Austria Prussia And The Making Of Germany

Author by : John Breuilly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 296
File Size : 40,5 Mb
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Description : It is often argued that the unification of Germany in 1871 was the inevitable result of the convergence of Prussian power and German nationalism. John Breuilly here shows that the true story was much more complex. For most of the nineteenth century Austria was the dominant power in the region. Prussian-led unification was highly unlikely up until the 1860s and even then was only possible because of the many other changes happening in Germany, Europe and the wider world.


Austria Prussia And Germany 1806 1871

Author by : John Breuilly (political science)
Languange : en
Publisher by : Pearson Education
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 81
Total Download : 405
File Size : 50,6 Mb
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Description : In this important new survey of the Austro-Prussian relationship and its impact on Germany, John Breuilly considers Germany's relations with interior and exterior states during the first half of the nineteenth century. Focusing on the rise of nationalism and the causes of political ascendancy, Breuilly follows the struggle over German lands, between France on the one hand and Austria and Prussia on the other. Once Austria and Prussia had managed to wrest supremacy in Germany away from France and reorganised the German lands in 1814-15, the two cooperated for more than three decades in joint control of Germany under Austrian leadership. The second half of the book traces the collapse of this cooperative relationship and its dramatic conclusion in the 1866 war of supremacy, when Prussia decisively defeated Austria. Was Prussia's victory inevitable, or was it an accident? Breuilly weighs up the evidence in masterly fashion and shows how the different approaches reflect above all shifts of interest within historical study.


The Formation Of The First German Nation State 1800 1871

Author by : John Breuilly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Red Globe Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 203
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Description : The author argues that German unification was only one possibility amongst others and observes that Europe was moving towards national states -- book cover.


Nineteenth Century Germany

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 31
Total Download : 177
File Size : 50,6 Mb
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Description : John Breuilly brings together a distinguished group of international scholars to examine Germany's history from 1780 to 1918, featuring chapters on economic, demographic and social as well as cultural and intellectual history. There are also chapters on political and military history covering the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the post-Napoleonic period, the revolutions of 1848-1849, the unification of Germany, Bismarckian Germany and Wilhelmine Germany, and Germany during the First World War. This new edition, which retains the helpful further reading suggestions for each chapter and a chronology, has been completely updated to take account of recent historiography. The statistical data has been expanded, more maps and images have been introduced, and there are two new chapters on transnational approaches and gender history. Finally, the editor has added a conclusion which reflects on the key developments in the history of Germany over the “long nineteenth century”. Providing clear surveys of the central events and developments and addressing major debates amongst historians, Nineteenth-Century Germany is vital reading for all those wishing to understand this crucial period in modern German history.


The Oxford Handbook Of The History Of Nationalism

Author by : John Breuilly
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
Total Download : 988
File Size : 45,8 Mb
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Description : The Oxford Handbook of the History of Nationalism comprises thirty six essays by an international team of leading scholars, providing a global coverage of the history of nationalism in its different aspects - ideas, sentiments, and politics. Every chapter takes the form of an interpretative essay which, by a combination of thematic focus, comparison, and regional perspective, enables the reader to understand nationalism as a distinct and global historical subject. The book covers the emergence of nationalist ideas, sentiments, and cultural movements before the formation of a world of nation-states as well as nationalist politics before and after the era of the nation-state, with chapters covering Europe, the Middle East, North-East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Americas. Essays on everday national sentiment and race ideas in fascism are accompanied by chapters on nationalist movements opposed to existing nation-states, nationalism and international relations, and the role of external intervention into nationalist disputes within states. In addition, the book looks at the major challenges to nationalism: international socialism, religion, pan-nationalism, and globalization, before a final section considering how historians have approached the subject of nationalism. Taken separately, the chapters in this Handbook will deepen understanding of nationalism in particular times and places; taken together they will enable the reader to see nationalism as a distinct subject in modern world history.


Austria Prussia And The Making Of Germany

Author by : John Breuilly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 19
Total Download : 968
File Size : 50,5 Mb
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Description : It is often argued that the unification of Germany in 1871 was the inevitable result of the convergence of Prussian power and German nationalism. John Breuilly here shows that the true story was much more complex. For most of the nineteenth century Austria was the dominant power in the region. Prussian-led unification was highly unlikely up until the 1860s and even then was only possible because of the many other changes happening in Germany, Europe and the wider world.


