Ancient African Metallurgy

Author by : Michael S. Bisson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
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Description : Gold. Copper. Iron. Metal working in Africa has been the subject of both popular lore and extensive archaeological investigation. In this volume, four leading archaeologists attempt to provide a complete synthesis of current debates and understandings: When, how and where was metal first introduced to the continent? How were iron and copper tools, implements, and objects used in everyday life, in trade, in political and cultural contexts? What role did metals play in the ideological systems of precolonial African peoples? Substantive chapters address the origins of African metal working and analyze the specific uses, technology, and ideology of both copper and iron. An ethnoarchaeological account in the words of a contemporary iron worker enriches the archaeological explanations. The volume will be of great value to scholars and students of archaeology, African history, and the history of technology.


Myth Ritual And Metallurgy In Ancient Greece And Recent Africa

Author by : Sandra Blakely
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
Total Download : 646
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Description : This book, first published in 2006, provides new insights into the position of technology in Greek myth.


Metals In Past Societies

Author by : Shadreck Chirikure
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 336
File Size : 50,7 Mb
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Description : This book seeks to communicate to both a global and local audience, the key attributes of pre-industrial African metallurgy such as technological variation across space and time, methods of mining and extractive metallurgy and the fabrication of metal objects. These processes were transformative in a physical and metaphoric sense, which made them total social facts. Because the production and use of metals was an accretion of various categories of practice, a chaine operatoire conceptual and theoretical framework that simultaneously considers the embedded technological and anthropological factors was used. The book focuses on Africa’s different regions as roughly defined by cultural geography. On the one hand there is North Africa, Egypt, the Egyptian Sudan, and the Horn of Africa which share cultural inheritances with the Middle East and on the other is Africa south of the Sahara and the Sudan which despite interacting with the former is remarkably different in terms of technological practice. For example, not only is the timing of metallurgy different but so is the infrastructure for working metals and the associated symbolic and sociological factors. The cultural valuation of metals and the social positions of metal workers were different too although there is evidence of some values transfer and multi-directional technological cross borrowing. The multitude of permutations associated with metals production and use amply demonstrates that metals participated in the production and reproduction of society. Despite huge temporal and spatial differences there are so many common factors between African metallurgy and that of other regions of the world. For example, the role of magic and ritual in metal working is almost universal be it in Bolivia, Nepal, Malawi, Timna, Togo or Zimbabwe. Similarly, techniques of mining were constrained by the underlying geology but this should not in any way suggest that Africa’s metallurgy was derivative or that the continent had no initiative. Rather it demonstrates that when confronted with similar challenges, humanity in different regions of the world responded to identical challenges in predictable ways mediated as mediated by the prevailing cultural context. The success of the use of historical and ethnographic data in understanding variation and improvisation in African metallurgical practices flags the potential utility of these sources in Asia, Latin America and Europe. Some nuance is however needed because it is simply naïve to assume that everything depicted in the history or ethnography has a parallel in the past and vice versa. Rather, the confluence of archaeology, history and ethnography becomes a pedestal for dialogue between different sources, subjects and ideas that is important for broadening our knowledge of global categories of metallurgical practice.


Indigenous Mining And Metallurgy In Africa

Author by : Shadreck Chirikure
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 729
File Size : 42,5 Mb
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Description : The study of mining and metallurgy is essential to gain an understanding of Africa's rich history. Explore the secrets of Africa's forgotten technological past. From prospecting and mining to smelting and forging, discover the fascinating technologies used across the African continent over the last two and a half thousand years. Through visits to ancient mines and archaeological sites this book recaptures the ancient knowledge and technology used in indigenous mining and metallurgy. Experience the birth of African mining and the rise and fall of great African empires and societies, while uncovering the exciting discoveries of iron, copper and later tin, bronze and gold work across Africa. Trace the wealth and knowledge exchanged through trade, while investigating the the fascinating rituals, magic and taboos that played an important part in indigenous mining. And finally, learn how this rich history can be used today to generate income through tourism for local communities.


