Description : Homo sapiens, the biological name for humans, literally means discerning, wise or sensible human beings. But, are humans really sensible or rational? Researchers in psychology and economics have found that human beings are systematically irrational. Not only do they misjudge situations, but they do it in fairly predictable patterns. This compilation of academic research by eminent social psychologists and behavioral economists presents their findings as easy-to-use tools or 'Biases-in-Action' to help us deal with our biases arising out of our bounded rationality.
Description : 'Jennifer Eberhardt makes it clear that racism operates at all levels, and it fills me with hope to know that she is fighting it at all levels. More power to you, sister. The world needs you.' BENJAMIN ZEPHANIAH 'A critically important book.' DAVID OLUSOGA, author of Black and British 'Jennifer Eberhardt’s ground-breaking work has the power to shift the debate and help shape a fairer society.' DAVID LAMMY MP ‘Jennifer Eberhardt gives us the opportunity to talk about race in new ways, ultimately transforming our thinking about ourselves and the world we want to create.’ MICHELLE ALEXANDER, author of The New Jim Crow ‘Groundbreaking... essential reading for anyone interested in how we become a more just society.’ BRYAN STEVENSON, author of Just Mercy ‘An illuminating and readable account of how racial stereotypes and assumptions can cause social devastation and keep huge inequalities in place.’ DR PRIYAMVADA GOPAL, University of Cambridge 'This books should be required reading for everyone.' ROBIN DIANGELO, author of White Fragility 'Read this book. Biased will enlighten your journey through race relations and associations.’ DAWN BUTLER MP ______________________ From one of the world’s leading experts on unconscious racial bias comes a landmark examination of one of the most culturally powerful issues of our time. We might think that we treat all people equally, but we don’t. Every day, unconscious biases affect our visual perception, attention, memory and behaviour in ways that are subtle and very difficult to recognise without in-depth scientific studies. Unconscious biases can be small and insignificant, but they affect every sector of society, leading to enormous disparities, from the classroom to the courtroom to the boardroom. But unconscious bias is not a sin to be cured, but a universal human condition, and one that can be overcome. In Biased, pioneering social psychologist Professor Jennifer Eberhardt explains how.
Description : This book makes clear to researchers what item-bias methods can (and cannot) do, how they work and how they should be interpreted. Advice is provided on the most useful methods for particular test situations. The authors explain the logic of each method - from item-response theory to nonparametric, categorical methods - in terms of how differential item functioning (DIF) is defined by the method and how well the method can be expected to work. A summary of findings on the behaviour of indices in empirical studies is included. The book concludes with a set of principles for deciding when DIF should be interpreted as evidence of bias.
Description : Rethinking Biased Estimation discusses methods to improve the accuracy of unbiased estimators used in many signal processing problems. At the heart of the proposed methodology is the use of the mean-squared error (MSE) as the performance criteria. One of the prime goals of statistical estimation theory is the development of performance bounds when estimating parameters of interest in a given model, as well as constructing estimators that achieve these limits. When the parameters to be estimated are deterministic, a popular approach is to bound the MSE achievable within the class of unbiased estimators. Although it is well-known that lower MSE can be obtained by allowing for a bias, in applications it is typically unclear how to choose an appropriate bias. Rethinking Biased Estimation introduces MSE bounds that are lower than the unbiased Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for all values of the unknowns. It then presents a general framework for constructing biased estimators with smaller MSE than the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach, regardless of the true unknown values. Specializing the results to the linear Gaussian model, it derives a class of estimators that dominate least-squares in terms of MSE. It also introduces methods for choosing regularization parameters in penalized ML estimators that outperform standard techniques such as cross validation.
Description : This book is devoted to biased sampling problems (also called choice-based sampling in Econometrics parlance) and over-identified parameter estimation problems. Biased sampling problems appear in many areas of research, including Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health, the Social Sciences and Economics. The book addresses a range of important topics, including case and control studies, causal inference, missing data problems, meta-analysis, renewal process and length biased sampling problems, capture and recapture problems, case cohort studies, exponential tilting genetic mixture models etc. The goal of this book is to make it easier for Ph. D students and new researchers to get started in this research area. It will be of interest to all those who work in the health, biological, social and physical sciences, as well as those who are interested in survey methodology and other areas of statistical science, among others.
Description : Biased Signaling in Physiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics is a unique and essential reference for the scientific community concerning how conformational-dependent activation is a common phenomenon across many classes of receptors or signaling molecules. It discusses the role of conformational dynamics in leading to signaling bias across different classes of receptors and signaling molecules. By providing a broader view of signaling bias, this resource helps to explain common mechanisms shared across receptor classes and how this can be utilized to elucidate their cellular activity and better understand their therapeutic potential. Written for both new and established scientists in pharmacology, cell biology, biochemistry, and signal transduction, as well as physicians, this book clearly illustrates how biased receptor signaling can be utilized to develop and understand complex pharmacology. Chapters are each focused on a specific class of receptor or other important topic and make use of real-world examples illustrating how the latest research in signal transduction has led to a better understanding of pharmacology and cell biology. This structure creates a basis for understanding that physiological signalling bias has been selected by nature in order to provide complex and tissue- specific biological responses in the face of limited receptors and signaling pathways. This book provides a framework to reveal that these physiological mechanisms are not restricted to one receptor type or family and thus presents receptor signaling from a newer, more global perspective. Offers a unique and valuable resource on biased receptor signaling that provides a global view for better understanding pharmacology across many receptor families Integrates biased receptor signaling, physiology, and pharmacology to place this emerging science within the context of treating disease Includes important chapters on both the pharmaceutical and therapeutic implications of biased signaling
Description : Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.
Description : Most high and middle-income countries showed symptoms of skill-biased technological change in the 1980s. India-a low income country-did not, perhaps because India's traditionally controlled economy may have limited the transfer of technologies from abroad. However the economy underwent a sharp reform and a manufacturing boom in the 1990s, raising the possibility that technology absorption may have accelerated during the past decade. The authors investigate the hypothesis that skill-biased technological change did in fact arrive in India in the 1990s using panel data disaggregated by industry and state from the Annual Survey of Industry. These data confirm that while the 1980s were a period of falling skills demand, the 1990s showed generally rising demand for skills, with variation across states. They find that increased output and capital-skill complementarity appear to be the best explanations of skill upgrading in the 1990s. Skill upgrading did not occur in the same set of industries in India as it did in other countries, suggesting that increased demand for skills in Indian manufacturing is not due to the international diffusion of recent vintages of skill-biased technologies.
Description : Sherlock Holmes thrives on danger. Sudden knife attacks, being stalked, and facing a network of assassins present little more than a cheery break in the monotony. But the enigmatic Lady Beatrice presents danger of a different kind. Is she a murderer or a potential victim? Or something even more perilous? Uncovering her secrets could change Holmes’s life forever, and in ways even he cannot anticipate. The newly-discovered Holmes diaries shed light on a tale so potent, Watson was never permitted to reveal it.