Archaeal Cell Envelope And Surface Structures

Author by : Sonja-Verena Albers
Languange : en
Publisher by : Frontiers Media SA
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Description : Archaea and Bacteria have complex cell envelopes that play important roles in several vital cellular processes, including serving as a barrier that protects the cytoplasm from the environment. Along with associated proteinaceous structures, cell envelopes also ensure cell stability, promote motility, mediate adherence to biotic and abiotic surfaces, and facilitate communication with the extracellular environment. While some aspects of the biosynthesis and structure of the cell are similar to the three domains of life, archaeal cell envelopes exhibit several unique characteristics. Moreover, recent analyzes have revealed that many features of cell envelopes can vary greatly between distantly related archaea. The collection of reviews and original research papers in this focused issue describes research that has been significantly expanded in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and functions of archaeal cell envelopes and their constituent surface structures. Jain et al. (5) cytoplasmic membrane, isoprenoid lipid bilayer, as well as recently revealed the cytoplasmic membrane biosynthesis, which is conserved across the three domains of life. Complementing this review, Andreas Klingl summarizes the diverse structures and functions of archaeal cytoplasmic membranes (8). While most archaeal cells have a single membrane, the archaea have an outer membrane, which has been thought of in a different variety of archaeal lineages. One particular intriguing diderm is the hyperthermophilic archaeon. In the periplasmic space, ATP in the periplasmic space. Complementing this work, Kletzin provides an in-depth review of evolutionarily conserved and unique archaeal inner and outer membrane-associated cytochromes (7). The periplasmic space between the membranes of archaeal diderms does not contain a peptidoclycan layer. In fact, while the cytoplasmic membrane is superimposed by an S-layer in many monoderm archaea, it is unclear how diderms, and even some monoderm extremophiles that varnish to S-layer, withstand osmotic stress. As noted by Klingl (8), glycocalyx, lipoglycans, or other protective cell-associated glycoproteins, may take on the functions of a cell wall in some archaea. One such secreted protein, as described by Zenke et al., Is the halomucin of Haloquadratum walsbyi (15). While H. walsbyi does not have a cell wall, halomucine, an unusually large protein (9159aa), is thought to play an important role in protecting these extreme halophiles against desiccation. Interestingly, Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum, an uncultured diderm euryarchaeon, isolated from biofilms containing hammers, cell surface proteins with the appearance of grappling hooks that connect cells to each other and to abiotic surfaces. Perra's stunning imagery suggests that this is the case with the S-layer glycoproteins, possibly suggesting a case of divergent evolution (12). [0003] The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for the preparation of a medical device, Are conserved across the prokaryotic domains, being found in the majority of sequenced archaea, where, as in bacteria, they play key roles in processes necessary for biofilm formation (10, 13). Interestingly, as discussed by Albers and Jarrell (1), as well as Näther et al. (11), a type IV pilus-like structure is responsible for swimming motility in archaea. Many secreted proteins, including the S-layer glycoprotein and pilin-like proteins, are heavily post-translationally modified. [1]. [0002] The known proteolytic modifications of the proteins of the model haloarchaeon [1], vol. Using the results of proteomic studies, Leon et al. (9), providing an invaluable resource in silico prediction tools for the characterization of archaeal proteins, in general, but also specific phyla. Kandiba and Eichler review our current knowledge of N-glycosylation in archaea, including descriptions of the pathways the regulatory roles of this post-translational modification plays in cellular processes (6). Considering the unique aspects of the archaeal cell envelope, including not only the protein structures, but their post-translational modifications as well, it is not surprising that archaeal viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to infect and egress from archaeal cells, which are reviewed in this Issue by Quemin and Quax (14). Understanding the roles that can be seen in this book is a study of the development of biofuels in the field of bioinformatics, including mucosa-associated methanogenic archaea, can (2). (2) In this paper, Archaeal cell membranes and S-layer glycoproteins have been used to make liposomes and nanomaterials. Finally, a better understanding of the similarities and differences among the archaea as well as between the archaea and the other two domains will lead to the development of a more accurate phylogeny. In this issue, Forterre takes advantage of the latest profusion of genome studies, along with supporting in vivo work, to assemble an improved tree of life (3). Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that this is not the case. Acknowledgments The support of the National Science Foundation MCB-1413158 to MP and the ERC starting grant 311523 (archaellum) to SA are gratefully acknowledged. References: 1. Albers SV & Jarrell KF (2015) The archaellum: how Archaea swim. Frontiers in microbiology 6:23. 2. Bang C, et al. (2014) Biofilm formation of mucosa-associated methanoarchaeal strains. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 353. 3. Forterre P (2015) The Universal Tree: an update. Frontiers in Microbiology, in 4. Gimenez MI, Cerletti M, & De Castro RE (2015) Archaeal membrane-associated proteases: insights on Haloferax volcanii and other haloarchaea. Frontiers in microbiology 6:39. 5. Jain S, Caforio A, & Driessen AJ (2014) Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 641. 6. Kandiba L & Eichler J (2014) Archaeal S-layer glycoproteins: post-translational modification in the face of extremes. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 661. 7. Kletzin A, et al. (2015) Cytochromes c in Archaea: distribution, maturation, cell architecture, and the special case of Ignicoccus hospitalis. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 439. 8. Klingl A (2014) S-layer and cytoplasmic membrane - exceptions from the typical archaeal cell wall with a focus on double membranes. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 624. 9. Leon DR, et al. (2015) Mining proteomic data to expose protein modifications to methanosarcina mazei strain Go1. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 149. 10. Losensky G, Vidakovic L, Klingl A, Pfeifer F, & Frols S (2014) Novel pili-like surface structures of Halobacterium salinarum strain R1 are crucial for surface adhesion. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 755. 11. Nather-Schindler DJ, Schopf S, Bellack A, Rachel R, & Wirth R (2014) Pyrococcus furiosus flagella: biochemical and transcriptional analyzes identify the newly detected flaB0 gene to encode the major flagellin. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 695. 12. Perras AK, et al. (2015) S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami) resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 543. 13. Pohlschroder M & Esquivel RN (2015) Archaeal type IV pili and their involvement in biofilm formation. Frontiers in microbiology 6:19. 14. Quemin ER & Quax TE (2015) Archaeal viruses at the cell envelope: entry and egress. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 552. 15. Zenke R, et al. (2015) fluorescence microscopy visualization of halomucin, a secreted 927 kDa protein surrounding haloquadratum walsbyi cells. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 249.


