Big Data a Very Short Introduction

Big Data  a Very Short Introduction
Author: Dawn E. Holmes
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2017-10-23
ISBN: 0198779577
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Data a Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

Since long before computers were even thought of, data has been collected and organized by diverse cultures across the world. Once access to the Internet became a reality for large swathes of the world's population, the amount of data generated each day became huge, and continues to grow exponentially. It includes all our uploaded documents, video, and photos, all our social media traffic, our online shopping, even the GPS data from our cars. "Big Data" represents a qualitative change, not simply a quantitative one. The term refers both to the new technologies involved, and to the way it can be used by business and government. Dawn E. Holmes uses a variety of case studies to explain how data is stored, analyzed, and exploited by a variety of bodies from big companies to organizations concerned with disease control. Big data is transforming the way businesses operate, and the way medical research can be carried out. At the same time, it raises important ethical issues; Holmes discusses cases such as the Snowden affair, data security, and domestic smart devices which can be hijacked by hackers. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Big Data A Very Short Introduction

Big Data  A Very Short Introduction
Author: Dawn E. Holmes
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2017-11-16
ISBN: 0191085030
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Data A Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

Since long before computers were even thought of, data has been collected and organized by diverse cultures across the world. Once access to the Internet became a reality for large swathes of the world's population, the amount of data generated each day became huge, and continues to grow exponentially. It includes all our uploaded documents, video, and photos, all our social media traffic, our online shopping, even the GPS data from our cars. 'Big Data' represents a qualitative change, not simply a quantitative one. The term refers both to the new technologies involved, and to the way it can be used by business and government. Dawn E. Holmes uses a variety of case studies to explain how data is stored, analysed, and exploited by a variety of bodies from big companies to organizations concerned with disease control. Big data is transforming the way businesses operate, and the way medical research can be carried out. At the same time, it raises important ethical issues; Holmes discusses cases such as the Snowden affair, data security, and domestic smart devices which can be hijacked by hackers. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Reinventing the Social Scientist and Humanist in the Era of Big Data

Reinventing the Social Scientist and Humanist in the Era of Big Data
Author: Susan Brokensha,Eduan Kotzé,Burgert A. Senekal
Publsiher: UJ Press
Total Pages: 205
Release: 2019-12-01
ISBN: 1928424376
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Reinventing the Social Scientist and Humanist in the Era of Big Data Book Excerpt:

This book explores the big data evolution by interrogating the notion that big data is a disruptive innovation that appears to be challenging existing epistemologies in the humanities and social sciences. Exploring various (controversial) facets of big data such as ethics, data power, and data justice, the book attempts to clarify the trajectory of the epistemology of (big) data-driven science in the humanities and social sciences.

Ecology a Very Short Introduction

Ecology  a Very Short Introduction
Author: Jaboury Ghazoul
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 184
Release: 2020-07-09
ISBN: 0198831013
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ecology a Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

Understanding how our living environment works is essentially a study of ecological systems. Ecology is the science of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment, and how such interactions create self-organising communities and ecosystems. This science touches us all. The food we eat, the water we drink, the natural resources we use, our physical and mental health, and much of our cultural heritage are to a large degree products of ecological interactions of organisms and their environment. This Very Short Introduction celebrates the centrality of ecology in our lives. Jaboury Ghazoul explores how ecology has evolved rapidly from natural history to become a predictive science that explains how the natural world works, and which guides environmental policy and management decisions. Drawing on a range of examples, he shows how ecological science can be applied to management and conservation, including the extent to which theory has shaped practice. Ecological science has also shaped social and cultural perspectives on the environment, a process that influences politics of the environment. Ghazoul concludes by considering the future of ecology, particularly in the light of current and future environmental challenges. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Behavioural Economics A Very Short Introduction

Behavioural Economics  A Very Short Introduction
Author: Michelle Baddeley
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2017-01-19
ISBN: 019107117X
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Behavioural Economics A Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