Early Modern Germany 1477 1806

Author by : Michael Hughes
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Pennsylvania Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 500
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : Attempts to present a coherent account of early modern German history are often hampered by the German equivalent of the Whig theory of history, by which all useful roads lead up to the creation of the nineteenth-century power state (Machstaat) or institutional state (Anstalstaat). In this kind of historiography, there are large "blank" areas between the "important" events like the Reformation, the Thiry Years War, the Seven Years War, and the French Revolution. During the intervals of apparent stagnation between these events, "Germany" seems to disappear, to be replaced by states such as Prussian and Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, and the Palatinate. Substantial areas are ignored, and groups such as the parliamentary Estates, which stood in the way of state-building, are virtually written out of most accounts. Rather than focusing on the separate histories of the individual German states, Michael Hughes looks to the structure of the Holy Roman Empire in its final centuries and writes an account of Germany as a functioning, federative state, with institutions capable of reform and modernization. For nineteenth-and twentieth-century historians, the Empire was seen as the embodiment of division and weakness. But by examining the first Reich, Hughes reveals the persistence of the idea of Germanness and German national feeling during a period when, according to most accounts, Germany had virtually ceased to exist. At the same time, he examines "the element of continuity in Germany's development . . . in an attempt to discover how far back in Germany's past it is necessary to go to find the roots of the 'German problem,' the Germans' search for a political expression of their strongly developed awareness of cultural unity."


The Austrian Dimension In German Intellectual History

Author by : David S. Luft
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
Total Download : 457
File Size : 45,6 Mb
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Description : Tracing Austrian intellectual life from Maria Theresa to Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia, this innovative book offers a precise and engaging account of Austrian intellectual history since the Enlightenment. Here, David S. Luft begins by locating his narrative in the region known as Cisleithanian Austria, the area to the west of the Leitha River that was the basis for the modern Austrian state after 1740. Chapter 2 provides a history of the German-speaking intellectual life of these central lands of the Habsburg Monarchy (Austria and Bohemia) from the Enlightenment to annexation by Nazi Germany. Chapters 3 to 5 identify the most important philosophers, writers, and social thinkers who contributed to Austrian intellectual life in the period between 1740 and 1938/1939 and address the intellectual significance of their work. Elegantly written and meticulously researched, Luft's book brings out the contributions of major figures such as Wittgenstein, Hofmannsthal, Musil, Kafka, Rilke, and Freud, but also draws attention to less well-known figures such as Bolzano, Brentano, Grillparzer, Stifter, Broch, and Hayek.


Nationalism In Germany 1848 1866

Author by : Mark Hewitson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Macmillan International Higher Education
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 291
File Size : 43,5 Mb
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Description : How, why and when did unification occur in Germany? In the first full-length study of its kind, Mark Hewitson reassesses the relationship between politics and the nation in the critical decades between the revolutions of 1848-9 and unification after 1866. This comprehensive, original and insightful text: • revises traditional accounts of Bismarck's role and concentrates instead on the emergence of political parties and a German public sphere • questions the existence of a broad shift from liberal to conservative nationalism • challenges the notion that cultural and ethnic forms of nationalism were particularly pronounced in Germany as a result of late unification • qualifies the idea of a 'revolution from above'. Ideal for students and scholars alike, Mark Hewitson offers a fresh interpretation of a formative period in modern German history.


The People S Wars

Author by : Mark Hewitson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 855
File Size : 53,7 Mb
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Description : How did ministers, journalists, academics, artists, and subjects in the German lands imagine war during the nineteenth century? The Napoleonic Wars had been the bloodiest in Europe's history, directly affecting millions of Germans, yet their long-term consequences on individuals and on 'politics' are still poorly understood. This study makes sense of contemporaries' memories and histories of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic campaigns within a much wider context of press reportage of wars elsewhere in Europe and overseas, debates about military service and the reform of Germany's armies, revolution and counter-revolution, and individuals' experiences of violence and death in their everyday lives. For the majority of the populations of the German states, wars during an era of conscription were not merely a matter of history and memory; rather, they concerned subjects' hopes, fears, and expectations of the future. This is the second volume of Mark Hewitson's study of the violence of war in the German lands during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It investigates the complex relationship between military conflicts and the violent acts of individual soldiers. In particular, it considers the contradictory impact of 'pacification' in civilian life and exposure to increasingly destructive technologies of killing during war-time. This contradiction reached its nineteenth-century apogee during the 'wars of unification', leaving an ambiguous imprint on post-war discussions of military conflict.