The Bacterial Cell Wall

Author by : Guntram Seltmann
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : The bacterial cell wall represents a very complex structure disconnecting the interior of single-cell organisms from the environment, thus protecting, but also enabling, them to interact with the surrounding milieu and to exchange both substances and information. Knowledge of the biochemistry of the cell wall (components) and the genetic background helps to understand their significance with regard to microbiology and immunology of bacteria. This book represents the second edition of a publication which was presented nearly 20 years ago in the German language (Die bakterielle Zellwand). Since that time our knowledge in this field has been significantly enlarged. Therefore, the manuscript had to be completely revised and updated. To maintain both the size and the introductory character of the book at least to a great extent, the authors had to restrict the presented material to that which appears basic and most important. This requirement must inevitably bring about many subjective factors. As pointed out in the first edition, the term cell wall was not taken too strictly. Since the constituents located outside the cytoplasmic membrane are frequently difficult to divide in structure, localisation, and/or function into true cell wall components and supplementary substances, they are all at least briefly mentioned.


Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds

Author by : Helmut König
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Microbial cell wall structures play a significant role in maintaining cells’ shape, as protecting layers against harmful agents, in cell adhesion and in positive and negative biological activities with host cells. All prokaryotes, whether they are bacteria or archaea, rely on their surface polymers for these multiple functions. Their surfaces serve as the indispensable primary interfaces between the cell and its surroundings, often mediating or catalyzing important interactions. Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds summarizes the current state of knowledge on the prokaryotic cell wall. Topics concerning bacterial and archaeal polymeric cell wall structures, biological activities, growth and inhibition, cell wall interactions and the applications of cell wall components, especially in the field of nanobiotechnology, are presented.