Traditionally economists have based their economic predictions on the assumption that humans are super-rational creatures, using the information we are given efficiently and generally making selfish decisions that work well for us as individuals. Economists also assume that we're doing the very best we can possibly do - not only for today, but over our whole lifetimes too. But increasingly the study of behavioural economics is revealing that our lives are not that simple. Instead, our decisions are complicated by our own psychology. Each of us makes mistakes every day. We don't always know what's best for us and, even if we do, we might not have the self-control to deliver on our best intentions. We struggle to stay on diets, to get enough exercise and to manage our money. We misjudge risky situations. We are prone to herding: sometimes peer pressure leads us blindly to copy others around us; other times copying others helps us to learn quickly about new, unfamiliar situations. This Very Short Introduction explores the reasons why we make irrational decisions; how we decide quickly; why we make mistakes in risky situations; our tendency to procrastination; and how we are affected by social influences, personality, mood and emotions. The implications of understanding the rationale for our own financial behaviour are huge. Behavioural economics could help policy-makers to understand the people behind their policies, enabling them to design more effective policies, while at the same time we could find ourselves assaulted by increasingly savvy marketing. Michelle Baddeley concludes by looking forward, to see what the future of behavioural economics holds for us. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Computational Power

Computational Power
Author: Massimo Durante
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 194
Release: 2021-03-11
ISBN: 1000345343
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Power Book Excerpt:

We delegate more and more decisions and tasks to artificial agents, machine-learning mechanisms, and algorithmic procedures or, in other words, to computational systems. Not that we are driven by powerful ambitions of colonizing the Moon, replacing humans with legions of androids, creating sci-fi scenarios à la Matrix or masterminding some sort of Person of Interest-like Machine. No, the current digital revolution based on computational power is chiefly an everyday revolution. It is therefore that much more profound, unnoticed and widespread, for it affects our customary habits and routines and alters the very texture of our day-to-day lives. This opens a precise line of inquiry, which constitutes the basic thesis of the present text: our computational power is exercised by trying to adapt not just the world but also our representation of reality to how computationally based ICTs work. The impact of this technology is such that it does not leave things as they are: it changes the nature of agents, habits, objects and institutions and hence it subverts the existing order, without necessarily generating a new one. I argue that this power is often not distributed in an egalitarian manner but, on the contrary, is likely to result in concentrations of wealth, in dominant positions or in unjust competitive advantages. This opens up a struggle, with respect to which the task of reaffirming the fundamental values, the guiding principles, the priorities and the rules of the game, which can transform, or attempt to transform, a fierce confrontation between enemies in a fair competition between opponents rests on us.

Predictive Policing and Artificial Intelligence

Predictive Policing and Artificial Intelligence
Author: John McDaniel,Ken Pease
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2021-02-26
ISBN: 0429560389
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Predictive Policing and Artificial Intelligence Book Excerpt:

This edited text draws together the insights of numerous worldwide eminent academics to evaluate the condition of predictive policing and artificial intelligence (AI) as interlocked policy areas. Predictive and AI technologies are growing in prominence and at an unprecedented rate. Powerful digital crime mapping tools are being used to identify crime hotspots in real-time, as pattern-matching and search algorithms are sorting through huge police databases populated by growing volumes of data in an eff ort to identify people liable to experience (or commit) crime, places likely to host it, and variables associated with its solvability. Facial and vehicle recognition cameras are locating criminals as they move, while police services develop strategies informed by machine learning and other kinds of predictive analytics. Many of these innovations are features of modern policing in the UK, the US and Australia, among other jurisdictions. AI promises to reduce unnecessary labour, speed up various forms of police work, encourage police forces to more efficiently apportion their resources, and enable police officers to prevent crime and protect people from a variety of future harms. However, the promises of predictive and AI technologies and innovations do not always match reality. They often have significant weaknesses, come at a considerable cost and require challenging trade- off s to be made. Focusing on the UK, the US and Australia, this book explores themes of choice architecture, decision- making, human rights, accountability and the rule of law, as well as future uses of AI and predictive technologies in various policing contexts. The text contributes to ongoing debates on the benefits and biases of predictive algorithms, big data sets, machine learning systems, and broader policing strategies and challenges. Written in a clear and direct style, this book will appeal to students and scholars of policing, criminology, crime science, sociology, computer science, cognitive psychology and all those interested in the emergence of AI as a feature of contemporary policing.

