kentucky bluegrass generally provided highest net returns, while ryegrasses earned lowest returns of the seven seed types, suggesting some adjustment opportunities for substitution between seed types. Inter-enterprise adjustments will be determined by the number of grass seed crops, other non-grass crops, and livestock choices available. Cost advantages of complementary enterprises were evident, with adjustments in this direction determined by market accessibility, soil limitations, and managerial constraints. These limitations suggest limited adjustment, in general, toward non-grass and livestock enterprise choices. Pronounced cost advantages occurred to farms over 300 acres in size, suggesting that long run adjustments will likely include farm enlargement and reduction of farm numbers. Farm location, topography, -, and proximity to urban areas are also expected to affect direction and magnitude of adjustments. Farms in Region 1, Clackamas and Multnomah counties, faced with topography limitations and urban pressures, will likely shift resources to more intensive . farm and non-farm uses. Linn, Benton, and Lane county grass seed producers are expected to intensify specialization in grass seed production with an increase in average farm size. In Washington and Yamhill counties where grass seed production serves primarily as complementary and/or supplementary enterprises, the trend toward production of proprietary grass seed varieties is expected. In Polk and Marion counties where soil and topographical characteristics dominate resource use and enterprise choices, probable adjustment impacts are less obvious and are expected to vary widely from farm to farm. Imposition of a burning ban, felt primarily in the form of increased production costs, will undoubtedly hasten the farm organizational adjustments specified above.


Bacillus Thuringiensis Bt Cotton Seed Production In North Eastern Karnataka An Economic Analysis

Author by : Veerabhadrappa Bellundagi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Amazon Publishers, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 73
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Description : Karnataka is one of the nine major Bt cotton growing states in the country. The Bt cotton seed production focussed on the socio-economic characteristics of contract farmers, cost and return, efficiency of resource use and problems faced by the farmers in Bt cotton seed production under different companies. Five companies having highest area under Bt cotton seed production were selected for study. The present study was conducted with primary data collected entirely based on a multistage random sampling technique from 200 Bt cotton seed production growers who have contracted with the different seed companies. The study pertained to the agricultural year 2012-13. The total cost of Bt cotton seed production varied from one company contract farmers to other company contract farmers. The total cost was found to be higher (Rs.96829) in case of JK seeds company contract farmers followed by the farmers who have contracted with Monsanto seeds company (Rs.95797). While, the net returns obtained from Bt cotton seed production was found to be higher in case of Monsanto seeds company contract farmers (Rs.46387) followed by Kaveri seeds company contract farmers (Rs.33076). The Cobb-Douglas production function revealed that the farmers who have contracted with different seed companies, the use of seed was found to be optimum across all company contract farmers. Whereas, fertilizer resource was over utilized by farmers who have contracted with various companies. Non availability of trained labour and prevalence of high wage rate were the major constraints in case of production, where as poor technical assistance and low contract price were the contractual problems. The other problems regarding plant protection, high incidence of diseases was the major constraint in Bt cotton seed production and in case of marketing, high price of parents of Bt cotton seeds and low price of the seeds offered by the agencies were the major ones. Therefore the Bt cotton seed production technology had positive impact on Socio- economic status of farmers by increase in yield and reducing cost on inputs thereby increase in income and also standard of living.


Xx International Grassland Conference Offered Papers

Author by : F.P. O'Mara
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wageningen Academic Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 264
File Size : 45,7 Mb
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Description : This book contains a compilation of offered papers presented at the main congress of the XX International Grassland Congress held in University College Dublin, Ireland from 26 June to 1 July, 2005. It is complemented by six other books arising from the XX IGC as listed on the back cover: the book of invited papers from the main congress and five books containing the proceedings of five satellite workshops held immediately after the main congress at locations in the UK and Ireland (Aberystwyth, Belfast, Cork, Glasgow and Oxford). The workshops were designed to facilitate more in-depth presentations and discussions on more specialised topics of worldwide significance. The main congress brought together scientists from many disciplines, policy makers, consultants and producers involved directly in grass production and utilisation, as well as people in associated industries. They discussed issues around the theme of the congress, Grasslands : a Global Resource. The congress programme was organised around three main thematic areas: Efficient Production from Grassland Grassland and the Environment Delivering the Benefits from Grassland


Agrinvest Food Systems Project Political Economy Analysis Of The Ethiopian Food System

Author by : Woolfrey, S.; Bizzotto Molina, P.; Ronceray, M.
Languange : en
Publisher by : Food & Agriculture Org.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 97
Total Download : 999
File Size : 48,9 Mb
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Description : This study aims to inform the implementation in Ethiopia of the AgrInvest-Food Systems Project, a collaboration between the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) to promote private investment in African food systems that contributes to sustainable development objectives. The study analyses the Ethiopian food system, identifying and explaining notable trends, important socio-economic, food security and nutrition and environmental outcomes generated by the food system, as well as the structural factors, institutions, and actors that shape food system outcomes in Ethiopia.


Poplar Chip Production For Willamette Valley Grass Seed Sites

Author by : Bradford A. Withrow-Robinson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 319
File Size : 41,8 Mb
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Description : "This publication is part of a 1-year project funded by the Oregon Department of Agriculture, Alternatives to Field Burning Program. Crop substitution is one strategy for reducing smoke from field burning. The objective of the project was to evaluate the potential for hybrid poplar as an alternative crop for poorly drained agricultural soils in the Willamette Valley. The evaluation focused on the potential yield of poplar on agricultural soils commonly used for annual ryegrass production, and on an economic analysis of poplar grown for pulp chips in the valley. The pulp chip market was seen as the most immediate and viable market outlet for poplar wood, although it is not the only possibility."--Purpose of this report.