Encyclopedia Of Virology

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
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Description : Encyclopedia of Virology, Fourth Edition, builds on the solid foundation laid by the previous editions, expanding its reach with new and timely topics. In five volumes, the work provides comprehensive coverage of the whole virosphere, making this a unique resource. Content explores viruses present in the environment and the pathogenic viruses of humans, animals, plants and microorganisms. Key areas and concepts concerning virus classification, structure, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed, guiding the reader through chapters that are presented at an accessible level, and include further readings for those needing more specific information. More than ever now, with the Covid19 pandemic, we are seeing the huge impact viruses have on our life and society. This encyclopedia is a must-have resource for scientists and practitioners, and a great source of information for the wider public. Offers students and researchers a one-stop shop for information on virology not easily available elsewhere Fills a critical gap of information in a field that has seen significant progress in recent years Authored and edited by recognized experts in the field, with a range of different expertise, thus ensuring a high-quality standard


The Biochemistry Of Archaea Archaebacteria

Author by : M. Kates
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : In the last 10 years, considerable information has accumulated on the biochemistry of archaea. In this volume, the subject as a whole is treated in a comprehensive manner. The book brings together recent knowledge concerning general metabolism, bioenergetics, molecular biology and genetics, membrane lipid and cell-wall structural chemistry and evolutionary relations, of the three major groups of archaea: the extreme halophiles, the extreme thermophiles, and the methanogens. Subjects included are: the evolutionary relationship of these microorganisms to all other living cells; special metabolic features of archeaea; protein structural chemistry; cell envelopes; molecular biology in archaea including DNA structure and replication, transcription apparatus, translation apparatus, and ribosomal structure; and a final chapter on the molecular genetics of archaea. This comprehensive scope ensures its usefulness to researchers, and stimulates further study in this rapidly developing field.


Using Advances In Electron Microscopy To Study Microbial Interactions

Author by : Nicole Poweleit
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : Microbes interact with their surroundings through a variety of mechanisms, ranging from extracellular machineries like flagella, pili, and surface layer proteins to protein complexes embedded in the cell membrane. In this dissertation, we used a variety of techniques to characterize these mechanisms of interaction, with a focus on exploiting recent advances in electron microscopy to better understand these systems. The dissertation opens with an overview of the history and development of electron microscopy (EM) with a focus on its historical contributions to microbial interactions in the literature, its recent technical developments in electron microscopy, and helical reconstruction of protein filaments by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM). EM has developed into an indispensable tool for studying all aspects of microbial interactions from the gross cellular level to protein structures at atomic resolution. The following chapter of the thesis focuses on characterizing the interaction between two bacteria in the oral microbiome by utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with light microscopy and genetic experiments. The relationship between the newly described obligately parasitic bacterium TM7x (Candidatus Saccharimonas formerly Candidate Phylum TM7) and its host Actinomyces odontolyticus species XH001 is described. Evidence from qPCR experiments, light microscopy, and SEM show that TM7x causes stress to its host XH001 and that this stress is additive with other stress factors in the environment. This demonstrates that the relationship between the two is actively harmful to XH001 whereas it was previously unclearly if XH001 host was impacted by the growth of TM7x. Light microscopy and SEM were also used to demonstrate that TM7x divides by budding and that no flagella or pili are visible on either cell. This data suggests that TM7x adheres to the host cell in a directional manner using cell surface or membrane proteins. In chapter three, the cell envelope of the bacterium Syntrophamonus wolfei was characterized using biochemical assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). S.wolfei is a syntroph which must live in symbiotic relationships or consortium withother prokaryotes that consume the syntrophic metabolic products. A method wasdevised to separate the membrane portion of the cells from the soluble cell contents toproduce cell ghosts. These cell ghosts were analyzed via mass spectroscopy to identifythe three major protein components. One of these proteins, Swol_0141 has domainswhich identify it as a potential surface (S) layer protein domains. Transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) of the cell ghosts revealed paracrystalline array of P4 symmetry,consistent with the production of a proteinaceous S-layer. CryoEM of the cells showsthe protein arrangement of the cell envelope. Finally, I present an atomic structure of the archaeal flagellum from Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF-1, obtained with cryo electron microscopy, helical reconstruction, and de novo model building. The archaeal flagellum is a nanomachine which rotates to drive cell motility and adheres to other cells and surfaces. The thin filament of the flagellum is only 10 nm in diameter, but can extend to be several times longer than the cell length. This structure is the first complete atomic resolution model of an archaeal flagellin, and it describes the intermolecular interactions which allow for the stability of the flagellar filament under rotational stress. The cryoEM structure of the native protein also revealed eight sites of post-translational modification. To conclude, a comparison with the bacterial flagella and type IV pili shows that the archaeal flagellum is a structurally distinct cell motility and adhesion apparatus. In summary, these thesis projects demonstrate the breadth of utility electron microscopy has for studying microbes and their environmental interactions. These include the cell to cell interactions of an oral parasitic bacteria and host bacteria, the definitions of an undescribed single cell envelope, and the atomic resolution protein structure of a flagellar nanomachine. The depth of information which can be explored using electron microscopy to solve complex microbial cell and protein structures continues to expand.


