Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2005-06-30
ISBN: 9783540251873
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law Book Excerpt:

Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. Many vitally important problems of legal reasoning can be profitably studied in light of these new methods, even if they cannot all be solved in any single monograph. This book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced, like argument diagramming, abductive reasoning, an analysis of conditional relevance and a new dialectical model of explanation.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence
Author: Sergei O. Kuznetsov,Aleksandr I. Panov
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 378
Release: 2019-10-14
ISBN: 3030307638
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Artificial Intelligence Book Excerpt:

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 17th Russian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, RCAI 2019, held in Ulyanovsk, Russia, in October 2019. The 23 full papers presented along with 7 short papers in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 130 submissions. The conference deals with a wide range of topics, including multi-agent systems, intelligent robots and behaviour planning; automated reasoning and data mining; natural language processing and understanding of texts; fuzzy models and soft computing; intelligent systems and applications.

Methods of Argumentation

Methods of Argumentation
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2013-08-26
ISBN: 1107435196
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Methods of Argumentation Book Excerpt:

Argumentation, which can be abstractly defined as the interaction of different arguments for and against some conclusion, is an important skill to learn for everyday life, law, science, politics and business. The best way to learn it is to try it out on real instances of arguments found in everyday conversational exchanges and legal argumentation. The introductory chapter of this book gives a clear general idea of what the methods of argumentation are and how they work as tools that can be used to analyze arguments. Each subsequent chapter then applies these methods to a leading problem of argumentation. Today the field of computing has embraced argumentation as a paradigm for research in artificial intelligence and multi-agent systems. Another purpose of this book is to present and refine tools and techniques from computing as components of the methods that can be handily used by scholars in other fields.

Relevance in Argumentation

Relevance in Argumentation
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2003-10-17
ISBN: 113561895X
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Relevance in Argumentation Book Excerpt:

In Relevance in Argumentation, author Douglas Walton presents a new method for critically evaluating arguments for relevance. This method enables a critic to judge whether a move can be said to be relevant or irrelevant, and is based on case studies of argumentation in which an argument, or part of an argument, has been criticized as irrelevant. Walton's method is based on a new theory of relevance that incorporates techniques of argumentation theory, logic, and artificial intelligence. The work uses a case-study approach with numerous examples of controversial arguments, strategies of attack in argumentation, and fallacies. Walton reviews ordinary cases of irrelevance in argumentation, and uses them as a basis to advance and develop his new theory of irrelevance and relevance. The volume also presents a clear account of the technical problems in the previous attempts to define relevance, including an analysis of formal systems of relevance logic and an explanation of the Grecian notion of conversational relevance. This volume is intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in those fields using argumentation theory--especially philosophy, linguistics, cognitive science and communication studies, in addition to argumentation. The work also has practical use, as it applies theory directly to familiar examples of argumentation in daily and professional life. With a clear and comprehensive method for determining relevance and irrelevance, it can be convincingly applied to highly significant practical problems about relevance, including those in legal and political argumentation.

Handbook of Temporal Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence

Handbook of Temporal Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence
Author: Michael David Fisher,Dov M. Gabbay,Lluis Vila
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 750
Release: 2005-03-01
ISBN: 9780080533360
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Temporal Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence Book Excerpt:

This collection represents the primary reference work for researchers and students in the area of Temporal Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence. Temporal reasoning has a vital role to play in many areas, particularly Artificial Intelligence. Yet, until now, there has been no single volume collecting together the breadth of work in this area. This collection brings together the leading researchers in a range of relevant areas and provides an coherent description of the breadth of activity concerning temporal reasoning in the filed of Artificial Intelligence. Key Features: - Broad range: foundations; techniques and applications - Leading researchers around the world have written the chapters - Covers many vital applications - Source book for Artificial Intelligence, temporal reasoning - Approaches provide foundation for many future software systems · Broad range: foundations; techniques and applications · Leading researchers around the world have written the chapters · Covers many vital applications · Source book for Artificial Intelligence, temporal reasoning · Approaches provide foundation for many future software systems

Argument Evaluation and Evidence

Argument Evaluation and Evidence
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 286
Release: 2015-08-04
ISBN: 331919626X
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Argument Evaluation and Evidence Book Excerpt:

​This monograph poses a series of key problems of evidential reasoning and argumentation. It then offers solutions achieved by applying recently developed computational models of argumentation made available in artificial intelligence. Each problem is posed in such a way that the solution is easily understood. The book progresses from confronting these problems and offering solutions to them, building a useful general method for evaluating arguments along the way. It provides a hands-on survey explaining to the reader how to use current argumentation methods and concepts that are increasingly being implemented in more precise ways for the application of software tools in computational argumentation systems. It shows how the use of these tools and methods requires a new approach to the concepts of knowledge and explanation suitable for diverse settings, such as issues of public safety and health, debate, legal argumentation, forensic evidence, science education, and the use of expert opinion evidence in personal and public deliberations.