Nok

Author by : Peter Breunig
Languange : en
Publisher by : Africa Magna Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
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Description : This book provides insights into the archaeological context of the Nok Culture in Nigeria (West Africa). It was first published in German accompanying the same-titled exhibition “Nok – Ein Ursprung afrikanischer Skulptur” at the Liebieghaus Skulpturensammlung in Frankfurt (30th October 2013 – 23rd March 2014) and has now been translated into English. A team of archaeologists from the Goethe University Frankfurt/Main has been researching the Nok Culture since 2005. The results are now presented to the public. The Nok Culture existed for about 1500 years – from around the mid-second millennium BCE to the turn of the Common Era. It is mainly known by the elaborate terracotta sculptures which were likewise the focus of the exhibition. The research of the archaeologists from Frankfurt, however, not only concerns the terracotta figures. They investigate the Nok Culture from a holistic perspective and put it into the larger context of the search for universal developments in the history of mankind. Such a development – important because it initiated a new era of the past – is the transition from small groups of hunters and gatherers to large communities with complex forms of human co-existence. This process took place almost everywhere in the world in the last 10,000 years, although in very different ways. The Nok Culture represents an African variant of that process. It belongs to a group of archaeological cultures or human groups, who in part subsisted on the crops they were growing and lived in mostly small but permanent settlements in the savanna regions south of the Sahara from the second millennium BCE onwards. The discovery of metallurgy is the next turning point in the development of the first farming cultures. In Africa the first metal used was not copper or bronze as in the Near East and Europe, but iron. The people of the Nok Culture were among the first that produced iron south of the Sahara. This happened in the first millennium BCE – about 1000 years after the agricultural beginning. While iron metallurgy spread rapidly across sub-Saharan Africa, the terracotta sculptures remained a cultural monopoly of the Nok Culture. Nothing comparable existed in Africa outside of Ancient Egypt and the Mediterranean coast. The oldest, securely dated clay figures date back to the early first millennium BCE. Currently, it seems as if they appeared in the Nok Culture before iron metallurgy, reaching their peak in the following centuries. At the end of the first millennium BCE they disappeared from the scene. There is hardly any doubt about the ritual character of the Nok sculptures. Yet, central questions remain unanswered: Why did such an apparently complex world of ritual practices develop in an early farming culture just before or at the beginning of the momentous invention of iron production? Why were the elaborate sculptures – as excavations show – intentionally destroyed? And why did they disappear as suddenly as they emerged?


The Palgrave Handbook Of African Politics Governance And Development

Author by : Samuel Ojo Oloruntoba
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 708
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Description : This handbook constitutes a single collection of well researched articles and essays on African politics, governance and development from the pre-colonial through colonial to the post-colonial eras. Over the course of these interconnected periods, African politics have evolved with varied experiences across different parts of the continent. As politics is embedded both in the economy and the society, Africa has witnessed some changes in politics, economics, demography and its relations with the world in ways that requires in-depth analysis. This work provides an opportunity for old and new scholars to engage in the universe of the debate around African politics, governance and development and will serve as a ready reference material for students, researchers, policy makers and investors that are concerned with these issues.


Archaeology Of African Plant Use

Author by : Chris J Stevens
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
Total Download : 405
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : The first major synthesis of African archaeobotany in decades, this book focuses on Paleolithic archaeobotany and the relationship between agriculture and social complexity. It explores the effects that plant life has had on humans as they evolved from primates through the complex societies of Africa, including Egypt, the Buganda Kingdom, southern African polities, and other regions. With over 30 contributing scholars from 12 countries and extensive illustrations, this volume is an essential addition to our knowledge of humanity’s relationship with plants.


The Exploitation Of Plant Resources In Ancient Africa

Author by : Marijke van der Veen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 41
Total Download : 269
File Size : 49,6 Mb
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Description : This volume presents a completely new and very substantial body of information about the origin of agriculture and plant use in Africa. All the evidence is very recent and for the first time all this archaeobotanical evidence is brought together in one volume (at present the information is unpublished or published in many disparate journals, confer ence reports, monographs, site reports, etc. ). Early publications concerned with the origins of African plant domestication relied almost exclusively on inferences made from the modem distribution of the wild progenitors of African cultivars; there existed virtually no archaeobotanical data at that time. Even as recently as the early 1990s direct evidence for the transition to farming and the relative roles of indigenous versus Near Eastern crops was lacking for most of Africa. This volume changes that and presents a wide range of ex citing new evidence, including case studies from Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Uganda, Egypt, and Sudan, which range in date from 8000 BP to the present day. The volume ad dresses topics such as the role of wild plant resources in hunter-gatherer and farming com munities, the origins of agriculture, the agricultural foundation of complex societies, long-distance trade, the exchange of foods and crops, and the human impact on local vege tation-all key issues of current research in archaeology, anthropology, agronomy, ecol ogy, and economic history.