Trade in Knowledge

Trade in Knowledge
Author: Antony Taubman,Jayashree Watal
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022-03-17
ISBN: 1108809944
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Trade in Knowledge Book Excerpt:

Technological change has transformed the ways knowledge is developed and shared internationally. Accordingly, in the quarter-century since the WTO was established, and since its Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights came into force, both the knowledge dimension of trade and the functioning of the IP system have been radically transformed. The need to understand and respond to this change has placed knowledge at the centre of policy debates about economic and social development. Recognizing the need for modern analytical tools to support policymakers and analysts, this publication draws together contributions from a diverse range of scholars and analysts. Together, they offer a fresh understanding of what it means to trade in knowledge in today's technological and commercial environment. The publication offers insights into the prospects for knowledge-based development and ideas for updated systems of governance that promote the creation and sharing of the benefits of knowledge.

Artificial Intelligence A Very Short Introduction

Artificial Intelligence  A Very Short Introduction
Author: Margaret A. Boden
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 168
Release: 2018-08-13
ISBN: 0191080071
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Artificial Intelligence A Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

The applications of Artificial Intelligence lie all around us; in our homes, schools and offices, in our cinemas, in art galleries and - not least - on the Internet. The results of Artificial Intelligence have been invaluable to biologists, psychologists, and linguists in helping to understand the processes of memory, learning, and language from a fresh angle. As a concept, Artificial Intelligence has fuelled and sharpened the philosophical debates concerning the nature of the mind, intelligence, and the uniqueness of human beings. In this Very Short Introduction , Margaret A. Boden reviews the philosophical and technological challenges raised by Artificial Intelligence, considering whether programs could ever be really intelligent, creative or even conscious, and shows how the pursuit of Artificial Intelligence has helped us to appreciate how human and animal minds are possible. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Branding A Very Short Introduction

Branding  A Very Short Introduction
Author: Robert Jones
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2017-06-15
ISBN: 0191066982
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Branding A Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

Branding is possibly the most powerful commercial and cultural force on the planet. Iconic names such as Coca-Cola, Nike, Manchester United, Harry Potter, and Google are known and recognized by millions of people worldwide. As the market economy spreads across the world, brands are becoming ever more prevalent. The Apple brand has been valued at $98 billion - more than the GDP of Slovakia. Every day, we're exposed to more than 3500 brand messages. And even though people are increasingly brand-aware and brand-sceptical, they are nevertheless seduced by brands. We may reject the whole brand system, but we still wouldn't be parted from our Apple Macs. Brands are impossible to escape. In this Very Short Introduction Robert Jones discusses the rising omnipresence of brands, and analyses how they work their magic. He considers the incredible potency of brands as a commercial, social, and cultural force, and looks at the many different kinds of brands that exist - from products, services, and artistic properties, to companies, charities, sports clubs, and political parties. Defining what we mean by the word 'brand', he explores both the positive and negative aspects of brands. Finally Jones considers the business of branding, and asks whether the idea of brands and branding is starting to decline, or whether it has a long future ahead. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Business Information Systems

Business Information Systems
Author: Paul Beynon-Davies
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 475
Release: 2019-11-06
ISBN: 1352007398
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Business Information Systems Book Excerpt:

This textbook offers students a systematic guide to how information systems underpin organisational activity in today's global information society, covering everything from ICT infrastructure and the digital environment to electronic marketing, mobile commerce and design thinking. While academically rigorous and underpinned by the author's deep knowledge of the subject, an engaging writing style combined with extensive pedagogical features, cases and innovative examples from around the world ensure that the text remains accessible to those approaching the topic for the first time. Taking an approach that views businesses as complex systems, the book illustrates how valuable systems thinking can be in our everyday working lives, while theoretical ideas are always supported by examples of their application in the real world. This text is the ideal course companion for all students studying business information systems or management information systems modules at undergraduate, postgraduate or MBA level. New to this Edition: - New coverage of key contemporary topics, including big data, analytics, cloud computing, the internet of things, blockchain and bitcoin, green IS, ethics, and cyber security. - Brand new chapters on Mobile Commerce and Social Media, and Designing Digital Organisation (design thinking). - A revised concluding chapter considering contemporary technological trends, as well as reflections and predictions for future innovations. Accompanying online resources for this title can be found at bloomsburyonlineresources.com/business-information-systems-3e. These resources are designed to support teaching and learning when using this textbook and are available at no extra cost.

Big Data Analytics for Large Scale Multimedia Search

Big Data Analytics for Large Scale Multimedia Search
Author: Stefanos Vrochidis,Benoit Huet,Edward Y. Chang,Ioannis Kompatsiaris
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2019-05-06
ISBN: 1119376971
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Data Analytics for Large Scale Multimedia Search Book Excerpt:

A timely overview of cutting edge technologies for multimedia retrieval with a special emphasis on scalability The amount of multimedia data available every day is enormous and is growing at an exponential rate, creating a great need for new and more efficient approaches for large scale multimedia search. This book addresses that need, covering the area of multimedia retrieval and placing a special emphasis on scalability. It reports the recent works in large scale multimedia search, including research methods and applications, and is structured so that readers with basic knowledge can grasp the core message while still allowing experts and specialists to drill further down into the analytical sections. Big Data Analytics for Large-Scale Multimedia Search covers: representation learning, concept and event-based video search in large collections; big data multimedia mining, large scale video understanding, big multimedia data fusion, large-scale social multimedia analysis, privacy and audiovisual content, data storage and management for big multimedia, large scale multimedia search, multimedia tagging using deep learning, interactive interfaces for big multimedia and medical decision support applications using large multimodal data. Addresses the area of multimedia retrieval and pays close attention to the issue of scalability Presents problem driven techniques with solutions that are demonstrated through realistic case studies and user scenarios Includes tables, illustrations, and figures Offers a Wiley-hosted BCS that features links to open source algorithms, data sets and tools Big Data Analytics for Large-Scale Multimedia Search is an excellent book for academics, industrial researchers, and developers interested in big multimedia data search retrieval. It will also appeal to consultants in computer science problems and professionals in the multimedia industry.

Business Statistics Made Easy in SAS

Business Statistics Made Easy in SAS
Author: Gregory Lee
Publsiher: SAS Institute
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2015-10-30
ISBN: 1629600466
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Business Statistics Made Easy in SAS Book Excerpt:

This book is designed to teach businesspeople, students, and others core statistical concepts and applications. It begins with absolute core principles and takes you through an overview of statistics, data and data collection, an introduction to SAS, and basic statistics (descriptive statistics and basic associational statistics). It provides an overview of statistical modeling, effect size, statistical significance and power testing, basics of linear regression, introduction to comparison of means, basics of chi-square tests for categories, extrapolating statistics to business outcomes, and some topical issues in statistics, such as big data, simulation, machine learning, and data warehousing. It teaches the core ideas of statistics through methods such as careful, intuitive written explanations, easy-to-follow diagrams, step-by-step technique implementation, and interesting metaphors. --

Smart City Citizenship

Smart City Citizenship
Author: Igor Calzada
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2020-10-23
ISBN: 0128153016
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart City Citizenship Book Excerpt:

Smart City Citizenship provides rigorous analysis for academics and policymakers on the experimental, data-driven, and participatory processes of smart cities to help integrate ICT-related social innovation into urban life. Unlike other smart city books that are often edited collections, this book focuses on the business domain, grassroots social innovation, and AI-driven algorithmic and techno-political disruptions, also examining the role of citizens and the democratic governance issues raised from an interdisciplinary perspective. As smart city research is a fast-growing topic of scientific inquiry and evolving rapidly, this book is an ideal reference for a much-needed discussion. The book drives the reader to a better conceptual and applied comprehension of smart city citizenship for democratised hyper-connected-virialised post-COVID-19 societies. In addition, it provides a whole practical roadmap to build smart city citizenship inclusive and multistakeholder interventions through intertwined chapters of the book. Users will find a book that fills the knowledge gap between the purely critical studies on smart cities and those further constructive and highly promising socially innovative interventions using case study fieldwork action research empirical evidence drawn from several cities that are advancing and innovating smart city practices from the citizenship perspective. Utilises ongoing, action research fieldwork, comparative case studies for examining current governance issues, and the role of citizens in smart cities Provides definitions of new key citizenship concepts, along with a techno-political framework and toolkit drawn from a community-oriented perspective Shows how to design smart city governance initiatives, projects and policies based on applied research from the social innovation perspective Highlights citizen’s perspective and social empowerment in the AI-driven and algorithmic disruptive post-COVID-19 context in both transitional and experimental frameworks

Essentials of Pricing Analytics

Essentials of Pricing Analytics
Author: Erik Haugom
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2020-11-29
ISBN: 1000227596
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Essentials of Pricing Analytics Book Excerpt:

This book provides a broad introduction to the field of pricing as a tactical function in the daily operations of the firm and a toolbox for implementing and solving a wide range of pricing problems. Beyond the theoretical perspectives offered by most textbooks in the field, Essentials of Pricing Analytics supplements the concepts and models covered by demonstrating practical implementations using the highly accessible Excel software, analytical tools, real-life examples and global case studies. The book covers topics on fundamental pricing theory, break-even analysis, price sensitivity, empirical estimations of price–response functions, price optimisation, markdown optimisation, hedonic pricing, revenue management, the use of big data, simulation, and conjoint analysis in pricing decisions, and ethical and legal considerations. This is a uniquely accessible and practical text for advanced undergraduate, MBA and postgraduate students of pricing strategy, entrepreneurship and small business management, marketing strategy, sales and operations. It is also important reading for practitioners looking for accessible methods to implement pricing strategy and maximise profits. Online resources for instructors include Excel templates and PowerPoint slides for each chapter.

Optimization Techniques and Applications with Examples

Optimization Techniques and Applications with Examples
Author: Xin-She Yang
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2018-08-30
ISBN: 111949060X
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optimization Techniques and Applications with Examples Book Excerpt:

A guide to modern optimization applications and techniques in newly emerging areas spanning optimization, data science, machine intelligence, engineering, and computer sciences Optimization Techniques and Applications with Examples introduces the fundamentals of all the commonly used techniques in optimization that encompass the broadness and diversity of the methods (traditional and new) and algorithms. The author—a noted expert in the field—covers a wide range of topics including mathematical foundations, optimization formulation, optimality conditions, algorithmic complexity, linear programming, convex optimization, and integer programming. In addition, the book discusses artificial neural network, clustering and classifications, constraint-handling, queueing theory, support vector machine and multi-objective optimization, evolutionary computation, nature-inspired algorithms and many other topics. Designed as a practical resource, all topics are explained in detail with step-by-step examples to show how each method works. The book’s exercises test the acquired knowledge that can be potentially applied to real problem solving. By taking an informal approach to the subject, the author helps readers to rapidly acquire the basic knowledge in optimization, operational research, and applied data mining. This important resource: Offers an accessible and state-of-the-art introduction to the main optimization techniques Contains both traditional optimization techniques and the most current algorithms and swarm intelligence-based techniques Presents a balance of theory, algorithms, and implementation Includes more than 100 worked examples with step-by-step explanations Written for upper undergraduates and graduates in a standard course on optimization, operations research and data mining, Optimization Techniques and Applications with Examples is a highly accessible guide to understanding the fundamentals of all the commonly used techniques in optimization.