Dialog Theory for Critical Argumentation

Dialog Theory for Critical Argumentation
Author: Douglas N. Walton
Publsiher: John Benjamins Publishing
Total Pages: 307
Release: 2007
ISBN: 9789027218858
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dialog Theory for Critical Argumentation Book Excerpt:

Because of the need to devise systems for electronic communication on the internet, multi-agent computing is moving to a model of communication as a structured conversation between rational agents. For example, in multi-agent systems, an electronic agent searches around the internet, and collects certain kinds of information by asking questions to other agents. Such agents also reason with each other when they engage in negotiation and persuasion. It is shown in this book that critical argumentation is best represented in this framework by the model of reasoned argument called a dialog, in which two or more parties engage in a polite and orderly exchange with each other according to rules governed by conversation policies. In such dialog argumentation, the two parties reason together by taking turns asking questions, offering replies, and offering reasons to support a claim. They try to settle their disagreements by an orderly conversational exchange that is partly adversarial and partly collaborative.

Law and Neuroscience

Law and Neuroscience
Author: Michael Freeman
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 584
Release: 2011-02-10
ISBN: 0191616710
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Law and Neuroscience Book Excerpt:

Current Legal Issues, like its sister volume Current Legal Problems, is based upon an annual colloquium held at Univesity College London. Each year leading scholars from around the world gather to discuss the relationship between law and another discipline of thought. Each colloquium examines how the external discipline is conceived in legal thought and argument, how the law is pictured in that discipline, and analyses points of controversy in the use, and abuse, of extra-legal arguments within legal theory and practice. Law and Neuroscience, the latest volume in the Current Legal Issues series, offers an insight into the state of law and nueroscience scholarship today. Focussing on the inter-connections between the two disciplines, it addresses the key issues informing current debates.

Design and Measurement Strategies for Meaningful Learning

Design and Measurement Strategies for Meaningful Learning
Author: Gómez Ramos, José Luis,Gómez-Barreto, Isabel María
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 297
Release: 2022-04-01
ISBN: 1799891305
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Design and Measurement Strategies for Meaningful Learning Book Excerpt:

Teaching content and measuring content are frequently considered separate entities when designing teaching instruction. This can create a disconnect between how students are taught and how well they succeed when it comes time for assessment. To heal this rift, the theory of meaningful learning is a potential solution for designing effective teaching-learning and assessment materials. Design and Measurement Strategies for Meaningful Learning considers the best practices, challenges, and opportunities of instructional design as well as the theory and impact of meaningful learning. It provides educators with an essential text instructing them on how to successfully design and measure the content they teach. Covering a wide range of topics such as blended learning, online interaction, and learning assessment, this reference work is ideal for teachers, instructional designers, curriculum developers, policymakers, administrators, academicians, researchers, practitioners, and students.

Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence VII

Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence VII
Author: Ngoc-Thanh Nguyen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 237
Release: 2012-07-18
ISBN: 364232066X
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence VII Book Excerpt:

These Transactions publish research in computer-based methods of computational collective intelligence (CCI) and their applications in a wide range of fields such as the Semantic Web, social networks and multiagent systems. TCCI strives to cover new methodological, theoretical and practical aspects of CCI understood as the form of intelligence that emerges from the collaboration and competition of many individuals (artificial and/or natural). The application of multiple computational intelligence technologies such as fuzzy systems, evolutionary computation, neural systems, consensus theory, etc., aims to support human and other collective intelligence and to create new forms of CCI in natural and/or artificial systems. This seventh issue contains a collection of ten carefully selected and thorougly revised contributions.

Computational Models of Argument

Computational Models of Argument
Author: Paul E. Dunne,Trevor J. M. Bench-Capon
Publsiher: IOS Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2006
ISBN: 9781586036522
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Models of Argument Book Excerpt:

"Argumentation has evolved from its original study primarily by philosophers to emerge in the last ten years as an important sub-discipline of Artificial Intelligence. There have been significant contributions resulting from this, including approaches to modelling and analysis of defeasible reasoning, formal bases for negotiation and dialogue processes in multiagent systems, and the use of argumentation theory in AI applications whose nature is not best described through traditional logics, e.g. legal reasoning, evaluation of conflicting beliefs, etc. The process of interpreting and exploiting classical treatments of Argumentation Theory in effective computational terms has led to a rich interchange of ideas among researchers from disciplines such as Philosophy, Linguistics, AI and Economics. While work over recent years has done much to consolidate diverse contributions to the field, many new concerns have been identified and form the basis of current research. The papers in this volume, presented as part of the 1st International Conference on Computational Model of Arguments (COMMA) in September 2006, give a valuable overview of on-going research issues and concerns within this field."