Advances In Seed Production And Management

Author by : Ajay Kumar Tiwari
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 836
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description : High-quality seed is essential for healthy crops and greater agricultural productivity. At the same time, advances in breeding technology require equivalent advances in seed technology. In order to ensure food security, it is crucial to develop seeds that are high yielding, and resistant to drought, heat, cold, and insects. Gathering the latest research in seed sciences, the book includes contributions on seed production in crops such as legumes, sugar, rice, wheat and other cereals. It discusses a range of topics, like the effect of climate change on seed quality, production and storage; seed rouging; seed certification for different crop species; seed biology; and seed pathologies and their effective management. Integrating basic and applied research, this compendium provides valuable insights for researchers and students in agricultural and life sciences; professionals involved in seed certification and those working in quarantine laboratories; as well as plant pathologists.


The American Economic Review

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
Total Download : 166
File Size : 51,5 Mb
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Description : Includes papers and proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Economic Association. Covers all areas of economic research.


Bibliography Of Agriculture

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 363
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description :


The Blackwell Guide To Theology And Popular Culture

Author by : Kelton Cobb
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 639
File Size : 44,7 Mb
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Description : The Blackwell Guide to Theology of Popular Culture outlines various general theories of popular culture, identifies theologians and theological concepts that are conducive to analyzing popular culture, and explores religious themes that are asserting themselves through popular movies, novels, music, television shows and advertising. A timely examination and contribution to the rapidly expanding field of theology and popular culture Locates the theological analysis of culture alongside political, sociological, economic, aesthetic and psychological analyses Surveys the work of religious and theological scholars who have turned their attention to popular culture Considers classic Christian thinkers who have wrestled with culture, such as St. Paul, Tertullian, Augustine, Schleiermacher, Tillich, and Ricoeur Proposes a method for analysing culture to discern its religious content Identifies religious themes in popular culture Uses illustrations, ranging from the fiction of Nick Hornby to Six Feet Under An appendix provides lists of films, novels, television series, consumer products, architectural works, cultural events, and corporate icons that lend themselves to theological analysis.


Fertilizer Abstracts

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
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File Size : 55,8 Mb
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Developing The Global Bioeconomy

Author by : Patrick Lamers
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 413
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : Developing the Global Bioeconomy: Technical, Market, and Environmental Lessons from Bioenergy brings together expertise from three IEA-Bioenergy subtasks on pyrolysis, international trade, and biorefineries to review the bioenergy sector and draw useful lessons for the full deployment of the bioeconomy. Despite the vast amount of politically driven strategies, there is little understanding on how current markets will transition towards a global bioeconomy. The question is not only how the bioeconomy can be developed, but also how it can be developed sustainably in terms of economic and environmental concerns. To answer this question, this book’s expert chapter authors seek to identify the types of biorefineries that are expected to be implemented and the types of feedstock that may be used. They also provide historical analysis of the developments of biopower and biofuel markets, integration opportunities into existing supply chains, and the conditions that would need to be created and enhanced to achieve a global biomass trade system that could support a global bioeconomy. As expectations that a future bioeconomy will rely on a series of tradable commodities, this book provides a central accounting of the state of the discussion in a multidisciplinary approach that is ideal for research and academic experts, and analysts in all areas of the bioenergy, biofuels, and bioeconomy sectors, as well as those interested in energy policy and economics. Examines the lessons learned by the bioenergy industry and how they can be applied to the full development of the bioeconomy Explores different transition strategies and how the current fossil based and future bio-based economy are intertwined Reviews the status of current biomass conversion pathways Presents an historical analysis of the developments of biopower and biofuel markets, integration opportunities into existing supply chains, and the conditions that would need to be created and enhanced to achieve a global biomass trade system


Experiment Station Record

Author by : United States. Office of Experiment Stations
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
Total Download : 775
File Size : 53,8 Mb
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Restoring Natural Capital

Author by : James Aronson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Island Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 81
Total Download : 747
File Size : 50,8 Mb
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Description : How can environmental degradation be stopped? How can it be reversed? And how can the damage already done be repaired? The authors of this volume argue that a two-pronged approach is needed: reducing demand for ecosystem goods and services and better management of them, coupled with an increase in supply through environmental restoration. Restoring Natural Capital brings together economists and ecologists, theoreticians, practitioners, policy makers, and scientists from the developed and developing worlds to consider the costs and benefits of repairing ecosystem goods and services in natural and socioecological systems. It examines the business and practice of restoring natural capital, and seeks to establish common ground between economists and ecologists with respect to the restoration of degraded ecosystems and landscapes and the still broader task of restoring natural capital. The book focuses on developing strategies that can achieve the best outcomes in the shortest amount of time as it: • considers conceptual and theoretical issues from both an economic and ecological perspective • examines specific strategies to foster the restoration of natural capital and offers a synthesis and a vision of the way forward Nineteen case studies from around the world illustrate challenges and achievements in setting targets, refining approaches to finding and implementing restoration projects, and using restoration of natural capital as an economic opportunity. Throughout, contributors make the case that the restoration of natural capital requires close collaboration among scientists from across disciplines as well as local people, and when successfully executed represents a practical, realistic, and essential tool for achieving lasting sustainable development.


Experiment Station Record

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
Total Download : 501
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Arctic Bulletin

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 231
File Size : 49,6 Mb
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Description : One issue each year devoted to the annual report.