Metallurgical Production In Northern Eurasia In The Bronze Age

Author by : Stanislav Grigoriev
Languange : en
Publisher by : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
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Description : Copper is the first metal to play a large part in human history. This work is devoted to the history of metallurgical production in Northern Eurasia during the Bronze Age, based on experiments carried out by the author and analyses of ancient slag, ore and metal.


Archaeometallurgy In Global Perspective

Author by : Benjamin W. Roberts
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 957
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Description : The study of ancient metals in their social and cultural contexts has been a topic of considerable interest in archaeology and ancient history for decades, partly due to the modern dependence on technology and man-made materials. The formal study of Archaeometallurgy began in the 1970s-1980s, and has seen a recent growth in techniques, data, and theoretical movements. This comprehensive sourcebook on Archaeometallurgy provides an overview of earlier research as well as a review of modern techniques, written in an approachable way. Covering an extensive range of archaeological time-periods and regions, this volume will be a valuable resource for those studying archaeology worldwide. It provides a clear, straightforward look at the available methodologies, including: • Smelting processes • Slag analysis • Technical Ceramics • Archaeology of Mining and Field Survey • Ethnoarchaeology • Chemical Analysis and Provenance Studies • Conservation Studies With chapters focused on most geographic regions of Archaeometallurgical inquiry, researchers will find practical applications for metallurgical techniques in any area of their study. Ben Roberts is a specialist in the early metallurgy and later prehistoric archaeology of Europe. He was the Curator of the European Copper and Bronze Age collections at the British Museum between 2007 and 2012 and is now a Lecturer in Prehistoric Europe in the Departm ent of Archaeology at the Durham University, UK. Chris Thornton is a specialist in the ancient metallurgy of the Middle East, combining anthropological theory with archaeometrical analysis to understand the development and diffusion of metallurgical technologies throughout Eurasia. He is currently a Consulting Scholar of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, where he received his PhD in 2009, and the Lead Program Officer of research grants at the National Geographic Society.


Metallurgical Design And Industry

Author by : Brett Kaufman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 22
Total Download : 480
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Description : ​This edited volume examines metallurgical technologies and their place in society throughout the centuries. The authors discuss metal alloys and the use of raw mineral resources as well as fabrication of engineered alloys for a variety of applications. The applications covered in depth include financial, mining and smelting, bridges, armor, aircraft, and power generation. The authors detail the multiple levels and scales of impact that metallurgical advances have had and continue to have on society. They include case studies with guidance for future research design and innovation of metallic materials relevant to societal needs. Includes case studies written by industry professionals with guidance for future research design and innovation; Demonstrates metal materials design that reflects relevant societal needs; Covers a broad range of applied materials used in aircraft, armor, bridges, and power generation, among others.


The Oxford Handbook Of African Archaeology

Author by : Peter Mitchell
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 135
File Size : 55,8 Mb
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Description : Africa has the longest and arguably the most diverse archaeological record of any of the continents. It is where the human lineage first evolved and from where Homo sapiens spread across the rest of the world. Later, it witnessed novel experiments in food-production and unique trajectories to urbanism and the organisation of large communities that were not always structured along strictly hierarchical lines. Millennia of engagement with societies in other parts of the world confirm Africa's active participation in the construction of the modern world, while the richness of its history, ethnography, and linguistics provide unusually powerful opportunities for constructing interdisciplinary narratives of Africa's past. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. As well as covering almost all periods and regions of the continent, it includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates, and situates the subject's contemporary practice within the discipline's history and the infrastructural challenges now facing its practitioners. Bringing together essays on all these themes from over seventy contributors, many of them living and working in Africa, it offers a highly accessible, contemporary account of the subject for use by scholars and students of not only archaeology, but also history, anthropology, and other disciplines.