Fundamentals Of Microbiology

Author by : Jeffrey C. Pommerville
Languange : en
Publisher by : Jones & Bartlett Learning
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Description : Fundamentals of Microbiology, Twelfth Edition is designed for the introductory microbiology course with an emphasis in the health sciences.


Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds

Author by : Helmut K Nig
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description :


Archaea

Author by : Roger A. Garrett
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : Introduced by Crafoord Prize winner Carl Woese, this volumecombines reviews of the major developments in archaeal researchover the past 10–15 years with more specialized articlesdealing with important recent breakthroughs. Drawing on majorthemes presented at the June 2005 meeting held in Munich to honorthe archaea pioneers Wolfram Zillig and Karl O. Stetter, the bookprovides a thorough survey of the field from its controversialbeginnings to its ongoing expansion to include aspects ofeukaryotic biology. The editors have assembled articles from the premier researchersin this rapidly burgeoning field, including an account by CarlWoese of his original discovery of the Archaea (until 1990 termedarchaebacteria) and the initially mixed reactions of the scientificcommunity. The review chapters and specialized articles address theemerging significance of the Archaea within a broader scientificand technological context, and include accounts of cutting-edgeresearch developments. The book spans archaeal evolution,physiology, and molecular and cellular biology and will be anessential reference for both graduate students and researchers.


Curiosity And Passion For Science And Art

Author by : Uwe B Sleytr
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Scientific
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Description : This book describes the accomplishments of a curious and imaginative scientist, and his endeavours to translate or even to extrapolate scientific insights into the world of art.The science section in this volume concerns studies on S-layers, a very important class of proteins found on the surface of numerous Bacteria and nearly all Archaea. S-layer proteins are one of the most abundant biopolymers on our planet, and assemble into the simplest type of biological membrane. Moreover, they are unique building blocks and patterning elements for the production of complex supramolecular structures and nanoscale devices in nanobiotechnology, molecular nanotechnology, synthetic biology, biomimetics and nanomedicine.In the second part of this book the author goes on to passionately describe how his scientific activities stimulated his art work, which in particular concerns the visualization of results and the potential of synthetic biology and evolutionary events induced by genetic manipulations. Most importantly, the engagement in art allowed him to leave the rather curtailed canon of science and reach a mental state of unlimited freedom of thoughts. Mask-like sculptures are used as examples to visualize the intersection between science and art, and in particular the unpredictability and mystery of scientific visions.


Microbial Glycobiology

Author by : Anthony P Moran
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : This book presents in an easy-to-read format a summary of the important central aspects of microbial glycobiology, i.e. the study of carbohydrates as related to the biology of microorganisms. Microbial glycobiology represents a multidisciplinary and emerging area with implications for a range of basic and applied research fields, as well as having industrial, medical and biotechnological implications. Individual chapters provided by leading international scientists in the field yield insightful, concise and stimulating reviews Provides researchers with an overview and synthesis of the latest research Each chapter begins with a brief 200 word Summary/Abstract detailing the topic and focus of the chapter, as well as the concepts to be addressed Allows researchers to see at a glance what each chapter will cover Each chapter includes a Research Focus Box Identifies important problems that still need to be solved and areas that require further investigation