German History In Modern Times

Author by : William W. Hagen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 12
Total Download : 476
File Size : 45,5 Mb
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Description : This history of German-speaking central Europe offers a very wide perspective, emphasizing a succession of many-layered communal identities. It highlights the interplay of individual, society, culture and political power, contrasting German with Western patterns. Rather than treating 'the Germans' as a collective whole whose national history amounts to a cumulative biography, the book presents the pre-modern era of the Holy Roman Empire; the nineteenth century; the 1914–45 era of war, dictatorship and genocide; and the Cold War and post-Cold War eras since 1945 as successive worlds of German life, thought and mentality. This book's 'Germany' is polycentric and multicultural, including the multinational Austrian Habsburg Empire and the German Jews. Its approach to National Socialism offers a conceptually new understanding of the Holocaust. The book's numerous illustrations reveal German self-presentations and styles of life, which often contrast with Western ideas of Germany.


Germany Since 1789

Author by : David G. Williamson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Macmillan International Higher Education
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
Total Download : 238
File Size : 48,9 Mb
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Description : This essential text provides a clear and engaging introduction to the history of modern Germany. The updated and expanded new edition now takes the story back to 1789 and brings it right up to the present day, adopting a controversy-led approach throughout. Visual evidence, maps, documents and key event boxes support the text and aid learning.


German History 1789 1871

Author by : Eric Dorn Brose
Languange : en
Publisher by : Berghahn Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
Total Download : 598
File Size : 44,9 Mb
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Description : During recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in interest in the nineteenth century, resulting in many fine monographs. However, these studies often gravitate toward Prussia or treat Germany's southern and northern regions as separate entities or else are thematically compartmentalized. This book overcomes these divisions...


Schubert In The European Imagination

Author by : Scott Messing
Languange : en
Publisher by : University Rochester Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
Total Download : 422
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Description : A richly detailed examination of the historical reception of Franz Schubert in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe, with a concentration on fin-de-siècle Vienna.


Enduring Controversies In Military History Critical Analyses And Context 2 Volumes

Author by : Spencer C. Tucker
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 651
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Description : This provocative examination of major controversies in military history enables readers to learn how scholars approach controversial topics and provides a model for students in the study and discussion of other historical events. • Provides compelling examinations of major controversies in military history from the time of the ancient world to the modern day • Enables readers to see how historians address such topics and understand how their process could be applied to other topics or research areas • Offers a bibliography specific to each topic to give students looking to do further research a wealth of options


Historical Dictionary Of Austria

Author by : Paula Sutter Fichtner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Scarecrow Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 43
Total Download : 169
File Size : 41,5 Mb
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Description : Austrians today often seem to believe that they have two histories. One is their republican present; the other, the centuries that their forebears spent as part of the multi-ethnic Habsburg Empire. Contemporary Austria is a fixture among Europe's democracies. Yet, it did not achieve this state easily: World War I, the unification with Germany in 1938, and World War II were catastrophes for Austria. In 1995, it became part of the European Union, and its government, culture, and egalitarian economy are far cries from the monarchical and highly stratified society of the old Empire. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Austria has been thoroughly updated and greatly expanded. Through its chronology, introductory essay, appendix, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries, greater attention has been given to foreign affairs, economic institutions and policies, social issues, religion, and politics.


Europe 1850 1914

Author by : Jonathan Sperber
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 991
File Size : 40,9 Mb
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Description : This innovative survey of European history from the middle of the nineteenth century to the outbreak of the First World War tells the story of an era of outward tranquillity that was also a period of economic growth, social transformation, political contention and scientific, and artistic innovation. During these years, the foundations of our present urban-industrial society were laid, the five Great Powers vied in peaceful and violent fashion for dominance in Europe and throughout the world, and the darker forces that were to dominate the twentieth century – violent nationalism, totalitarianism, racism, ethnic cleansing – began to make themselves felt. Jonathan Sperber sets out developments in this period across the entire European continent, from the Atlantic to the Urals, from the Baltic to the Mediterranean. To help students of European history grasp the main dynamics of the period, he divides the book into three overlapping sections covering the periods from 1850-75, 1871-95 and 1890-1914. In each period he identifies developments and tendencies that were common in varying degrees to the whole of Europe, while also pointing the unique qualities of specific regions and individual countries. Throughout, his argument is supported by illustrative material: tables, charts, case studies and other explanatory features, and there is a detailed bibliography to help students to explore further in those areas that interest them.