Ancient Africa Fully Explained Geography Prehistory Early History And The Rise Of Its Civilizations

Author by : Adam Muksawa
Languange : en
Publisher by : Muksawa
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 143
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : To truly understand the present, one must understand the past. And that past begins with Africa. And this book. "A must buy for anyone interested in African or human history as a whole". The Ancient history of Africa can be thought of as a history of beginnings, for it is in Africa that the human story first begins. Although we do not yet know how this human story ends, it is a story with many of its chapters having already been written: How did Africa get its name, shape, rivers and languages? What was life like for the very first humans? How did these humans end up leaving Africa? Why did our ancestors start farming and raising livestock? How does the story of metals relate to the story of civilization? How did the very first African civilizations come to be? How did Ancient Africa influence the wider world? These are but a few of the questions that this book answers. In telling this story of Africa's past, a variety of images and maps are included – which means that you'll never get "lost" in a "sea" of text. And like the cover says, everything is "fully explained" (without becoming — tedious, boring, dull etc.). The end-result of all this is a truly engaging book, suitable for all, that will likely change how you think about Africa (forever). So what are you waiting for? Grab your copy now, and enjoy the subsequent read! P.S. all parts of the continent are covered in this book i.e. North, East, South and West Africa. Feel free to preview the book to discover all of the kingdoms covered — some of which may be new to you. Or you could just Buy it Now.


Emergence Of Innovations In South Ern Africa

Author by : Shadreck Chirikure
Languange : en
Publisher by : Real African Publishers Pty Ltd.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 81
Total Download : 662
File Size : 46,8 Mb
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Description : This book traces the history of innovations from precolonial times and examines precolonial settlements in southern Africa such as Mapungubwe in LImpopo Province, Bokoni in Mpumalanga Province and Msuluzi in KwaZulu-Natal Province from the perspective of their indigenious technological efforts to harness nature for communal benefit. It is informed by the understanding that national systems of innovation evolve and take shape against the backdrop of regional, continental and global macrosocial dynamics, including corresponding systems of innovation.


Red Gold Of Africa

Author by : Eugenia W. Herbert
Languange : en
Publisher by : Univ of Wisconsin Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 43
Total Download : 210
File Size : 54,5 Mb
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Description : The classic history of copper working and use throughout Africa A finalist for the 1985 Herskovits Prize First Paperback Edition


African Connections

Author by : Peter Mitchell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman Altamira
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 436
File Size : 42,9 Mb
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Description : From the exodus of early modern humans to the growth of African diasporas, Africa has had a long and complex relationship with the outside world. More than a passive vessel manipulated by external empires, the African experience has been a complex mix of internal geographic, environmental, sociopolitical and economic factors, and regular interaction with outsiders. Peter Mitchell attempts to outline these factors over the long period of modern human history, to find their commonalities and development over time. He examines African interconnections through Egypt and Nubia with the Near East, through multiple Indian Ocean trading systems, through the trans-Saharan trade, and through more recent incursion of Europeans. The African diaspora is also explored for continuities and resistance to foreign domination. Commonalities abound in the African experience, as do complexities of each individual period and interrelationship. Mitchell's sweeping analysis of African connections place the continent in context of global prehistory and history. The book should be of interest not only to Africanists, but to many other archaeologists, historians, geographers, linguists, social scientists and their students.


Before The Rise Of The Modern Copperbelt

Author by : Mwelwa C. Musambachime
Languange : en
Publisher by : Xlibris Corporation
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
Total Download : 118
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Description : In Zambia, the history of industrial and commercial mining is over 115 years. The earlier period, from 1900 to 1920, is least known. It is ignored, passed over, or referred to in passing by academics and non-academics. The earlier period forms the building blocks on which the later more successful mining enterprise in the mid-1920s was anchored. This study looks at this period and discusses the beginning of mining enterprises from the beginning. Colonial rule began with the British South Africa Company, administering the two territories acquiring mining the Barotse concessions in North-Western Rhodesia, followed by an assortment of treaties with a number African chiefs in North-Eastern Rhodesia. As the country did not have geological maps, mineral deposits had to be found by amateur prospectors employed by a number of mining companies. With this support, prospectors fanned parts of the country, looking for valuable and economically exploitable minerals deposits in various parts of the country. Copper deposits were dominant. Some deposits located on sites of ancient mines in the Kafue Hook, Kansanshi, and Bwana Mkubwa were pegged with the help of African chiefs and citizens as guides. Others, such as the zinc and lead found at Broken Hill mine and the Sassare gold in Petauke, were found by sheer luck and chance.