Handbook Of Proteolytic Enzymes

Author by : Alan J. Barrett
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
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Description : The third edition of the Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes is a comprehensive reference work for the enzymes that cleave proteins and peptides, written by acknowledged experts in the field and containing over 850 chapters. Each chapter is organized into sections describing the name and history, activity and specificity, structural chemistry, preparation, biological aspects, and distinguishing features for a specific peptidase. There are also introductory chapters on peptidase classification and mechanisms and a comprehensive index. For the first time, the Handbook is also available online via Elsevier's ScienceDirect platform as well as a three-volume book. The online version has enhanced options, including online multimedia, cross-referencing capabilities, integrated online delivery and closer integration with the online MEROPS database of peptidases and their inhibitors. This reference work is a must-have for biochemists, biotechnologists, molecular biologists and students in these disciplines, and will be of great interest to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Contains over 830 chapters Covers new research in therapeutics and drug trials Supplies content written by experts in the field


Microbiology Loose Leaf Print Companion

Author by : Dave Wessner
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : Microbiology, 2nd Edition helps to develop a meaningful connection with the material through the incorporation of primary literature, applications and examples. The text offers an ideal balance between comprehensive, in-depth coverage of core concepts, while employing a narrative style that incorporates many relevant applications and a unique focus on current research and experimentation. The book frames information around the three pillars of physiology, ecology and genetics, which highlights their interconnectedness and helps students see a bigger picture. This innovative organization establishes a firm foundation for later work and provides a perspective on real-world applications of microbiology.


Crystalline Bacterial Cell Surface Layers

Author by : Uwe B. Sleytr
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Crystalline surface layers (S-layers) represent an almost universal feature of archaebacterial cell envelopes and can be found in gram-positive and gram-negative eubacterial species from nearly all phylogenetic branches. S-layers consist of a single protein- or glycoprotein species and thus can be considered as one of the most primitive membrane structures developed during evolution. Prokaryotes carrying S-layers are ubiquitously found in every part of the biosphere. This supports the concept of a general supramolecular "porous crystalline surface layer" fulfilling a broad spectrum of functions which are strongly dependent on the particular environmental and ecological conditions. Their structural simplicity makes S-layers a suitable model for analyzing structure-function relationships as well as dynamic aspects of membrane morphogenesis.


Alcamo S Fundamentals Of Microbiology

Author by : Jeffrey C. Pommerville
Languange : en
Publisher by : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
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Description : Ideal for allied health and pre-nursing students, Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology: Body Systems, Second Edition, retains the engaging, student-friendly style and active learning approach for which award-winning author and educator Jeffrey Pommerville is known. Thoroughly revised and updated, the Second Edition presents diseases, complete with new content on recent discoveries, in a manner that is directly applicable to students and organized by body system. A captivating art program includes more than 150 newly added and revised figures and tables, while new feature boxes, Textbook Cases, serve to better illuminate key concepts. Pommerville's acclaimed learning design format enlightens and engages students right from the start, and new chapter conclusions round out each chapter, leaving readers with a clear understanding of key concepts.


Biocommunication Of Archaea

Author by : Guenther Witzany
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : Archaea represent a third domain of life with unique properties not found in the other domains. Archaea actively compete for environmental resources. They perceive themselves and can distinguish between ‘self’ and ‘non-self’. They process and evaluate available information and then modify their behaviour accordingly. They assess their surroundings, estimate how much energy they need for particular goals, and then realize the optimum variant. These highly diverse competences show us that this is possible owing to sign(aling)- mediated communication processes within archaeal cells (intra-organismic), between the same, related and different archaeal species (interorganismic), and between archaea and nonarchaeal organisms (transorganismic). This is crucial in coordinating growth and development, shape and dynamics. Such communication must function both on the local level and between widely separated colony parts. This allows archaea to coordinate appropriate response behaviors in a differentiated manner to their current developmental status and physiological influences. This book will orientate further investigations on how archaeal ecosphere inhabitants communicate with each other to coordinate their behavioral patterns and whats the role of viruses in this highly dynamic interactional networks.


Alcamo S Fundamentals Of Microbiology Body Systems

Author by : Jeffrey C. Pommerville
Languange : en
Publisher by : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
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Total Read : 84
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Description : Ideal for allied health and pre-nursing students, Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, Body Systems Edition, retains the engaging, student-friendly style and active learning approach for which award-winning author and educator Jeffrey Pommerville is known. It presents diseases, complete with new content on recent discoveries, in a manner that is directly applicable to students and organized by body system. A captivating art program, learning design format, and numerous case studies draw students into the text and make them eager to learn more about the fascinating world of microbiology.


