Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds

Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds
Author: Dudley Shallcross,Carl Percival
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2021-10-15
ISBN: 9780128228623
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds Book Excerpt:

Climate change and air quality are two of the most pressing concerns in the 21st century and VOCs play a pivotal role in both spheres. Scientists across the world are becoming aware of the importance of understanding the role that VOCs play from a wide range of fields. Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds is comprehensive but concise book with information that is extremely important to groups in the field of atmospheric science but also to the myriad groups that border this field, such as climate scientists, analytical scientists, health professionals, agricultural and botanical related researchers and many more. Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds provides the reader with information in a form that they can adapt, such as emission factors, ways to estimate emissions as a function of appropriate variables, removal processes etc. The research also is connected to topics allied fields including land use, agriculture, measurement (analytical), and climate science. Features datasets and global maps of VOC distributions with supporting data Provides readers with information so that they can carry out 'what if' calculations, to be able to estimate the change in emissions in the future or make the information relevant to their region of the world Includes comprehensive coverage of VOCs and demonstrations of patterns in emission and removal

Atmospheric Degradation

Atmospheric Degradation
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2018-05
ISBN: 9781642240559
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Atmospheric Degradation Book Excerpt:

Earth's atmosphere holds a mass of organic compounds, which differ by orders of magnitude regarding fundamental properties such as volatility, reactivity, and propensity to form cloud droplets, affecting their impact on global climate and human health. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a vital role in the chemistry of the atmosphere by impelling ozone and hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations and the renovation rates of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Elevated levels of VOCs and NOx have led to an approximate doubling of ozone in the lower troposphere over the past couple of centuries, making tropospheric ozone the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a key piece in understanding photochemical air quality in urban atmosphere. Anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of organic substances, the use of petrochemical solvents, and vaporizations of petroleum products are sources of VOCs. Every day, large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Therefore, their sources, sinks and dwelling times are the subject of current research. Atmospheric Degradation of Organic Substances describes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry of VOCs as well as the methods and techniques to analyze gaseous and particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere. The book also includes evaluation of the relative ozone-forming potentials of the captured VOC species in the atmosphere of urban settlement. The analytical toolbox available for chemists to study atmospheric organic compounds has expanded considerably during the past decade, opening new windows into speciation, time resolution and detection of reactive and semi-volatile compounds at low concentrations. This has provided unprecedented opportunities, but also revealed new scientific challenges.This book is of interest to students, practitioners, as well as guiding tool for researchers in the field of atmospheric research.

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere
Author: Ralf Koppmann
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2008-04-15
ISBN: 0470994150
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere Book Excerpt:

Every day, large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The formation of gaseous and particulate secondary products caused by oxidation of VOCs is one of the largest unknowns in the quantitative prediction of the earth’s climate on a regional and global scale, and on the understanding of local air quality. To be able to model and control their impact, it is essential to understand the sources of VOCs, their distribution in the atmosphere and the chemical transformations which remove these compounds from the atmosphere. In recent years techniques for the analysis of organic compounds in the atmosphere have been developed to increase the spectrum of detectable compounds and their detection limits. New methods have been introduced to increase the time resolution of those measurements and to resolve more complex mixtures of organic compounds. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere describes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry of VOCs as well as the methods and techniques to analyse gaseous and particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere. The aim is to provide an authoritative review to address the needs of both graduate students and active researchers in the field of atmospheric chemistry research.

Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects

Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects
Author: Bruce A. Tichenor
Publsiher: ASTM International
Total Pages: 406
Release: 1996
ISBN: 0803120303
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects Book Excerpt:

Based on presentations at a 1994 Symposium, these detailed papers review source/sink characterization; design, construction, characterization, and operation of test chambers and facilities; testing protocols for determining emission factors and sink absorption/desorption rates; models for predicting

Indoor Air Pollution

Indoor Air Pollution
Author: Peter Pluschke
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2004-09-27
ISBN: 9783540210986
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Indoor Air Pollution Book Excerpt:

Indoor Air Pollution has become a major topic in environmental research and health. Most people spend more than 80% of their time in buildings and are exposed to a broad range of pollutants from indoor sources such as building materials, furniture, carpets and textiles, heating and cooking, household and consumer products, etc. The volume provides a comprehensive review of the major indoor air pollutants: volatile organic compounds, biocides, indoor particles and fibres, combustion products and micro-organisms and their metabolites. Sources and sinks of air pollutants in indoor environments and their chemistry are distinctly different from ambient air pollution, even though the latter may influence indoor air quality. Adsorption and desorption processes, the pollutant source dynamics, gas phase reactions and kinetics - including the fate and final chemical destiny of chemically unstable intermediate compounds - are topics of scientific research as well as the evaluation of their sensory impact and irritation potential. Guidelines for assessing indoor pollution and a broad range of analytical methods have been recently developed and are reviewed by internationally renowned scientists. The specific characteristics of indoor air pollution in developing countries due to the widespread use of open fires for cooking, heating and lighting are analysed as well as the Chinese strategies to address the growing pollution problems by air pollution in its modern building stock.

Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improved Fast GC MSD System

Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improved Fast GC MSD System
Author: Jäger, Julia
Publsiher: Forschungszentrum Jülich
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2014
ISBN: 3893369368
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improved Fast GC MSD System Book Excerpt:

The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles

The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles
Author: Andreas Herrmann
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2011-06-15
ISBN: 1119956986
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles Book Excerpt:

"Coming to a conclusion, this wonderful, informative and very interesting book presents an excellent overview of small volatile organic compounds and their role in our life and environment. Really fascinating is the entirety of scientific disciplines which were addressed by this book." –Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2011 "... this book deserves to be a well-used reference in the library of any laboratory specialising in VOC". –Chemistry World, 2011 Volatile compounds are molecules with a relatively low molecular weight allowing for an efficient evaporation into the air. They are found in many areas of our everyday-life: they are responsible for the communication between species such as plants, insects or mammals; they serve as flavours or fragrances in many food products or perfumed consumer articles; and they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This book takes an interdisciplinary approach to volatile molecules. Review-style introductions to the main topics in volatile chemistry and biology are provided by international experts, building into a broad overview of this fascinating field. Topics covered include: The structural variety of volatile compounds Biogeneration of volatiles Synthesis of natural and non-natural volatiles Analysis of volatiles Volatile compounds as semiochemicals in plant-plant or plant-insect interactions Volatiles in pest control Pheromones and the influence of volatiles on mammals Olfaction and human perception Volatiles as fragrances The generation of flavours and food aroma compounds Stabilisation and controlled release of volatiles The impact of volatiles on the environment and the atmosphere

Advances in Building Energy Research

Advances in Building Energy Research
Author: Mat Santamouris
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2012-05-04
ISBN: 1136572406
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Building Energy Research Book Excerpt:

Advances in Building Energy Research (ABER) offers state-of-the-art information on the environmental science and performance of buildings, linking new technologies and methodologies with the latest research on systems, simulations and standards. As stringently reviewed as a journal but with the breadth of a book, this annual volume brings together invited contributions from the foremost international experts on energy efficiency and environmental quality of buildings. Spanning a broad range of technical subjects, this is a 'must have' reference on global developments in the field, suitable for architects and building engineers, environmental engineers, industry professionals, students, teachers and researchers in building science, technical libraries and laboratories. Volume 3 covers: - Energy, Carbon and Cost Performance of Building Stocks - Solar Chimneys in Buildings - Optimization and Economics of Solar Cooling Systems - Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms in Energy Applications in Buildings - Decision Support Methodologies on the Energy Efficiency and Energy Management in Buildings - Progress in Numerical Modelling for Urban Thermal Environment Studies - Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE): An Inevitable Step Toward Sustainability - Guidelines to Avoid Mould Growth in Buildings - Thermal Impact of Strategic Landscaping in Cities - Urban Heat Island and its Impact on Building Energy Consumption - Green Roofs in Buildings: Thermal and Environmental Behaviour - Building Earth-Contact Heat Transfer

Biology Controls and Models of Tree Volatile Organic Compound Emissions

Biology  Controls and Models of Tree Volatile Organic Compound Emissions
Author: Ülo Niinemets,Russell K. Monson
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 547
Release: 2013-07-08
ISBN: 9400766068
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biology Controls and Models of Tree Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Book Excerpt:

Plant-driven volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions play a major role in atmospheric chemistry, including ozone and photochemical smog formation in the troposphere, and they extend the atmospheric lifetime of the key greenhouse gas, methane. Furthermore, condensation of photo-oxidation products of BVOCs leads to formation of secondary organic aerosols with profound implications for the earth's solar radiation budget and climate. Trees represent the plant life form that most contributes to BVOC emissions, which gives global forests a unique role in regulating atmospheric chemistry. Written by leading experts in the field, the focus is on recent advancements in understanding the controls on plant-driven BVOC emissions, including efforts to quantitatively predict emissions using computer models, particularly on elicitation of emissions under biotic and abiotic stresses, molecular mechanisms of volatile synthesis and emission and the role of emissions in plant stress tolerance.

