Description : Measuring the daily and yearly cycle of the cosmos has never been entirely straightforward. The year 2000 is alternatively the year 2544 (Buddhist), 6236 (Ancient Egyptian), 5761 (Jewish) or simply the Year of the Dragon (Chinese). The story of the creation of the Western calendar, which is related in this book, is a story of emperors and popes, mathematicians and monks, and the growth of scientific calculation to the point where, bizarrely, our measurement of time by atomic pulses is now more accurate than time itself: the Earth is an elderly lady and slightly eccentric - she loses half a second a century. Days have been invented (Julius Caesar needed an extra 80 days in 46BC), lost (Pope Gregory XIII ditched ten days in 1582) and moved (because Julius Caesar had 31 in his month, Augustus determined that he should have the same, so he pinched one from February).
Description : New Book Bridges Ancient Wisdom with Modern Technology! The ancient wisdom ascribed is found behind the creation of a 500-year-old artifact, the Aztec Calendar. To the Natives it was Teoilhuicatl Apaluaztli Ollin Tonal Machiotl meaning the Great and Venerable Mechanism of the Universe. Dr. Randall C. Jimenez, a former San Jose State University educator, and Richard B. Graeber, an engineering documentation specialist, have collaborated to create the first Technical Manual for the Aztec Calendar ever produced. [Note: The Aztec name was given to the Mechican Indians (ch as in chevron; sometimes spelled Mexican) by the writer W. H. Prescott in the early 19th century.] The Aztec Calendar Handbook, involving thousands of man-hours of effort to create, takes a blueprint style approach to a Historical Reference primer. Illustrated with over 150 technical drawings showing enlargement details, cut-away views, and computer-generated art, this new guidebook has been called the "ultimate" Aztec Calendar reference treatise. Distilled from over 240 sources and quoting direct eyewitnesses from the 1500's, it further includes a glossary of over 230 native words. This attractive book is made with parchment paper and has a leather-grained cover, making it resemble an ancient manuscript.The research for writing the Aztec Calendar Handbook was assisted by custom software to convert Native date designators into our modern calendar dating system. In this way, a researcher is able to convert and track the dates of events from surviving native history books, known as codices. Mountains of information could be processed more efficiently and accurately when correlating indigenous dates. Inversely, a Julian date can also be converted into the Mayan long-count system. It is then possible for the Mechican calendar-labeling scheme to be transposed over the count to generate a person's Aztec tonallo or spiritual name from their birth date. According to Native tradition, our current long-count cycle will be complete on the winter solstice 2012. A long-count cycle, credited to the Olmec/-Maya, is 5125 years and started in the year 3113BC. No one is really sure what will happen when the cycle ends, but the material in this book offers a solid foundation for figuring it out. By looking at myths, legends & history with an Aztec's perception of God, this new Manual provides needed answers to some important questions. Would you like to know about how and when the Maya influenced the design of the Aztec Calendar? Have you ever seen the Hopi version of the Plumed Serpent? Would you like to put the last 12,000 years into perspective? If so, then your library needs the Aztec Calendar Handbook. You will find yourself referring to it over and over again. No stone has been left unturned.
Description : In Maya Political Science: Time, Astronomy, and the Cosmos, Prudence M. Rice proposed a new model of Maya political organization in which geopolitical seats of power rotated according to a 256-year calendar cycle known as the May. This fundamental connection between timekeeping and Maya political organization sparked Rice's interest in the origins of the two major calendars used by the ancient lowland Maya, one 260 days long, and the other having 365 days. In Maya Calendar Origins, she presents a provocative new thesis about the origins and development of the calendrical system. Integrating data from anthropology, archaeology, art history, astronomy, ethnohistory, myth, and linguistics, Rice argues that the Maya calendars developed about a millennium earlier than commonly thought, around 1200 BC, as an outgrowth of observations of the natural phenomena that scheduled the movements of late Archaic hunter-gatherer-collectors throughout what became Mesoamerica. She asserts that an understanding of the cycles of weather and celestial movements became the basis of power for early rulers, who could thereby claim "control" over supernatural cosmic forces. Rice shows how time became materialized—transformed into status objects such as monuments that encoded calendrical or temporal concerns—as well as politicized, becoming the foundation for societal order, political legitimization, and wealth. Rice's research also sheds new light on the origins of the Popol Vuh, which, Rice believes, encodes the history of the development of the Mesoamerican calendars. She also explores the connections between the Maya and early Olmec and Izapan cultures in the Isthmian region, who shared with the Maya the cosmovision and ideology incorporated into the calendrical systems.
Description : This investigation is concerned with ancient Egyptian calendars. Its specific focus is one of the oldest problems of the study of these calendars: the so-called problem of the month names. This work's main purpose is to suggest an explanation for the Brugsch phenomenon. The Brugsch phenomenon is one of the two main aspects of the problem of the month names. The other is the Gardiner phenomenon. No new theory is presented for the Gardiner phenomenon. As a problem, the Brugsch phenomenon is slightly older than the Gardiner Phenomenon. It has occupied center stage in the study of ancient Egyptian calendars since the early days of this endeavor. In 1870, Heinrich Brugsch, the great pioneer in this subject, wrote about the phenomenon, "Here we encounter all at once the most curious contradiction." Just recently, Rolf Krauss has described the contradiction as still "unsolved." The Brugsch phenomenon concerns the indisputable fact that the last or twelfth month of the Egyptian civil year can be named as if it were the first. Two month names are involved. The first is wp rnpt. Its meaning "opener of the year," refers to a beginning. The second month name is mswt r' "birth of Re" in hieroglyphic Egyptian, Mesore in Aramaic, Greek and Coptic. Both can otherwise also refer to New Year's Day, the quintessential calendrical beginning.
Description : Teach your child a better understanding of numbers, the days of the week, months, dates, holidays and seasons with this unique make-it-yourself calendar that may be started on any date, used for any year.
Description : Beginning with July, this reference provides a month-to-month checklist of tasks that if properly addressed, will make the school year run smoothly from opening to end.