Challenges and Opportunities for Knowledge Organization in the Digital Age

Challenges and Opportunities for Knowledge Organization in the Digital Age
Author: Fernanda Ribeiro,Maria Elisa Cerveira
Publsiher: Ergon Verlag
Total Pages: 994
Release: 2018-07-11
ISBN: 3956504216
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Challenges and Opportunities for Knowledge Organization in the Digital Age Book Excerpt:

Thema der 15. Internationalen Konferenz der International Society for Knowledge Organization vom 9. bis 11. Juli 2018 in Porto ist "Challenges and Opportunities for Knowledge Organization in the Digital Age". Der Konferenzband fasst die Vorträge von Wissenschaftlern aus aller Welt zusammen.

Logic A Very Short Introduction

Logic  A Very Short Introduction
Author: Graham Priest
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2017-10-19
ISBN: 0192539698
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Logic A Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

Logic is often perceived as having little to do with the rest of philosophy, and even less to do with real life. In this lively and accessible introduction, Graham Priest shows how wrong this conception is. He explores the philosophical roots of the subject, explaining how modern formal logic deals with issues ranging from the existence of God and the reality of time to paradoxes of probability and decision theory. Along the way, the basics of formal logic are explained in simple, non-technical terms, showing that logic is a powerful and exciting part of modern philosophy. In this new edition Graham Priest expands his discussion to cover the subjects of algorithms and axioms, and proofs in mathematics. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Perception A Very Short Introduction

Perception  A Very Short Introduction
Author: Brian Rogers
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2017-10-19
ISBN: 0192508512
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Perception A Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

Perception is one of the oldest and most deeply investigated topics in the field of psychology, and it is also raises some profound philosophical questions. It is concerned with how we use the information reaching our senses to guide and control our behaviour as well as to create our particular, subjective experiences of the surrounding world. In this Very Short Introduction, Brian J. Rogers discusses the philosophical question of what it means to perceive, as well as describing how we are able to perceive the particular characteristics of objects and scenes such as their lightness, colour, form, depth, and motion. What we perceive, however, does not always correspond to what exists in the world and, as Rogers shows, the study of illusions can be useful in telling us something about the nature and limitations of our perceptual processes. Rogers also explores perception from an evolutionary perspective, explaining how evolutionary pressures have shaped the perceptual systems of humans and other animals. He shows that perception is not necessarily a separate and independent process but rather part of a 'perceptual system', involving both the extraction of perceptual information and the control of action. Rogers goes on to cover the significant progress made recently in the understanding of perception through the use of precise and controlled psychophysical methods, single cell recordings, and imaging techniques. There have also been many insights from attempts to model perceptual processes in artificial systems. As Rogers shows, these attempts have revealed how difficult it is to programme machines to perform even the most simple of perceptual tasks that we take for granted. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Mammals A Very Short Introduction

Mammals  A Very Short Introduction
Author: T. S. Kemp
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2017-09-21
ISBN: 019107957X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mammals A Very Short Introduction Book Excerpt:

From a modest beginning in the form of a little shrew-like, nocturnal, insect eating ancestor that lived 200 million years ago, mammals evolved into the huge variety of different kinds of animals we see today. Many species are still small, and follow the lifestyle of the ancestor, but others have adapted to become large grazers and browsers, like the antelopes, cattle, rhinos, and elephants, or the lions, hyaenas, and wolves that prey upon them. Yet others evolved to be specialist termite eaters able to dig into the hardest mounds, or tunnel creating burrowers, and a few took to the skies as gliders and the bats. Many live partly in the water, such as otters, beavers, and hippos, while whales and dugongs remain permanently in the seas, incapable of ever emerging onto land. In this Very Short Introduction T. S. Kemp explains how it is a tenfold increase in metabolic rate - endothermy or "warm-bloodedness" - that lies behind the high levels of activity, and the relatively huge brain associated with complex, adaptable behaviour that epitomizes mammals. He describes the remarkable fossil record, revealing how and when the mammals gained their characteristics, and the tortuous course of their subsequent evolution, during which many bizarre forms such as sabre-toothed cats, and 30-tonne, 6-m high browsers arose and disappeared. Describing the wonderful adaptations that mammals evolved to suit their varied modes of life, he also looks at those of the mainly arboreal primates that culminated ultimately in Homo sapiens. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.