Review and Integration of Biosphere Atmosphere Modelling of Reactive Trace Gases and Volatile Aerosols

Review and Integration of Biosphere Atmosphere Modelling of Reactive Trace Gases and Volatile Aerosols
Author: Raia Silvia Massad,Benjamin Loubet
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 235
Release: 2015-07-16
ISBN: 9401772851
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Review and Integration of Biosphere Atmosphere Modelling of Reactive Trace Gases and Volatile Aerosols Book Excerpt:

When considering biosphere–atmosphere exchange of trace gases and volatile aerosols, significant advances have been made both from an experimental and modelling point of view and on several scales. This was particularly stimulated by the availability of new datasets generated from improvements in analytical methods and flux measurement techniques. Recent research advances allow us, not only to identify major mechanisms and factors affecting the exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere, but also to recognize several gaps in the methodologies used in accounting for emissions and deposition in landscape and global scale models. This work aims at (i) reviewing exchange processes and modelling schemes, parameterisations and datasets, (ii) presenting a common conceptual framework to model soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of reactive trace gases and aerosols accounting for in-canopy transfer chemical interactions and (iii) discussing the key elements of the agreed framework.

Toxicity of Building Materials

Toxicity of Building Materials
Author: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal,S Jalali,Aleksandra Fucic
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2012-08-13
ISBN: 0857096354
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toxicity of Building Materials Book Excerpt:

From long-standing worries regarding the use of lead and asbestos to recent research into carcinogenic issues related to the use of plastics in construction, there is growing concern regarding the potential toxic effects of building materials on health. Toxicity of building materials provides an essential guide to this important problem and its solutions. Beginning with an overview of the material types and potential health hazards presented by building materials, the book goes on to consider key plastic materials. Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds, are then explored in depth, before a review of wood preservatives and mineral fibre-based building materials. Issues related to the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning are the focus of subsequent chapters, followed by discussion of the range of heavy metals, materials prone to mould growth, and antimicrobials. Finally, Toxicity of building materials concludes by considering the potential hazards posed by waste based/recycled building materials, and the toxicity of nanoparticles. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Toxicity of building materials is an invaluable tool for all civil engineers, materials researchers, scientists and educators working in the field of building materials. Provides an essential guide to the potential toxic effects of building materials on health Comprehensively examines materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds Later chapters focus on issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning

Modeling of Indoor Air Quality and Exposure

Modeling of Indoor Air Quality and Exposure
Author: Niren Laxmichand Nagda
Publsiher: ASTM International
Total Pages: 295
Release: 1993
ISBN: 0803118759
Category: Environmental toxicology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modeling of Indoor Air Quality and Exposure Book Excerpt:

Organic Indoor Air Pollutants

Organic Indoor Air Pollutants
Author: Tunga Salthammer
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 343
Release: 2008-07-11
ISBN: 3527613676
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Organic Indoor Air Pollutants Book Excerpt:

Indoor air quality has gained more and more attention in recent years. The book covers organic pollutants in indoor air, their sources, measurement, and evaluation. It is written from a chemical-analytical point of view. Therefore it fills a gap in the literature on this very topical subject. The book is divided into four parts covering the measurement of organic pollutants, environmental test chambers, the release of organic compounds from indoor materials as well as investigation concepts and quality guidelines. Each section was written by an experienced expert. The authors work in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The book is adressed to chemists, physicists, biologists, and medical doctors at universities and research facilities, in industry and environmental laboratories as well as regulative bodies.

Research Strategies for the U S Global Change Research Program

Research Strategies for the U S  Global Change Research Program
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Global Change
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 294
Release: 1990-02-01
ISBN: 0309043484
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Research Strategies for the U S Global Change Research Program Book Excerpt:

This book recommends research priorities and scientific approaches for global change research. It addresses the scientific approaches for documenting global change, developing integrated earth system models, and conducting focused studies to improve understanding of global change on topics such as earth system history and human sources of global change.

Chemistry and Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Environment

Chemistry and Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Environment
Author: H.J. Bloemen,J. Burn
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 290
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 9401121524
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemistry and Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Environment Book Excerpt:

Interest in the occurrence and behaviour of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is increasing due to their adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is essential that information is made available on the various aspects of research on VOCs to enable better understanding and control of the various environmental and human health threats. The information in this book will be used to improve communication and understanding of the various approaches. In particular the potential and limitations of the described analytical methods will be essential in defining environmental studies and interpreting the results.

