Brock Chisholm The World Health Organization And The Cold War

Author by : John Farley
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
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Description : Brock Chisholm was one of the most influential Canadians of the twentieth century. A world-renowned psychiatrist, he was the first director-general of the World Health Organization and built it up against overwhelming political odds in the years immediately following the Second World War. An atheist and a fierce critic of jingoistic nationalism, he supported world peace and world government and became a champion of the United Nations and the WHO. Post-1945 international politics, global health issues, and medical history intersect in this highly readable account of a remarkable Canadian.


Ethical Leadership In International Organizations

Author by : Guilherme Vasconcelos Vilaça
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 991
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Description : This book offers an innovative interdisciplinary approach that elucidates the importance of virtue ethics to help better understand the role of leadership in international organisations. The authors use a combination of theoretical and conceptual narratives as well as case studies to highlight both the advantages and weaknesses that the angle of virtue ethics offers. A particularly important step in times of uncertainty or crisis when the demand for leadership becomes more urgent yet more daunting. In this sense, this volume oscillates between critique and hope, since it provides a plausible, rather than a purely abstract, approach to the conceptualization and concretization of ethical leadership.


The Oxford Handbook Of The Cold War

Author by : Richard H. Immerman
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
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Total Read : 72
Total Download : 278
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Description : The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War offers a broad reassessment of the period war based on new conceptual frameworks developed in the field of international history. Nearing the 25th anniversary of its end, the cold war now emerges as a distinct period in twentieth-century history, yet one which should be evaluated within the broader context of global political, economic, social, and cultural developments. The editors have brought together leading scholars in cold war history to offer a new assessment of the state of the field and identify fundamental questions for future research. The individual chapters in this volume evaluate both the extent and the limits of the cold war's reach in world history. They call into question orthodox ways of ordering the chronology of the cold war and also present new insights into the global dimension of the conflict. Even though each essay offers a unique perspective, together they show the interconnectedness between cold war and national and transnational developments, including long-standing conflicts that preceded the cold war and persisted after its end, or global transformations in areas such as human rights or economic and cultural globalization. Because of its broad mandate, the volume is structured not along conventional chronological lines, but thematically, offering essays on conceptual frameworks, regional perspectives, cold war instruments and cold war challenges. The result is a rich and diverse accounting of the ways in which the cold war should be positioned within the broader context of world history.


Science And American Foreign Relations Since World War Ii

Author by : Greg Whitesides
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Total Read : 56
Total Download : 124
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Description : Chronicles the critical role the sciences have played in American foreign relations since World War II.


Global Transformations In The Life Sciences 1945 1980

Author by : Patrick Manning
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Pittsburgh Press
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Total Read : 39
Total Download : 210
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Description : The second half of the twentieth century brought extraordinary transformations in knowledge and practice of the life sciences. In an era of decolonization, mass social welfare policies, and the formation of new international institutions such as UNESCO and the WHO, monumental advances were made in both theoretical and practical applications of the life sciences, including the discovery of life’s molecular processes and substantive improvements in global public health and medicine. Combining perspectives from the history of science and world history, this volume examines the impact of major world-historical processes of the postwar period on the evolution of the life sciences. Contributors consider the long-term evolution of scientific practice, research, and innovation across a range of fields and subfields in the life sciences, and in the context of Cold War anxieties and ambitions. Together, they examine how the formation of international organizations and global research programs allowed for transnational exchange and cooperation, but in a period rife with competition and nationalist interests, which influenced dramatic changes in the field as the postcolonial world order unfolded.


Routledge Handbook Of Global Public Health

Author by : Richard Parker
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
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Description : The Routledge Handbook of Global Public Health addresses emerging issues and conceptualizations in global health, expanding upon the critical priorities in this rapidly evolving field. It provides an authoritative overview for students, practitioners, researchers, and policy makers concerned with public health around the globe.


A History Of Global Health

Author by : Randall M. Packard
Languange : en
Publisher by : JHU Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 660
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Description : Designed to be read and taught, the book offers a critical historical view, providing historians, policy makers, researchers, program managers, and students with an essential new perspective on the formation and implementation of global-health policies and practices.