Art And Risk In Ancient Yoruba

Author by : Suzanne Preston Blier
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 31
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Description : In this book, Suzanne Preston Blier examines the intersection of art, risk and creativity in early African arts from the Yoruba center of Ife and the striking ways that ancient Ife artworks inform society, politics, history and religion. Yoruba art offers a unique lens into one of Africa's most important and least understood early civilizations, one whose historic arts have long been of interest to local residents and Westerners alike because of their tour-de-force visual power and technical complexity. Among the complementary subjects explored are questions of art making, art viewing and aesthetics in the famed ancient Nigerian city-state, as well as the attendant risks and danger assumed by artists, patrons and viewers alike in certain forms of subject matter and modes of portrayal, including unique genres of body marking, portraiture, animal symbolism and regalia. This volume celebrates art, history and the shared passion and skill with which the remarkable artists of early Ife sought to define their past for generations of viewers.


Wealth From The Rocks

Author by : Mwelwa C. Musambachime
Languange : en
Publisher by : Xlibris Corporation
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 552
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Description : This study focuses on the study of metallurgy in pre-colonial Zambia to 1890. A general review of the literature on metallurgy in pre-colonial Zambia reveals that during the period our study (up to 1890), three metals were mined. Iron production was a widespread, important and significant phenomenon, responsible for producing utility toolshoes, axe, knives, weapons, spears, arrow heads and broad knives, and regalia for the political and religious office holderscopper, which was confine to few areas; and gold to even fewer areas. Metallurgy was an important economic activity in which all ethnic groups participated in different levels of intensity. From iron ore which was smelted in elaborate and complicated processes imbued in magic, song, dance, incantations, medicines, and taboos by members of exclusively male guilds, blacksmiths were able to produce the following: (a) tools used in agriculture: hoes, axes used to clear forestays or areas to be cultivated to grow food for subsistence, non-edible crops such as tobacco and hemp which were smoked as part of relaxation, cotton used to make blankets sand shawls, needles for mending clothes, and knives for a variety of uses; (b) hunting using varieties of spears to hunt game, seek protection from dangerous animals, for defence of resources or offence to capture desired resources; (c) various sizes of hooks used in fishing different varieties of fish; and (d) making of regalia used in chieftaincies and priesthood as symbols of authority. Copper was also smelted and put in ingots of varying sizes and rods of varying sizes and lengths, which were (a) used to make copper wires as wires, rods, vessels and other utensils, copper smiths produced jewellery and ornaments and cast art pieces such as statues and necklaces worn by men and women as status symbols; (b) used in exchange of goods and services as currency; and (c) used to produce regalia for the for those in authority. Gold was mined directly and processed into making as variety of items such as buttons and regalia. In its various forms of development and sophistication, metallurgy was responsible for the economic, social and political advances among the pre-colonial societies. A variety of skills was required for building furnaces, producing charcoal, smelting and forging iron into goods. Metallurgy and production of various items that were needed and necessary for an improved life were generally not an enclave activity but a process that satisfied the totality of socioeconomic needs. It also promoted the gender division of labour within community. Wealth from the Rocks is therefore a detailed study of the place, role, and function of metallurgy in pre-colonial Zambian societies.


Historical Archaeology In Africa

Author by : Peter R. Schmidt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman Altamira
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 743
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Description : Historical Archaeology in Africa is an inquiry into the questions that count, proposing different ways of thinking about historical archaeology. Peter Schmidt challenges readers to expand their horizons beyond the ethnocentrism of archaeology, as it is defined and practiced in North America. Confronting topics of oral traditions, our orientation to archaeology, and the misrepresentation of various cultures, Schmidt calls for a new pathway to an enriched, more nuanced, and more inclusive historical archaeology.