Imagining A Greater Germany

Author by : Erin R. Hochman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cornell University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 71
Total Download : 915
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Description : Erin R. Hochman offers a fresh approach to the questions of state-and-nation-building in interwar Central Europe. By challenging the oft-cited distinction between 'good' civic and 'bad' ethnic nationalisms and drawing attention to the energetic efforts of republicans to create a cross-border partnership to defend democracy, she emphasises that the triumph of Nazi ideas about nationalism and politics was far from inevitable.


History Of Germany

Author by : Peter Wende
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 61
Total Download : 548
File Size : 48,6 Mb
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Description : Even a brief glance at the maps of what has, or might have, been called Germany through the ages reveals a kaleidoscope of alterations in shape and composition. Though there are elements of continuity, the history of Germany has been the history of nearly constant change. In this concise introduction to Germany's fascinating past, Peter Wende provides an approachable historical interpretation of the key periods and turning points from Roman times to the present. Wende shows that, throughout the course of 2000 years, German history is actually the history of many Germanies, and that it can be written neither just as the history of a region nor of a political, ethnic or cultural formation. Focussing on key points in Germany's political, social and economic development, this guide is ideal for all those with an interest in the complex and compelling history of one of Europe's main nation-states.


Germany S Two Unifications

Author by : R. Speirs
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 12
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Description : Germany's unique historical experience of undergoing national unification twice in a little over a century makes it a fascinating object of study. In this volume the processes of unification are analysed from the point of view of historians, political scientists and literary historians. Because each event had quite different historical pre-conditions (the first having been long anticipated and pursued, whereas the second took virtually all participants by surprise), the processes of adjustment to it have differed in many ways. Yet in each case the idea of national unity has held sway powerfully as a norm guiding the responses of those involved.


Bourgeois Liberty And The Politics Of Fear

Author by : Marc Mulholland
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 19
Total Download : 358
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Description : In 1842 Heinrich Heine, the German poet, wrote that the bourgeoisie, 'obsessed by a nightmare apprehension of disaster' and 'an instinctive dread of communism', were driven against their better instincts into tolerating absolutist government. Theirs was a 'politics motivated by fear'. Over the next 150 years, the middle classes were repeatedly accused of betraying liberty for fear of 'red revolution'. The failure of the revolutions of 1848, conservative nationalism from the 1860s, fascist victories in the first half of the twentieth-century, and repression of national liberation movements during the Cold War - these fateful disasters were all explained by the bourgeoisie's fear of the masses. For their part, conservatives insisted that demagogues and fanatics exploited the desperation of the poor to subvert liberal revolutions, leading to anarchy and tyranny. Only evolutionary reform was enduring. From the 1970s, however, liberal revolution revived on an unprecedented scale. With the collapse of communism, bourgeois liberty once again became a crusading, force, but now on a global scale. In the twenty-first century, the armed forces of the United States, Britain, and NATO became instruments of 'regime change', seeking to destroy dictatorship and build free-market democracies. President George W. Bush called the invasion of Iraq in 2003 a 'watershed event in the global democratic revolution'. This was an extraordinary turn-around, with the middle classes now hailed as the truly universal class which, in emancipating itself, emancipates all society. The debacle in Iraq, and the Great Recession from 2008, revealed all too clearly that hubris still invited nemesis. Bourgeois Liberty and the Politics of Fear examines this remarkable story, and the fierce debates it occasioned. It takes in a span from the seventeenth century to the twenty-first, covering a wide range of countries and thinkers. Broad in its scope, it presents a clear set of arguments that shed new light on the creation of our modern world.


Exploring History 1400 1900

Author by : Rachel Gibbons
Languange : en
Publisher by : Manchester University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 152
File Size : 55,5 Mb
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Description : Exploring history 1400–1900: An anthology of primary sources reaches out to the reader across an expanse of 500 years. It offers a broad sweep of history in the light of three key themes: consumers and producers; beliefs and ideologies; and state-formation. Spanning continents and genres, the selection of documents illuminates the links between concurrent events in diverse places and illustrates the legacies of important social, religious and political trends. Previously unpublished accounts and newly translated material reveal new perspectives on both familiar and less well-known events. In capturing this spectrum of human activity and endeavour the book uniquely provides insights into the daily concerns and critical debates of the day, and the opportunity to engage with primary sources as tools for the knowledge creation and critical evaluation. It will be an essential companion to a wide range of courses in historical study and an engaging read for anyone interested in researching, reviewing or relating more closely to a rich historical past.