The Oxford Handbook Of Global Health Politics

Author by : Colin McInnes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 797
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Description : Protecting and promoting health is inherently a political endeavor that requires a sophisticated understanding of the distribution and use of power. Yet while the global nature of health is widely recognized, its political nature is less well understood. In recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of global health politics has emerged to demonstrate the interconnections of health and core political topics, including foreign and security policy, trade, economics, and development. Today a growing body of scholarship examines how the global health landscape has both shaped and been shaped by political actors and structures. The Oxford Handbook of Global Health Politics provides an authoritative overview and assessment of research on this important and complicated subject. The volume is motivated by two arguments. First, health is not simply a technical subject, requiring evidence-based solutions to real-world problems, but an arena of political contestation where norms, values, and interests also compete and collide. Second, globalization has fundamentally changed the nature of health politics in terms of the ideas, interests, and institutions involved. The volume comprises more than 30 chapters by leading experts in global health and politics. Each chaper provides an overview of the state of the art on a given theoretical perspective, major actor, or global health issue. The Handbook offers both an excellent introduction to scholars new to the field and also an invaluable teaching and research resource for experts seeking to understand global health politics and its future directions.


Life On Ice

Author by : Joanna Radin
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
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Total Read : 65
Total Download : 784
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Description : After the atomic bombing at the end of World War II, anxieties about survival in the nuclear age led scientists to begin stockpiling and freezing hundreds of thousands of blood samples from indigenous communities around the world. These samples were believed to embody potentially invaluable biological information about genetic ancestry, evolution, microbes, and much more. Today, they persist in freezers as part of a global tissue-based infrastructure. In Life on Ice, Joanna Radin examines how and why these frozen blood samples shaped the practice known as biobanking. The Cold War projects Radin tracks were meant to form an enduring total archive of indigenous blood before it was altered by the polluting forces of modernity. Freezing allowed that blood to act as a time-traveling resource. Radin explores the unique cultural and technical circumstances that created and gave momentum to the phenomenon of life on ice and shows how these preserved blood samples served as the building blocks for biomedicine at the dawn of the genomic age. In an era of vigorous ethical, legal, and cultural debates about genetic privacy and identity, Life on Ice reveals the larger picture—how we got here and the promises and problems involved with finding new uses for cold human blood samples.


The World Health Organization

Author by : Marcos Cueto
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 544
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Description : A history of the World Health Organization, covering major achievements in its seventy years while also highlighting the organization's internal tensions. This account by three leading historians of medicine examines how well the organization has pursued its aim of everyone, everywhere attaining the highest possible level of health.


Malaria In Colonial South Asia

Author by : Sheila Zurbrigg
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
Total Download : 882
File Size : 49,6 Mb
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Description : This book highlights the role of acute hunger in malaria lethality in colonial South Asia and investigates how this understanding came to be lost in modern medical, epidemic, and historiographic thought. Using the case studies of colonial Punjab, Sri Lanka, and Bengal, it traces the loss of fundamental concepts and language of hunger in the inter-war period with the reductive application of the new specialisms of nutritional science and immunology, and a parallel loss of the distinction between infection (transmission) and morbid disease. The study locates the final demise of the ‘Human Factor’ (hunger) in malaria history within pre- and early post-WW2 international health institutions – the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation and the nascent WHO’s Expert Committee on Malaria. It examines the implications of this epistemic shift for interpreting South Asian health history, and reclaims a broader understanding of common endemic infection (endemiology) as a prime driver, in the context of subsistence precarity, of epidemic mortality history and demographic change. This book will be useful to scholars and researchers of public health, social medicine and social epidemiology, imperial history, epidemic and demographic history, history of medicine, medical sociology, and sociology.


Textbook Of Global Health

Author by : Anne-Emanuelle Birn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
Total Download : 243
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Description : Fully revised and updated, this fourth edition equips students, advocates, and health professionals with building blocks for a critical understanding of global health. It explores societal determinants of health and health inequities within and between countries and an array of actions seeking to address these issues in spheres of health and development aid, solidarity cooperation, global and domestic policymaking, and civil society mobilization


International Organization In Time

Author by : Tine Hanrieder
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 88
Total Download : 364
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Description : 'International organization in time' investigates the effects of reform programs on international organizations (IOs). Drawing on insights from historical institutionalism and sociological organization theory, the book develops a theory of IO fragmentation to account for the centrifugal tendencies of the global polity. Focusing on the reform problems in the United Nations system in general and the World Health Organization in particular, the findings of 'International organization in time' not only advance scholarly understanding of institutional development beyond the state, but also raise important questions about the legitimacy of international organizations.


