Description : Create your own natural language training corpus for machine learning. Whether you’re working with English, Chinese, or any other natural language, this hands-on book guides you through a proven annotation development cycle—the process of adding metadata to your training corpus to help ML algorithms work more efficiently. You don’t need any programming or linguistics experience to get started. Using detailed examples at every step, you’ll learn how the MATTER Annotation Development Process helps you Model, Annotate, Train, Test, Evaluate, and Revise your training corpus. You also get a complete walkthrough of a real-world annotation project. Define a clear annotation goal before collecting your dataset (corpus) Learn tools for analyzing the linguistic content of your corpus Build a model and specification for your annotation project Examine the different annotation formats, from basic XML to the Linguistic Annotation Framework Create a gold standard corpus that can be used to train and test ML algorithms Select the ML algorithms that will process your annotated data Evaluate the test results and revise your annotation task Learn how to use lightweight software for annotating texts and adjudicating the annotations This book is a perfect companion to O’Reilly’s Natural Language Processing with Python.
Description : I Ching is a well-known ancient Chinese philosophical work and is also an only philosophical work in the world which studies how things operate, change and develop with symbols as its tenet. Based on the dualism of yin and yang, it classifies the properties of Heaven and Earth and all created things by virtue of images. And it divides all the laws existing in nature into sixty-four parts. Fuhsi summed up the theories of the Eight Trigrams by observing the phenomena of astronomy, geography and human affairs. Likewise, based on the Eight Trigrams, King Wen continued to make each trigram overlap with the other (including with itself) and advance the theories of the Sixty-four Hexagrams by observing the phenomena of astronomy, geography and human affairs. Later, Chou Kung (Duke of Chou) continued to replenish and refine the book and Confucius and many other scholars continued to improve and polish it as a complete philosophical work. Besides, Yen Emperor’s Lien Shan and Yellow Emperor’s Kuei Ts’ang failed to be passed on to the subsequent generations.
Description : An accurate description of current scientific developments in the field of bioinformatics and computational implementation is presented by research of the BioSapiens Network of Excellence. Bioinformatics is essential for annotating the structure and function of genes, proteins and the analysis of complete genomes and to molecular biology and biochemistry. Included is an overview of bioinformatics, the full spectrum of genome annotation approaches including; genome analysis and gene prediction, gene regulation analysis and expression, genome variation and QTL analysis, large scale protein annotation of function and structure, annotation and prediction of protein interactions, and the organization and annotation of molecular networks and biochemical pathways. Also covered is a technical framework to organize and represent genome data using the DAS technology and work in the annotation of two large genomic sets: HIV/HCV viral genomes and splicing alternatives potentially encoded in 1% of the human genome.
Description : formats using XSLT transformations. The two main text analytics architectures, GATE and UIMA, are then described and compared, with practical exercises showing how to configure and customize them. The final chapter is an introduction to text analytics, describing the main applications and functions including named entity recognition, coreference resolution and information extraction, with practical examples using both open source and commercial tools." --Book Jacket.
Description : The Digital Library Approach. Manual Annotations. Wrapping. Information Extraction & Linguistics. Graphics. Usage of Annotations.
Description : Provenance is a well understood concept in the study of ?ne art, where it refers to the documented history of an art object. Given that documented history, the objectattains anauthority that allows scholarsto understandand appreciateits importance and context relative to other works. In the absence of such history, art objects may be treated with some skepticism by those who study and view them. Over the last few years, a number of teams have been applying this concept of provenance to data and information generated within computer systems. If the provenance of data produced by computer systems can be determined as it can for some works of art, then users will be able to understand (for example) how documents were assembled, how simulation results were determined, and how ?nancial analyses were carried out. A key driver for this research has been e-Science. Reproducibility of results and documentation of method have always been important concerns in science, and today scientists of many ?elds (such as bioinformatics, medical research, chemistry, and physics) see provenanceas a mechanism that can help repeat s- enti?cexperiments, verifyresults, andreproducedataproducts.Likewise, pro- nance o?ers opportunities for the business world, since it allows for the analysis of processes that led to results, for instance to check they are well-behaved or satisfy constraints; hence, provenance o?ers the means to check compliance of processes, on the basis of their actual execution. Indeed, increasing regulation of many industries (for example, ?nancial services) means that provenance reco- ing is becoming a legal requirem
Description : A spirited study of a neglected topic, these essays explore the character and uses of annotation from Biblical times to the present. A group of distinguished scholars investigates such subjects as the bullying footnote, the play of note against text, the self-annotation of the Bible, the parasitical commentator, the note as imperial seal, the agonies of modern scholarly publication, the hidden marginalium, and the ways in which supplements to the text tend to push aside the text. Casting light on a matter which readers usually ignore, this witty, readable, and revisionist book offers a provocative invitation for further discussion.
Description : Did you ever read something on a book, felt the need to comment, took up a pencil and scribbled something on the books’ text’? If you did, you just annotated a book. But that process has now become something fundamental and revolutionary in these days of computing. Annotation is all about adding further information to text, pictures, movies and even to physical objects. In practice, anything which can be identified either virtually or physically can be annotated. In this book, we will delve into what makes annotations, and analyse their significance for the future evolutions of the web. We will explain why it was thought to be unreasonable to annotate documents manually and how Web 2.0 is making us rethink our beliefs. We will have a look at tools which make use of Artificial Intelligence techniques to support people in the annotation task. Behind these tools, there exists an important property of the web known as redundancy; we will explain what it is and show how it can be exploited. Finally we will gaze into the crystal ball and see what we might expect to see in the future. Until people understand what the web is all about and its grounding in annotation, people cannot start appreciating it. And until they do so, they cannot start creating the web of the future.
Description : Creating New Medical Ontologies for Image Annotation focuses on the problem of the medical images automatic annotation process, which is solved in an original manner by the authors. All the steps of this process are described in detail with algorithms, experiments and results. The original algorithms proposed by authors are compared with other efficient similar algorithms. In addition, the authors treat the problem of creating ontologies in an automatic way, starting from Medical Subject Headings (MESH). They have presented some efficient and relevant annotation models and also the basics of the annotation model used by the proposed system: Cross Media Relevance Models. Based on a text query the system will retrieve the images that contain objects described by the keywords.