The Bacteria Their Origin Structure Function And Antibiosis

Author by : Arthur L. Koch
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : This book may seem like three or four books even though the main - cus is on a specialized topic—the bacterial cell wall. Its job is to formulate the innovations that caused life to initiate on earth, those that caused cell physiology to develop without diversity developing, those that allowed the murein walls of the cells to arise, those that led to the separation of the domain of Bacteria from other organisms, those that allowed the Archaea and the Eukarya to develop independently, and those that then led to the development of a very diverse b- sphere. It must have taken a long time after the origin of the ?rst cell; evolution had to proceed to produce very effective organisms. At some point a collection of very similar organisms arose that were ?rst called collectively the Last U- versal Ancestor (LUA), and stable divergence developed from there. The ?rst bacterium had a protective cell wall and its descendants developed in many - verse evolutionary directions, gave rise to many species of bacteria with various life strategies, and expanded to ?ll the many niches in the collection. As the kingdoms or domains of Archaea and Eukarya evolved, many of these organisms (and even some bacteria) acted against bacteria. The dev- opment of antibiotics acting on the wall of bacteria and lytic enzymes, called lysozymes,producedbyprotozoa,plantsandanimals,ledtodestructionofmany bacteria. Theseantagonisticchallengestobacteriaresultedfromitsowncellwall structure.


Fabrication And Self Assembly Of Nanobiomaterials

Author by : Alexandru Grumezescu
Languange : en
Publisher by : William Andrew
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Description : Fabrication and Self-Assembly of Nanobiomaterials presents the most recent findings regarding the fabrication and self-assembly of nanomaterials for different biomedical applications. Respected authors from around the world offer a comprehensive look at how nanobiomaterials are made, enabling knowledge from current research to be used in an applied setting. Recent applications of nanotechnology in the biomedical field have developed in response to an increased demand for innovative approaches to diagnosis, exploratory procedures and therapy. The book provides the reader with a strong grounding in emerging biomedical nanofabrication technologies, covering numerous fabrication routes for specific applications are described in detail and discussing synthesis, characterization and current or potential future use. This book will be of interest to professors, postdoctoral researchers and students engaged in the fields of materials science, biotechnology and applied chemistry. It will also be highly valuable to those working in industry, including pharmaceutics and biotechnology companies, medical researchers, biomedical engineers and advanced clinicians. An up-to-date and highly structured reference source for practitioners, researchers and students working in biomedical, biotechnological and engineering fields A valuable guide to recent scientific progress, covering major and emerging applications of nanomaterials in the biomedical field Proposes novel opportunities and ideas for developing or improving technologies in fabrication and self-assembly


Comprehensive Biotechnology

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Comprehensive Biotechnology, Third Edition unifies, in a single source, a huge amount of information in this growing field. The book covers scientific fundamentals, along with engineering considerations and applications in industry, agriculture, medicine, the environment and socio-economics, including the related government regulatory overviews. This new edition builds on the solid basis provided by previous editions, incorporating all recent advances in the field since the second edition was published in 2011. Offers researchers a one-stop shop for information on the subject of biotechnology Provides in-depth treatment of relevant topics from recognized authorities, including the contributions of a Nobel laureate Presents the perspective of researchers in different fields, such as biochemistry, agriculture, engineering, biomedicine and environmental science