Historical Institutionalism And International Relations

Author by : Thomas Rixen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
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Description : This book applies the analytical approach called Historical Institutionalism (HI)- so far mostly used within comparative politics-to the field of International Relations (IR). It provides an introduction to HI concepts and makes an argument for why it is particularly well-suited for understanding current developments within international institutions. In particular, it helps us to understand the combination of change and stability that together form the dynamics of institutional development over time. It is the first book to collect original, empirical research applying historical institutionalism to international institutions. The chapters cover a range of institutions important to IR, including the development of European Union competition policy, the global politics of financial reform after the 2008 crisis, the institutional development of the World Health Organization, membership reforms in the League of Nations and the United Nations Security Council, and civil society access to intergovernmental organizations. The concluding chapter discusses the relationship of HI to other institutionalist approaches and the role of HI in future IR research.


Incremental Realism

Author by : Mary Esteve
Languange : en
Publisher by : Stanford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
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Description : The postwar US political imagination coalesced around a quintessential midcentury American trope: happiness. In Incremental Realism, Mary Esteve offers a bold, revisionist literary and cultural history of efforts undertaken by literary realists, public intellectuals, and policy activists to advance the value of public institutions and the claims of socioeconomic justice. Esteve specifically focuses on era-defining authors of realist fiction—including Philip Roth, Gwendolyn Brooks, Patricia Highsmith, Paula Fox, Peter Taylor, and Mary McCarthy—who mobilized the trope of happiness to reinforce the crucial value of public institutions, such as the public library, and the importance of pursuing socioeconomic justice, as envisioned by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and welfare-state liberals. In addition to embracing specific symbols of happiness, these writers also developed narrative modes—what Esteve calls "incremental realism"—that made justifiable the claims of disadvantaged Americans on the nation-state and promoted a small-canvas aesthetics of moderation. With this powerful demonstration of the way postwar literary fiction linked the era's familiar trope of happiness to political arguments about socioeconomic fairness and individual flourishing, Esteve enlarges our sense of the postwar liberal imagination and its attentiveness to better, possible worlds.


Canada And The World Since 1867

Author by : Asa McKercher
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 87
Total Download : 237
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Description : This book is a history of Canada's role in the world as well as the impact of world events on Canada. Starting from the country's quasi-independence from Britain in 1867, its analysis moves through events in Canadian and global history to the present day. Looking at Canada's international relations from the perspective of elite actors and normal people alike, this study draws on original research and the latest work on Canadian international and transnational history to examine Canadians' involvement with a diverse mix of issues, from trade and aid, to war and peace, to human rights and migration. The book traces four inter-connected themes: independence and growing estrangement from Britain; the longstanding and ongoing tensions created by ever-closer relations with the United States; the huge movement of people from around the world into Canada; and the often overlooked but significant range of Canadian contacts with the non-Western world. With an emphasis on the reciprocal nature of Canada's involvement in world affairs, ultimately it is the first work to blend international and transnational approaches to the history of Canadian international relations.


Comrades In Health

Author by : Anne-Emanuelle Birn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rutgers University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 94
Total Download : 242
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Description : Since the early twentieth century, politically engaged and socially committed U.S. health professionals have worked in solidarity with progressive movements around the world. Often with roots in social medicine, political activism, and international socialism, these doctors, nurses, and other health workers became comrades who joined forces with people struggling for social justice, equity, and the right to health. Anne-Emanuelle Birn and Theodore M. Brown bring together a group of professionals and activists whose lives have been dedicated to health internationalism. By presenting a combination of historical accounts and first-hand reflections, this collection of essays aims to draw attention to the longstanding international activities of the American health left and the lessons they brought home. The involvement of these progressive U.S. health professionals is presented against the background of foreign and domestic policy, social movements, and global politics.


The Scientific Spirit Of American Humanism

Author by : Stephen P. Weldon
Languange : en
Publisher by : Johns Hopkins University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
Total Download : 524
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Description : Significantly, the book shows why special attention to American liberal religiosity remains critical to a clear understanding of the scientific spirit in American culture.


Ruling Minds

Author by : Erik Linstrum
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 12
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Description : The British Empire used intelligence tests, laboratory studies, and psychoanalysis to measure and manage the minds of subjects in distant cultures. Challenging assumptions about the role of scientific knowledge in the exercise of power, Erik Linstrum shows that psychology did more to reveal the limits of imperial authority than to strengthen it.