Global Atmospheric Biospheric Chemistry

Global Atmospheric Biospheric Chemistry
Author: Ronald G. Prinn
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 261
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 1461525241
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Global Atmospheric Biospheric Chemistry Book Excerpt:

This volume contains the invited papers and a transcript of the final panel discussion in the First Scientific Conference of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (lGAC) Project, held in Eilat, Israel from April 18-22, 1993. The conference was hosted by the Israeli Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) and was the 37th in the prestigious OHOLO Conference series in Israel. The conference was devoted to the subject of "Global Atmospheric-Biospheric Chemistry" and was a landmark event in this area. It provided the first comprehensive report of progress under IGAC toward improving our understanding of the chemical and biological processes that determine the changing composition of the earth's atmosphere. This work is an essential component of the comprehensive International Geosphere Biosphere Program (lGBP) devoted to measuring and understanding global changes in the past and present, and predicting the future evolution of our planet. I want to devote this brief foreword to thanking several people who worked especially hard to make the conference a success and who helped to produce this volume as a record of the event. Paul Crutzen, Amram Golombek, Pamela Matson and Henning Rodhe did sterling service on the conference organizing committee. Special thanks go to Amram Golombek and Dr. Cohen, the Director of IIBR, who hosted the event in Israel. Anne Slinn did an excellent job in producing the Abstract book and helping with administrative matters. Alex Pszenny helped capably to critically review the Abstracts.

Ocean Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles

Ocean Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles
Author: Peter S. Liss,Martin T. Johnson
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 315
Release: 2013-12-18
ISBN: 3642256430
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ocean Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles Book Excerpt:

The oceans and atmosphere interact through various processes, including the transfer of momentum, heat, gases and particles. In this book leading international experts come together to provide a state-of-the-art account of these exchanges and their role in the Earth-system, with particular focus on gases and particles. Chapters in the book cover: i) the ocean-atmosphere exchange of short-lived trace gases; ii) mechanisms and models of interfacial exchange (including transfer velocity parameterisations); iii) ocean-atmosphere exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide; iv) ocean atmosphere exchange of particles and v) current and future data collection and synthesis efforts. The scope of the book extends to the biogeochemical responses to emitted / deposited material and interactions and feedbacks in the wider Earth-system context. This work constitutes a highly detailed synthesis and reference; of interest to higher-level university students (Masters, PhD) and researchers in ocean-atmosphere interactions and related fields (Earth-system science, marine / atmospheric biogeochemistry / climate). Production of this book was supported and funded by the EU COST Action 735 and coordinated by the International SOLAS (Surface Ocean- Lower Atmosphere Study) project office.

Modeling Individual Exposure from Indoor Sources

Modeling Individual Exposure from Indoor Sources
Author: LE. Sparks,BA. Tichenor,JB. White
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 12
Release: 1993
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Activity patterns
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modeling Individual Exposure from Indoor Sources Book Excerpt:

Individual exposure to air pollutants is determined by the behavior of indoor sources and sinks and activity patterns. This paper discusses a model that allows analysis of individual exposure for a wide range of sources and sinks. Emphasis of the discussion is on exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from commonly used sources. The effects of source and sink behavior on exposure are complex. Important factors include source strength, source decay rate, rates to the sink, re-emissions from the sink, and building operation parameters such as ventilation rate. Sources provide the primary exposure and dominate exposure while the source strength is strong. Sinks modify exposure by reducing peak concentrations and, because of re-emissions from sinks, by increasing the time of relatively high concentrations. Exposures from several different sources are analyzed both with and without sinks and under a range of different building operation scenarios. The need for standard scenarios in evaluating the effects of sources on individual exposure is discussed. Model concentration predictions are compared with data from an indoor air quality (IAQ) test house.

Atmospheric and Aerosol Chemistry

Atmospheric and Aerosol Chemistry
Author: V. Faye McNeill,Parisa A. Ariya
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2014-07-08
ISBN: 3642412157
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Atmospheric and Aerosol Chemistry Book Excerpt:

Christian George, Barbara D’Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann - Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard - New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll - Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde - Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization. V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier - Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

Advances In Atmospheric Chemistry

Advances In Atmospheric Chemistry
Author: Barker John R,Steiner Allison L,Wallington Timothy J
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2016-12-15
ISBN: 9813147369
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances In Atmospheric Chemistry Book Excerpt:

The human race has altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere, as evidenced by the notorious London smog, photochemical air pollution, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. The aim of this book series is to present invited summaries of important current research on atmospheric chemistry in a changing world. The summaries range from comprehensive scholarly reviews of major subject areas to more narrowly focused accounts of recent advances by individual research groups. The topics are tied to the important societal issues of air quality, stratospheric ozone depletion, acid deposition, the environmental fate of toxics, and climate change. By gathering these new Advances in one series, we aim to catalyze communication among the many researchers who are studying our changing, contemporary atmosphere.