Legal Evidence and Proof

Legal Evidence and Proof
Author: Henry Prakken,Hendrik Kaptein
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2016-04-22
ISBN: 131710630X
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Legal Evidence and Proof Book Excerpt:

As a result of recent scandals concerning evidence and proof in the administration of criminal justice - ranging from innocent people on death row in the United States to misuse of statistics leading to wrongful convictions in The Netherlands and elsewhere - inquiries into the logic of evidence and proof have taken on a new urgency both in an academic and practical sense. This study presents a broad perspective on logic by focusing on inference not just in isolation but as embedded in contexts of procedure and investigation. With special attention being paid to recent developments in Artificial Intelligence and the Law, specifically related to evidentiary reasoning, this book provides clarification of problems of logic and argumentation in relation to evidence and proof. As the vast majority of legal conflicts relate to contested facts, rather than contested law, this volume concerning facts as prime determinants of legal decisions presents an important contribution to the field for both scholars and practitioners.

An Introductory Guide to Artificial Intelligence for Legal Professionals

An Introductory Guide to Artificial Intelligence for Legal Professionals
Author: Juan Pavón,María Jesús González-Espejo
Publsiher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2020-05-14
ISBN: 9403509821
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introductory Guide to Artificial Intelligence for Legal Professionals Book Excerpt:

The availability of very large data sets and the increase in computing power to process them has led to a renewed intensity in corporate and governmental use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. This groundbreaking book, the first devoted entirely to the growing presence of AI in the legal profession, responds to the necessity of building up a discipline that due to its novelty requires the pooling of knowledge and experiences of well-respected experts in the AI field, taking into account the impact of AI on the law and legal practice. Essays by internationally known expert authors introduce the essentials of AI in a straightforward and intelligible style, offering jurists as many practical examples and business cases as possible so that they are able to understand the real application of this technology and its impact on their jobs and lives. Elements of the analysis include the following: crucial terms: natural language processing, machine learning and deep learning; regulations in force in major jurisdictions; ethical and social issues; labour and employment issues, including the impact that robots have on employment; prediction of outcome in the legal field (judicial proceedings, patent granting, etc.); massive analysis of documents and identification of patterns from which to derive conclusions; AI and taxation; issues of competition and intellectual property; liability and responsibility of intelligent systems; AI and cybersecurity; AI and data protection; impact on state tax revenues; use of autonomous killer robots in the military; challenges related to privacy; the need to embrace transparency and sustainability; pressure brought by clients on prices; minority languages and AI; danger that the existing gap between large and small businesses will further increase; how to avoid algorithmic biases when AI decides; AI application to due diligence; AI and non-disclosure agreements; and the role of chatbots. Interviews with pioneers in the field are included, so readers get insights into the issues that people are dealing with in day-to-day actualities. Whether conceiving AI as a transformative technology of the labour market and training or an economic and business sector in need of legal advice, this introduction to AI will help practitioners in tax law, labour law, competition law and intellectual property law understand what AI is, what it serves, what is the state of the art and the potential of this technology, how they can benefit from its advantages and what are the risks it presents. As the global economy continues to suffer the repercussions of a framework that was previously fundamentally self-regulatory, policymakers will recognize the urgent need to formulate rules to properly manage the future of AI.

Agreement Technologies

Agreement Technologies
Author: Sascha Ossowski
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2012-12-20
ISBN: 940075583X
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Agreement Technologies Book Excerpt:

More and more transactions, whether in business or related to leisure activities, are mediated automatically by computers and computer networks, and this trend is having a significant impact on the conception and design of new computer applications. The next generation of these applications will be based on software agents to which increasingly complex tasks can be delegated, and which interact with each other in sophisticated ways so as to forge agreements in the interest of their human users. The wide variety of technologies supporting this vision is the subject of this volume. It summarises the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action project on Agreement Technologies (AT), during which approximately 200 researchers from 25 European countries, along with eight institutions from non-COST countries, cooperated as part of a number of working groups. The book is the first to provide a comprehensive overview of the emerging field of Agreement Technologies, written and coordinated by the leading researchers in the field. The results set out here are due for wide dissemination beyond the computer technology sector, involving law and social science as well.