The Open Mind

Author by : Jamie Cohen-Cole
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 318
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Description : This study chronicles the rise of psychology as a tool for social analysis during the Cold War Era and the concept of the open mind in American culture. In the years following World War II, a scientific vision of the rational, creative, and autonomous self took hold as an essential way of understanding society. In The Open Mind, science historian Jamie Cohen-Cole demonstrates how this notion of the self became a defining feature of Cold War culture. From 1945 to 1965, policy makers used this new concept of human nature to advance a centrist political agenda and instigate nationwide educational reforms that promoted more open, and indeed more human, minds. The new field of cognitive science was central to this project, helping to overthrow the behaviorist view that the mind either did not exist or could not be studied scientifically. While the concept of the open mind initially unified American culture, this unity started to fracture between 1965 and 1975, as the ties between political centrism and the scientific account of human nature began to unravel. During the late 1960s, feminists and the New Left repurposed psychological tools to redefine open-mindedness as a characteristic of left-wing politics. As a result, once-liberal intellectuals became neoconservative, and in the early 1970s, struggles against open-mindedness gave energy and purpose to the right wing.


Assembling Health Rights In Global Context

Author by : Alex Mold
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
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Description : What do we mean when we talk about rights in relation to health? Where does the language of health rights come from, and what are the implications of using such a discourse? During the last 20 years there have been an increasing number of initiatives and efforts – for instance in relation to HIV/AIDS – which draw on the language, institutions and procedures of human rights in the field of global health. This book explores the historical, cultural and social context of public health activists’ increasing use of rights discourse and examines the problems it can entail in practice. Structured around three interlinked themes, this book begins by looking at what health as a right means for our understandings of citizenship and political subjectivities. It then goes on to look at how and why some health problems came to be framed as human rights issues. The final part of the book investigates what happens when health rights are put into practice – how these are implemented, realised, cited, ignored and resisted. Assembling Health Rights in Global Context provides an in-depth discussion of the historical, anthropological, social and political context of rights in health and develops much needed critical perspectives on the human rights approach to global health. It will be of interest to scholars of public health and human rights within health care as well as sociology and anthropology.


Natural Hazards And Disasters From Avalanches And Climate Change To Water Spouts And Wildfires 2 Volumes

Author by : Bimal Kanti Paul
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
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Description : This two-volume encyclopedia provides the science behind heart-pumping geophysical hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, cyclones, and floods, as well as authoritative entries on notable natural disasters around the world and the agencies that help victims of them. Natural Hazards and Disasters explores the sometimes harsh effects of nature on human life. Covering both human and physical factors of disasters, the book discusses the physical science behind specific types of hazards and disasters—such as blizzards and tsunamis—their affect on human life, how damage is mitigated or prevented, recovery and reconstruction, and any research and technology currently being used for managing or even eliminate the hazards. Written by experts in the field, the book also explores a variety of extreme events from around the world, including the 2011 Christchurch Earthquake (New Zealand), the 2017–2018 Thomas Fire (U.S.), and the 2018 Kerala Flood (India). Spotlights throughout the book highlight the world's major international and nonprofit aid agencies, like the Salvation Army and Oxfam, that assist disaster victims. Provides thorough coverage of the human and physical factors of 25 natural hazards and disasters, from the causes and physical structure of a disaster to the damage they cause to societies, to the technology used to mitigate destruction and eliminate loss of life Examines 75 historic disasters from around the world, their causes, preparedness efforts, warning and evacuation, impact, response and relief efforts, and recovery and reconstruction Provides authoritative content clear to the casual reader and students alike, reflecting the knowledge of hazards experts


Generic

Author by : Jeremy A. Greene
Languange : en
Publisher by : Johns Hopkins University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 283
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Description : Greene’s history sheds light on the controversies shadowing the success of generics: problems with the generalizability of medical knowledge, the fragile role of science in public policy, and the increasing role of industry, marketing, and consumer logics in late-twentieth-century and early twenty-first century health care.


Doom The Politics Of Catastrophe

Author by : Niall Ferguson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Penguin UK
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 237
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Description : 'Magisterial ... Immensely readable' Douglas Alexander, Financial Times A compelling history of catastrophes and their consequences, from 'the most brilliant British historian of his generation' (The Times) Disasters are inherently hard to predict. But when catastrophe strikes, we ought to be better prepared than the Romans were when Vesuvius erupted or medieval Italians when the Black Death struck. We have science on our side, after all. Yet the responses of many developed countries to a new pathogen from China were badly bungled. Why? While populist rulers certainly performed poorly in the face of the pandemic, Niall Ferguson argues that more profound pathologies were at work - pathologies already visible in our responses to earlier disasters. Drawing from multiple disciplines, including economics and network science, Doom: The Politics of Catastrophe offers not just a history but a general theory of disaster. As Ferguson shows, governments must learn to become less bureaucratic if we are to avoid the impending doom of irreversible decline. 'Insightful, productively provocative and downright brilliant' New York Times 'Stimulating, thought-provoking ... Readers will find much to relish' Martin Bentham, Evening Standard