Archaeometallurgy In Mesoamerica

Author by : Aaron N. Shugar
Languange : en
Publisher by : University Press of Colorado
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
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Description : Presenting the latest in archaeometallurgical research in a Mesoamerican context, Archaeometallurgy in Mesoamerica brings together up-to-date research from the most notable scholars in the field. These contributors analyze data from a variety of sites, examining current approaches to the study of archaeometallurgy in the region as well as new perspectives on the significance metallurgy and metal objects had in the lives of its ancient peoples. The chapters are organized following the cyclical nature of metals--beginning with extracting and mining ore, moving to smelting and casting of finished objects, and ending with recycling and deterioration back to the original state once the object is no longer in use. Data obtained from archaeological investigations, ethnohistoric sources, ethnographic studies, along with materials science analyses, are brought to bear on questions related to the integration of metallurgy into local and regional economies, the sacred connotations of copper objects, metallurgy as specialized crafting, and the nature of mining, alloy technology, and metal fabrication.


African Indigenous Knowledge And The Sciences

Author by : Gloria Emeagwali
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
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Description : This book is an intellectual journey into epistemology, pedagogy, physics, architecture, medicine and metallurgy. The focus is on various dimensions of African Indigenous Knowledge (AIK) with an emphasis on the sciences, an area that has been neglected in AIK discourse. The authors provide diverse views and perspectives on African indigenous scientific and technological knowledge that can benefit a wide spectrum of academics, scholars, students, development agents, and policy makers, in both governmental and non-governmental organizations, and enable critical and alternative analyses and possibilities for understanding science and technology in an African historical and contemporary context.


Forgotten Africa

Author by : Graham Connah
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 61
Total Download : 251
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : Forgotten Africa introduces the general reader and beginning student to Africa's past, emphasizing those aspects only known or best known from archaeological and related evidence. It covers four million years of history across the continent, examining important aspects of Africa's momentous human story. Graham Connah is concerned to raise public awareness, both inside and outside Africa, to this frequently overlooked and often forgotten subject. Forgotten Africa examines: * human origins, * the material culture of hunter gatherers * the beginnings of African farming, the development of metallurgy * the emergence of distinctive artistic traditions * the growth of cities and states * the expansion of trading networks * the impact of European and other external contacts. The result is a fascinating and important story told in a straightforward and readable manner.


Burials Migration And Identity In The Ancient Sahara And Beyond

Author by : M. C. Gatto
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 509
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Description : Places burial traditions at the centre of Saharan migrations and identity debate, with new technical data and methodological analysis.


Great Zimbabwe

Author by : Shadreck Chirikure
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
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Description : Conditioned by local ways of knowing and doing, Great Zimbabwe develops a new interpretation of the famous World Heritage site of Great Zimbabwe. It combines archaeological knowledge, including recent material from the author’s excavations, with native concepts and philosophies. Working from a large data set has made it possible, for the first time, to develop an archaeology of Great Zimbabwe that is informed by finds and observations from the entire site and wider landscape. In so doing, the book strongly contributes towards decolonising African and world archaeology. Written in an accessible manner, the book is aimed at undergraduate students, graduate students, and practicing archaeologists both in Africa and across the globe. The book will also make contributions to the broader field such as African Studies, African History, and World Archaeology through its emphasis on developing synergies between local ways of knowing and the archaeology.


Crossroads Carrefour Sahel

Author by : Sonja Magnavita, Lassina Koté, Peter Breunig, Oumarou A. Idé
Languange : en
Publisher by : Africa Magna Verlag
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
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Description : This volume contains the proceedings of the international conference “Cultural developments and technological innovations in first millennium BC/AD West Africa” held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in March 2008, with participants from eleven countries and three continents. The rationale behind the meeting was the conviction that the first millennium before and after the beginning of the Common Era, like no other period before, encompasses the origins of developments that are directly related to the modern world – particularly in Africa. Current archaeological research in West Africa has been providing an increasing amount of relevant evidence on this period, including a series of significant developments that had critical impacts on human ways of life in subsequent times. The papers of the present volume deal with different aspects of these developments and contribute towards the understanding of the unique cultural diversity of this part of the African continent.


The African Archaeology Network

Author by : Felix Chami
Languange : en
Publisher by : Dar Es Salaam University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 41
Total Download : 778
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Description : Investigating how ancient African societies exploited resources, developed settlements, and established trade networks, this Pan-African project aims to develop new models to understand how ancient communities adjusted and responded to political and environmental upheavals.