Description : "A fascinating new book... [Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt is] a genius."—Trevor Noah, The Daily Show with Trevor Noah "Poignant....important and illuminating."—The New York Times Book Review "Groundbreaking."—Bryan Stevenson, New York Times bestselling author of Just Mercy From one of the world’s leading experts on unconscious racial bias come stories, science, and strategies to address one of the central controversies of our time How do we talk about bias? How do we address racial disparities and inequities? What role do our institutions play in creating, maintaining, and magnifying those inequities? What role do we play? With a perspective that is at once scientific, investigative, and informed by personal experience, Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt offers us the language and courage we need to face one of the biggest and most troubling issues of our time. She exposes racial bias at all levels of society—in our neighborhoods, schools, workplaces, and criminal justice system. Yet she also offers us tools to address it. Eberhardt shows us how we can be vulnerable to bias but not doomed to live under its grip. Racial bias is a problem that we all have a role to play in solving.
Description : The Rational Man? Homo sapiens, the biological name for humans, literally means discerning, wise or sensible human being. But, are humans really sensible or rational? The Biased Brain Research in psychology and economics has shown that human beings are systematically irrational. Not only do they misjudge situations, but they do it in fairly predictable patterns. Powerful Biases This compilation of academic research by eminent psychologists and economists presents 50 most powerful cognitive biases that impair our judgment. These biases occur frequently and affect all - from the baker to the banker and the pariah to the priest. Bias-in-Action Alongside the biases you will find an easy-to-use tool or 'Bias-in-Action' to help you understand how the bias operates and prepare you for possible counter to them. FREE Bonus! Upon buying this paperback, you get a copy of its Kindle eBook, absolutely FREE! Read on...
Description : This book makes clear to researchers what item-bias methods can (and cannot) do, how they work and how they should be interpreted. Advice is provided on the most useful methods for particular test situations. The authors explain the logic of each method - from item-response theory to nonparametric, categorical methods - in terms of how differential item functioning (DIF) is defined by the method and how well the method can be expected to work. A summary of findings on the behaviour of indices in empirical studies is included. The book concludes with a set of principles for deciding when DIF should be interpreted as evidence of bias.
Description : Although children have been shown to recognize biases in the early elementary school years, the prior research has only examined their recognition of biases committed by others. Given that adults have been shown to be blind to biases committed by themselves but not to biases committed by others (i.e., bias blind spot), three experiments examined whether and how the bias blind spot develops. Eighty-eight 7- to 10-year-olds (and 38 adults in Experiments 1 and 2, only) heard explanations of 16 behaviors that were biased or unbiased in nature, and were asked to rate how likely they think they and a specific other (Experiment 1) or an average child (Experiment 2) would commit the behaviors. Children were also asked to indicate their perceptions of each bias by marking each bias as either acceptable or not acceptable to commit. All age groups demonstrated self-other differences by rating themselves as less likely than others to commit biases, with 9- and 10-year-olds showing stronger self-other differences than 7- and 8-year-olds in Experiment 2. These self-other differences were present even after children exhibited the very bias they were evaluating (Experiment 3). Interestingly, the self-other differences observed for the biased stories were stronger than those observed for the unbiased stories (except for in Experiment 3). Compared to children, adults also reported that others are more likely to commit biases than themselves (although it was in the opposite direction in Experiment 1). Finally, children's perception of the biases was related to their willingness to admit to the biases (although a trend in Experiment 2) and, in some cases, related to their willingness to admit to others' biases. These findings suggest that, as early as when children begin to recognize biases committed by others, they are blind to the possibility that they also may have committed biases. Further discussion of these findings is discussed in the manuscript.
Description : Rethinking Biased Estimation discusses methods to improve the accuracy of unbiased estimators used in many signal processing problems. At the heart of the proposed methodology is the use of the mean-squared error (MSE) as the performance criteria. One of the prime goals of statistical estimation theory is the development of performance bounds when estimating parameters of interest in a given model, as well as constructing estimators that achieve these limits. When the parameters to be estimated are deterministic, a popular approach is to bound the MSE achievable within the class of unbiased estimators. Although it is well-known that lower MSE can be obtained by allowing for a bias, in applications it is typically unclear how to choose an appropriate bias. Rethinking Biased Estimation introduces MSE bounds that are lower than the unbiased Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for all values of the unknowns. It then presents a general framework for constructing biased estimators with smaller MSE than the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach, regardless of the true unknown values. Specializing the results to the linear Gaussian model, it derives a class of estimators that dominate least-squares in terms of MSE. It also introduces methods for choosing regularization parameters in penalized ML estimators that outperform standard techniques such as cross validation.
Description : This book is devoted to biased sampling problems (also called choice-based sampling in Econometrics parlance) and over-identified parameter estimation problems. Biased sampling problems appear in many areas of research, including Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health, the Social Sciences and Economics. The book addresses a range of important topics, including case and control studies, causal inference, missing data problems, meta-analysis, renewal process and length biased sampling problems, capture and recapture problems, case cohort studies, exponential tilting genetic mixture models etc. The goal of this book is to make it easier for Ph. D students and new researchers to get started in this research area. It will be of interest to all those who work in the health, biological, social and physical sciences, as well as those who are interested in survey methodology and other areas of statistical science, among others.
Description : Biased Signaling in Physiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics is a unique and essential reference for the scientific community concerning how conformational-dependent activation is a common phenomenon across many classes of receptors or signaling molecules. It discusses the role of conformational dynamics in leading to signaling bias across different classes of receptors and signaling molecules. By providing a broader view of signaling bias, this resource helps to explain common mechanisms shared across receptor classes and how this can be utilized to elucidate their cellular activity and better understand their therapeutic potential. Written for both new and established scientists in pharmacology, cell biology, biochemistry, and signal transduction, as well as physicians, this book clearly illustrates how biased receptor signaling can be utilized to develop and understand complex pharmacology. Chapters are each focused on a specific class of receptor or other important topic and make use of real-world examples illustrating how the latest research in signal transduction has led to a better understanding of pharmacology and cell biology. This structure creates a basis for understanding that physiological signalling bias has been selected by nature in order to provide complex and tissue- specific biological responses in the face of limited receptors and signaling pathways. This book provides a framework to reveal that these physiological mechanisms are not restricted to one receptor type or family and thus presents receptor signaling from a newer, more global perspective. Offers a unique and valuable resource on biased receptor signaling that provides a global view for better understanding pharmacology across many receptor families Integrates biased receptor signaling, physiology, and pharmacology to place this emerging science within the context of treating disease Includes important chapters on both the pharmaceutical and therapeutic implications of biased signaling
Description : Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.
Description : Using a wealth of anecdotes, data from academic literature, and original research, this very accessible little book highlights how we all struggle to cope with the maelstrom of choices, influences and experiences that come our way. The authors have slogged through piles of dry research papers to provide many wonderful nuggets of information and surprising insights. For example: Why is an upside-down red triangle such a powerful warning sign on the road? What is the best kind of alibi? What makes the number 7 so special? Why is it better to whisper words of love into the left ear? Will that recent marriage last? Why is it that the French eat snails but not slugs? The reader will discover the amazing tools and shortcuts that millennia of evolution have built into our brains. And this knowledge is power! Knowing more about how the human mind connects the dots helps us understand why decision-making is so tricky. With insights from evolutionary psychology, we become better equipped to understand ourselves and others and to interact and communicate more effectively.