A History Of Public Health

Author by : George Rosen
Languange : en
Publisher by : JHU Press
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Total Read : 79
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Description : Since publication in 1958, George Rosen’s classic book has been regarded as the essential international history of public health. Describing the development of public health in classical Greece, imperial Rome, England, Europe, the United States, and elsewhere, Rosen illuminates the lives and contributions of the field’s great figures. He considers such community health problems as infectious disease, water supply and sewage disposal, maternal and child health, nutrition, and occupational disease and injury. And he assesses the public health landscape of health education, public health administration, epidemiological theory, communicable disease control, medical care, statistics, public policy, and medical geography. Rosen, writing in the 1950s, may have had good reason to believe that infectious diseases would soon be conquered. But as Dr. Pascal James Imperato writes in the new foreword to this edition, infectious disease remains a grave threat. Globalization, antibiotic resistance, and the emergence of new pathogens and the reemergence of old ones, have returned public health efforts to the basics: preventing and controlling chronic and communicable diseases and shoring up public health infrastructures that provide potable water, sewage disposal, sanitary environments, and safe food and drug supplies to populations around the globe. A revised introduction by Elizabeth Fee frames the book within the context of the historiography of public health past, present, and future, and an updated bibliography by Edward T. Morman includes significant books on public health history published between 1958 and 2014. For seasoned professionals as well as students, A History of Public Health is visionary and essential reading.


Mad By The Millions

Author by : Harry Yi-Jui Wu
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
Total Download : 963
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Description : The World Health Organization's post-World War II work on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and its vision of a "world psyche." In 1946, the World Health Organization undertook a project in social psychiatry that aimed to discover the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders. In Mad by the Millions, Harry Y-Jui Wu examines the WHO's ambitious project, arguing that it was shaped by the postwar faith in technology and expertise and the universalizing vision of a "world psyche." Wu shows that the WHO's idealized scientific internationalism laid the foundations of today's highly highly metricalized global mental health system.


Invisible Scars

Author by : Meghan Fitzpatrick
Languange : en
Publisher by : UBC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 162
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Description : Invisible Scars provides the first extended exploration of Commonwealth Division psychiatry during the Korean War and the psychiatric-care systems in place for the thousands of soldiers who fought in that conflict. Fitzpatrick demonstrates that although Commonwealth forces were generally successful in returning psychologically traumatized servicemen to duty, they failed to compensate or support in a meaningful way veterans returning to civilian life. Moreover, ignorance at home contributed to widespread misunderstanding of their condition. This book offers an intimate look into the history of psychological trauma. In addition, it engages with current disability, pensions, and compensation issues that remain hotly contested.


The Ebb And Flow Of Global Governance

Author by : Alexandru Grigorescu
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 963
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Description : Challenges tradition to show how developments in international relations repeat themselves; we may soon experience a return to past trends.


Epidemic Malaria And Hunger In Colonial Punjab

Author by : Sheila Zurbrigg
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 720
File Size : 55,9 Mb
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Description : This book documents the primary role of acute hunger (semi- and frank starvation) in the ‘fulminant’ malaria epidemics that repeatedly afflicted the northwest plains of British India through the first half of colonial rule. Using Punjab vital registration data and regression analysis it also tracks the marked decline in annual malaria mortality after 1908 with the control of famine, despite continuing post-monsoonal malaria transmission across the province. The study establishes a time-series of annual malaria mortality estimates for each of the 23 plains districts of colonial Punjab province between 1868 and 1947 and for the early post-Independence years (1948-60) in (East) Punjab State. It goes on to investigate the political imperatives motivating malaria policy shifts on the part of the British Raj. This work reclaims the role of hunger in Punjab malaria mortality history and, in turn, raises larger epistemic questions regarding the adequacy of modern concepts of nutrition and epidemic causation in historical and demographic analysis. Part of The Social History of Health and Medicine in South Asia series, this book will be useful to scholars and researchers of colonial history, modern history, social medicine, social anthropology and public health.


Lyle Creelman

Author by : Susan Armstrong-Reid
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Toronto Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
Total Download : 917
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Description : In telling Creelman's fascinating story, Susan Armstrong-Reid helps readers learn about the transformation of the nursing profession and global health governance in the twentieth century.