Textbook Of Diagnostic Microbiology E Book

Author by : Connie R. Mahon
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier Health Sciences
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Description : Providing a reader-friendly "building-block" approach to the essentials of diagnostic microbiology, this accessible, full-color text helps you develop the problem-solving skills necessary for success in the clinical setting. This updated edition has new content on nanomedicine and HIV/AIDS and the immunocompromised patient, including the latest information on prevention, treatment modalities, and CDC guidelines. Updated photos offer new examples of automated lab instruments, while case studies, review questions, and learning objectives present information in an easy-to-learn way. A building-block approach encourages you to use previously learned information to sharpen your critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Full-color design, with many full-color photomicrographs, prepares you for the reality of diagnostic microbiology. Learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter supply you with a measurable outcome to achieve by completing the material. A case study at the beginning of each chapter provides you with the opportunity to form your own questions and answers through discussion points. Issues to Consider boxes encourage you to analyze important points. Bolded key terms at the beginning of each chapter equip you with a list of the most important and relevant terms in each chapter. Points to Remember sections at the end of each chapter identify key concepts in a quick-reference, bulleted format. Hands-on procedures describe exactly what takes place in the micro lab, making content more interesting and relevant. Learning assessment questions at the conclusion of each chapter allow you to evaluate how well you have mastered material. Agents of bioterrorism chapter furnishes you with the most current information about this hot topic. Glossary of key terms at the end of the book supplies you with a quick reference for looking up definitions. NEW! Nanomedicine and HIV/AIDS and the immunocompromised patient content supplies you with the latest information on prevention, treatment modalities, and CDC guidelines. NEW! Updated photos familiarize you with the equipment you’ll use in the lab. NEW! Case Checks throughout each chapter tie content to case studies for improved understanding. NEW! An editable and printable lab manual provides additional opportunities to learn course content using real-life scenarios with questions to reinforce concepts. Review questions for each learning objective help you learn to think critically about the information in each chapter, enhancing your comprehension and retention of material.


Nanomicrobiology

Author by : Larry L. Barton
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : This book is devoted to nanomicrobiology and the nanosystems of bacteria. The initial chapter discusses some of the controversies in the geochemical and biomedical fields associated with the reports of nanobacteria in the environment. Current knowledge of several internal and surface structures of bacteria is addressed in this book. Included are chapters discussing carboxysomes, S-layers, gliding motility of bacteria, and aggregation of iron to produce nano-magnetite. Information about the activities of outer membrane vesicles produced by Gram-negative bacteria is discussed as a benefit to bacteria that produce it and some potential industrial applications are presented. A broad review of bacterial-mineral interactions is addressed in a chapter of metallic nanoparticles and colloids production by bacterial reduction of soluble redox active elements. The structures of bacterial nanowires are discussed and their application in extra-cellular electron transport is reviewed. Nanomotor activities of bacteria are discussed as pertains to the mechanics of flagellar rotation, production of energy by ATP synthase, DNA packing, and translocation of proteins across membranes by secretion systems. The rapidly evolving field of nanosystem technology is embracing many areas, and it is the hope that this book will stimulate the use of bacterial nanostructures for future developments in nanotechnology.


Fundamentals Of Microbiology

Author by : Jeffrey Pommerville
Languange : en
Publisher by : Jones & Bartlett Learning
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 319
File Size : 42,9 Mb
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Description : Pommerville’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, Eleventh Edition makes the difficult yet essential concepts of microbiology accessible and engaging for students’ initial introduction to this exciting science.


Prokaryotic Metabolism And Physiology

Author by : Byung Hong Kim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 741
File Size : 55,5 Mb
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Description : Extensive and up-to-date review of key metabolic processes in bacteria and archaea and how metabolism is regulated under various conditions.


Bacterial Cell Walls And Membranes

Author by : Andreas Kuhn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
Total Download : 508
File Size : 54,6 Mb
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Description : This book provides an up-to-date overview of the architecture and biosynthesis of bacterial and archaeal cell walls, highlighting the evolution-based similarities in, but also the intriguing differences between the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria, the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and the Archaea. The recent major advances in this field, which have brought to light many new structural and functional details, are presented and discussed. Over the past five years, a number of novel systems, e.g. for lipid, porin and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis have been described. In addition, new structural achievements with periplasmic chaperones have been made, all of which have revealed amazing details on how bacterial cell walls are synthesized. These findings provide an essential basis for future research, e.g. the development of new antibiotics. The book’s content is the logical continuation of Volume 84 of SCBI (on Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons), and sets the stage for upcoming volumes on Protein Complexes.