International Monetary Power

Author by : David M. Andrews
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cornell University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
Total Download : 374
File Size : 42,5 Mb
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Description : This book provides a thorough overview of how money is used as a tool to achieve international political aims.


The Bee And The Eagle

Author by : Alan Forrest
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 21
Total Download : 766
File Size : 49,7 Mb
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Description : This volume's juxtaposition of the empires of Germany and France in 1806, at the dissolution of The Holy Roman Empire, allows a comparison of their transition towards modernity, explored through the themes of Empire, monarchy, political cultures, feudalism, war and military institutions, nationalism and identity, and everyday experience.


The Oxford Handbook Of The History Of Nationalism

Author by : John Breuilly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 662
File Size : 48,9 Mb
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Description : Thirty-six essays by a team of leading scholars providing a global coverage of the history of nationalism in its different aspects - its ideas, its sentiments, and its politics.


The Question Of German Unification

Author by : Imanuel Geiss
Languange : en
Publisher by : Psychology Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 337
File Size : 49,8 Mb
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Description : Imanuel Geiss presents an introduction to the last 200 years of German history, whilst analysing the political, economic and social aspects of German nationalism as well as the impact of the collapse of communism on Germany.


Bismarck

Author by : Katharine Lerman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 87
Total Download : 733
File Size : 42,8 Mb
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Description : How did Bismarck, Germany’s greatest nineteenth century leader, extend and maintain his power? This new Profile examines his strengths as statesman and all the facets of his political career. His many direct achievements included the unification of Germany and the expansion of Prussia. In short, he was the architect of Germany’s change from cultural region to political nation. In the end he combined egotism and brilliance exceptionally, yet it was still not enough to save him from dismissal by William II.


Sedan 1870

Author by : Douglas Fermer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Pen and Sword
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 462
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Description : The Franco-Prussian War was a turning point in the history of nineteenth-century Europe, and the Battle of Sedan was the pivotal event in that war. For the Germans their overwhelming victory symbolized the birth of their nation, forged in steel and tempered in the blood of the common enemy. For the French it was a defeat more complete and humiliating than Waterloo. Douglas Fermers fresh study of this traumatic moment in European history reconsiders how the mutual fear and insecurity of two rival nations tempted their governments to seek a solution to domestic tensions by waging war against each other. His compelling narrative shows how war came about, and how the dramatic campaign of summer 1870 culminated in a momentous clash of arms at Sedan. He gives fascinating insights into the personalities and aims of the politicians and generals involved, but focuses too on the experiences of ordinary soldiers and civilians.


Imperial Germany Revisited

Author by : Sven Oliver Muller
Languange : en
Publisher by : Berghahn Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 78
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File Size : 47,9 Mb
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Description : The German Empire, its structure, its dynamic development between 1871 and 1918, and its legacy, have been the focus of lively international debate that is showing signs of further intensification as we approach the centenary of the outbreak of World War I. Based on recent work and scholarly arguments about continuities and discontinuities in modern German history from Bismarck to Hitler, well-known experts broadly explore four themes: the positioning of the Bismarckian Empire in the course of German history; the relationships between society, politics and culture in a period of momentous transformations; the escalation of military violence in Germany's colonies before 1914 and later in two world wars; and finally the situation of Germany within the international system as a major political and economic player. The perspectives presented in this volume have already stimulated further argument and will be of interest to anyone looking for orientation in this field of research.


The Origins Of French Absolutism 1598 1661

Author by : Alan James
Languange : en
Publisher by : Pearson Education
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
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File Size : 49,8 Mb
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Description : "In 1598, France emerged exhausted from nearly forty years of damaging civil and religious warfare. By 1661 this same country was the leading power in Europe and set to embark on one of the most celebrated periods of its history. The system of government founded during this period became known to historians as royal 'absolutism'. It was closely associated with both Cardinal Richelieu and his successor Cardinal Mazarin who, in turn, were seen as instrumental in brokering the changes that took place within both government and society at this time." "Alan James argues that there was no conscious plan to modernise France or to create a new, more centralised and bureaucratic form of government. Instead the ministries of Richelieu and Mazarin were based on the traditional values of religion, war, and privilege. Organised thematically, the book examines the key priorities of government in turn to come to an assessment of the success of French absolutism, defined in its own terms." --Book Jacket.