Legal Knowledge and Information Systems

Legal Knowledge and Information Systems
Author: Foundation for Legal Knowledge Systems
Publsiher: IOS Press
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2009-12-08
ISBN: 1607505185
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Legal Knowledge and Information Systems Book Excerpt:

The 22nd edition of the JURIX conference was held in Rotterdam on the 17th and 18th December and was hosted by the Erasmus University Rotterdam. While the conference was back to its country of origin, JURIX continues to attract a wide international audience. This year, the conference received submissions from all five continents. This clearly demonstrates the lively and growing interest for the highly interdisciplinary discipline of legal informatics. The selection of papers for this edition of JURIX covers a wide variety of topics in legal informatics, including contributions on established fields such as legal document management, argumentation, case based reasoning, dispute resolution, support for legal drafting and ontologies, to emerging areas such as regulatory compliance, normative multi-agent systems and game theory, as well as application areas, for example, fraud detection, legal tutoring systems and legal decision support systems.

Machine Learning for Health Informatics

Machine Learning for Health Informatics
Author: Andreas Holzinger
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 481
Release: 2016-12-09
ISBN: 3319504789
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Machine Learning for Health Informatics Book Excerpt:

Machine learning (ML) is the fastest growing field in computer science, and Health Informatics (HI) is amongst the greatest application challenges, providing future benefits in improved medical diagnoses, disease analyses, and pharmaceutical development. However, successful ML for HI needs a concerted effort, fostering integrative research between experts ranging from diverse disciplines from data science to visualization. Tackling complex challenges needs both disciplinary excellence and cross-disciplinary networking without any boundaries. Following the HCI-KDD approach, in combining the best of two worlds, it is aimed to support human intelligence with machine intelligence. This state-of-the-art survey is an output of the international HCI-KDD expert network and features 22 carefully selected and peer-reviewed chapters on hot topics in machine learning for health informatics; they discuss open problems and future challenges in order to stimulate further research and international progress in this field.

Methods of Argumentation

Methods of Argumentation
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 308
Release: 2013-08-26
ISBN: 1107039304
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Methods of Argumentation Book Excerpt:

This book, written by a leading expert, and based on the latest research, shows how to apply methods of argumentation to a range of examples.

Advances in Artificial Intelligence IBERAMIA 2014

Advances in Artificial Intelligence    IBERAMIA 2014
Author: Ana L.C. Bazzan,Karim Pichara
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 807
Release: 2014-11-11
ISBN: 3319120271
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Artificial Intelligence IBERAMIA 2014 Book Excerpt:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 14th Ibero-American Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IBERAMIA 2014, held in Santiago de Chile, Chile, in November 2014. The 64 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 136 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: knowledge engineering, knowledge representation and probabilistic reasoning; planning and scheduling; natural language processing; machine learning; fuzzy systems; knowledge discovery and data mining; bio-inspired computing; robotics; vision; multi-agent systems; agent-based modeling and simulation; AI in education, affective computing, and human-computer interaction; applications of AI; and ambient intelligence.

Burden of Proof Presumption and Argumentation

Burden of Proof  Presumption and Argumentation
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014-06-30
ISBN: 1139952609
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Burden of Proof Presumption and Argumentation Book Excerpt:

The notion of burden of proof and its companion notion of presumption are central to argumentation studies. This book argues that we can learn a lot from how the courts have developed procedures over the years for allocating and reasoning with presumptions and burdens of proof, and from how artificial intelligence has built precise formal and computational systems to represent this kind of reasoning. The book provides a model of reasoning with burden of proof and presumption, based on analyses of many clearly explained legal and non-legal examples. The model is shown to fit cases of everyday conversational argumentation as well as argumentation in legal cases. Burden of proof determines (1) under what conditions an arguer is obliged to support a claim with an argument that backs it up and (2) how strong that argument needs to be to prove the claim in question.

Witness Testimony Evidence

Witness Testimony Evidence
Author: Douglas Walton
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2007-11-19
ISBN: 1139468804
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Witness Testimony Evidence Book Excerpt:

Recent work in artificial intelligence has increasingly turned to argumentation as a rich, interdisciplinary area of research that can provide new methods related to evidence and reasoning in the area of law. Douglas Walton provides an introduction to basic concepts, tools and methods in argumentation theory and artificial intelligence as applied to the analysis and evaluation of witness testimony. He shows how witness testimony is by its nature inherently fallible and sometimes subject to disastrous failures. At the same time such testimony can provide evidence that is not only necessary but inherently reasonable for logically guiding legal experts to accept or reject a claim. Walton shows how to overcome the traditional disdain for witness testimony as a type of evidence shown by logical positivists, and the views of trial sceptics who doubt that trial rules deal with witness testimony in a way that yields a rational decision-making process.