Description : This text covers ball grid array (BGA) design and manufacturing. BGA is a relatively new way of connecting leads from an integrated circuit package to a printed circuit board, allowing a higher pin count and function density than other connection methods and giving the lowest signal delay. These features make it an important component of modern high performance systems, but the density of leads makes manufacturing and process control very difficult.
Description : An analog chip is a set of miniature electronic analog circuits formed on a single piece of semiconductor material. The voltage and current at specified points in the circuits of analog chips vary continuously in time. In contrast, digital chips only use and create voltages or currents at discrete levels, with no intermediate values. In addition to Transistors, analog chips often have a larger number of passive elements than digital chips typically do. Inductors tend to be avoided because of their large size and a transistor and capacitor together can do the work of an inductor. The book broadly deals with: Direct and capacitor coupled Opamp amplifiers; Frequency response and compensation to improve the performance of Opamp circuits; Voltage and current sources, instrumentation amplifiers and precision rectifiers, limiting and clamping circuits; Log and antilog amplifiers, etc. The book covers the syllabus prescribed for B.E. Care is taken to develop the subject logically so that the book could also be used by B.Sc. and diploma students. Neatly drawn diagrams, stepwise illustrations, and graded numerical examples, are included in every chapter to support the contents.
Description : Surface Mount Technology has had a profound influence on the electronics industry, and has led to the use of new materials, techniques and manufacturing processes. Since the first edition of this book was written, electronic assemblies have continued to become still smaller and more complex, while soldering still remains the dominant connecting technique. This is a comprehensive guide to current methods of soldering components to their substrates, written by one of the founding fathers of the technology. It also covers component placement, the post-CFC technology of cleaning after soldering, and the principles and methods of quality control and rework. New sections deal with Ball-Grid-Array (BGA) technology, lead-free solders, no-clean fluxes, and the current standard specifications for solders and fluxes. Dr Rudolf Strauss has spent most of his working life with a leading manufacturer of solders and fluxes. He was responsible for a number of innovations including the concept of wave soldering, and for many years has been active as lecturer, consultant, and technical author. His book explains the principles of soldering and surface mount technology in practical terms and plain language, free from jargon. It is addressed to the man, or woman, who has to do the job, but it will also be of help in planning manufacturing strategy and in making purchasing decisions relating to consumables and equipment. Written by founding father of SMT technology Standard specifications have been fully updated New chapter covering Ball Grid Array (BGA) technology
Description : Microelectronic packaging has been recognized as an important "enabler" for the solid state revolution in electronics which we have witnessed in the last third of the twentieth century. Packaging has provided the necessary external wiring and interconnection capability for transistors and integrated circuits while they have gone through their own spectacular revolution from discrete device to gigascale integration. At IBM we are proud to have created the initial, simple concept of flip chip with solder bump connections at a time when a better way was needed to boost the reliability and improve the manufacturability of semiconductors. The basic design which was chosen for SLT (Solid Logic Technology) in the 1960s was easily extended to integrated circuits in the '70s and VLSI in the '80s and '90s. Three I/O bumps have grown to 3000 with even more anticipated for the future. The package families have evolved from thick-film (SLT) to thin-film (metallized ceramic) to co-fired multi-layer ceramic. A later family or ceramics with matching expansivity to sili con and copper internal wiring was developed as a predecessor of the chip interconnection revolution in copper, multilevel, submicron wiring. Powerful server packages have been de veloped in which the combined chip and package copper wiring exceeds a kilometer. All of this was achieved with the constant objective of minimizing circuit delays through short, efficient interconnects.
Description : Electronics has become the largest industry, surpassing agriCUlture, auto. and heavy metal industries. It has become the industry of choice for a country to prosper, already having given rise to the phenomenal prosperity of Japan. Korea. Singapore. Hong Kong. and Ireland among others. At the current growth rate, total worldwide semiconductor sales will reach $300B by the year 2000. The key electronic technologies responsible for the growth of the industry include semiconductors. the packaging of semiconductors for systems use in auto, telecom, computer, consumer, aerospace, and medical industries. displays. magnetic, and optical storage as well as software and system technologies. There has been a paradigm shift, however, in these technologies. from mainframe and supercomputer applications at any cost. to consumer applications at approximately one-tenth the cost and size. Personal computers are a good example. going from $500IMIP when products were first introduced in 1981, to a projected $lIMIP within 10 years. Thin. light portable. user friendly and very low-cost are. therefore. the attributes of tomorrow's computing and communications systems. Electronic packaging is defined as interconnection. powering, cool ing, and protecting semiconductor chips for reliable systems. It is a key enabling technology achieving the requirements for reducing the size and cost at the system and product level.
Description : One-stop, cutting-edge guide to flip chip technologies. Now you can turn to a single, all-encompassing reference for a practical understanding of the fast-developing field that's taking the electronics industry by storm. Low-Cost Flip Chip Technologies, by John H. Lau, brings you up to speed on the economic, design, materials, process, equipment, quality, manufacturing, and reliability issues related to low cost flip chip technologies. This eye-opening overview tells you what you need to know about applying flip chip technologies to direct chip attach(DCA), flip chip on board (FCOB), wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP), and plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package assemblies. You'll discover flip chip problem-solving methods, and learn how to choose a cost-effective design and reliable, high-yield manufacturing process for your interconnect systems as you explore... *IC trends and packaging technology updates *Over 12 different wafer-bumping methods...more than 100 lead-free solder alloys *Sequential build up PCB with microvias and via-in-pad *How to select underfill materials *And much, much more!
Description : This thoroughly revised and updated three volume set continues to be the standard reference in the field, providing the latest in microelectronics design methods, modeling tools, simulation techniques, and manufacturing procedures. Unlike reference books that focus only on a few aspects of microelectronics packaging, these outstanding volumes discuss state-of-the-art packages that meet the power, cooling, protection, and interconnection requirements of increasingly dense and fast microcircuitry. Providing an excellent balance of theory and practical applications, this dynamic compilation features step-by-step examples and vital technical data, simplifying each phase of package design and production. In addition, the volumes contain over 2000 references, 900 figures, and 250 tables. Part I: Technology Drivers covers the driving force of microelectronics packaging - electrical, thermal, and reliability. It introduces the technology developer to aspects of manufacturing that must be considered during product development. Part II: Semiconductor Packaging discusses the interconnection of the IC chip to the first level of packaging and all first level packages. Electrical test, sealing, and encapsulation technologies are also covered in detail. Part III: Subsystem Packaging explores board level packaging as well as connectors, cables, and optical packaging.