Recent Advances In Genomic And Genetic Studies In The Archaea

Author by : Frank T. Robb
Languange : en
Publisher by : Frontiers E-books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 291
File Size : 41,8 Mb
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Description : The accumulation of archaeal genomes has lagged significantly behind the Bacteria; however, in the last several years the coverage of the major phyla of Archaea has been significantly improved. There are now multiple genomes in several important genera such as Pyrobaculum, Sulfolobus, Thermococcus/Pyrococcus, Halobacterium, Methanosarcina, Methanopyrus and Methanocaldococcus. Comparative genomic studies are now under way, and in many cases there are several consortial multilaboratory groups, such as the SulfoSys community, which have started to break into new systems biology initiatives. At the same time, access to streamlined genetic approaches in the genera Sulfolobus, Thermococcus, Methanosarcina, and Halobacterium/Haloferax has improved significantly and is leveraging the genomic information in the Archaea. The result has been that genome-driven studies of metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transcription and translation, and posttranslational processing have become more detailed and that basic research findings are burgeoning. The areas of global gene regulation, the roles of small RNAs and mechanisms of transcription and DNA replication will be focus areas in the guidelines of this Research Topic. Recently, insights into the unique characteristics of archaeal transcription and the ability to study the effects of mutation in vivo following knock-in gene replacement have resulted in incisive findings.


Structural And Functional Relationships In Prokaryotes

Author by : Larry Barton
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
Total Download : 976
File Size : 40,7 Mb
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Description : This new textbook on bacterial physiology is aimed at senior level students pursuing a one-semester course in the biology or microbiology curriculum. The text takes a balanced view of prokaryotic physiology, discussing both bioenergetics and bacterial metabolism in a way that establishes general principles and concepts and emphasizes throughout the information gained from model systems. The book also covers some experimental design issues, giving students an appreciation of the practical aspects and consequences of bacterial metabolism. It also stimulates students’ interests in future developments in the field by including discussions by five world-famous bacterial physiologists about future developments in the field.


Molecular Assembly In Natural And Engineered Systems

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 430
File Size : 46,5 Mb
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Description : This volume explores some of the most exciting recent advances in basic research on molecular assembly in natural and engineered systems and how this knowledge is leading to advances in the various fields. This series provides a forum for discussion of new discoveries, approaches, and idea Contributions from leading scholars and industry experts Reference guide for researchers involved in molecular biology and related fields


Structural And Functional Relationships In Prokaryotes

Author by : Larry L. Barton
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 180
File Size : 50,8 Mb
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Description : For several decades, bacteria have served as model systems to describe the life p- cesses of growth and metabolism. In addition, it is well recognized that prokaryotes have contributed greatly to the many advances in the areas of ecology, evolution, and biotechnology. This understanding of microorganisms is based on studies of members from both theBacteria andArchaea domains. With each issue of the various scienti?c publications, new characteristics of prokaryotic cells are being reported and it is - portant to place these insights in the context of the appropriate physiological processes. Structural and Functional Relationships in Prokaryotes describes the fundamental physiological processes for members of the Archaea and Bacteria domains. The - ganization of the book re?ects the emphasis that I have used in my 30 years of teaching a course of bacterial physiology. The philosophy used in the preparation of this book is to focus on the fundamental features of prokaryotic physiology and to use these features as the basis for comparative physiology. Even though diverse phenotypes have evolved from myriad genetic possibilities, these prokaryotes display considerable functional similarity and support the premise that there is a unity of physiology in the prokaryotes. The variations observed in the chemical structures and biochemical p- cesses are important in contributing to the persistence of microbial strains in a speci?c environment.


Genome And Genomics

Author by : K. V. Chaitanya
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
Total Download : 727
File Size : 42,8 Mb
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Description : This book provides a detailed and up-to-dated information on the genomes belonging to three major life forms on Earth – archaea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Each section describes about the genome of a specific group of organisms, such as viruses, archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes and organellar genomes. Individual chapters provide details of their organization, structure, evolution, sequencing strategies and functions. Further, this book discusses the technologies that are applied for genome sequencing; assembly, annotation and gene prediction. Other topics include the genomes of important model organisms, mitochondria genome of Neanderthal fossil, etc. This book also examines the evolution of chloroplast and mitochondria genomes by comparing with bacteria, addresses the diseases that occur in humans due to the mutations in mitochondrial genome, gene therapy and engineering of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. Lastly, it features an overview of the role of proteomics, exposomics, connectomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics. This book is a fascinating read for students, lecturers and researchers in the field of genetics, genomics, microbiology and life sciences.