Description : Several recent public opinion polls support the observation that attitudes toward the legalization of botanical cannabis products have changed dramatically over the past decade. Five jurisdictions in the United States have passed legislation decriminalizing use of small amounts of marijuana. Today, twenty-three states support use of some form of medical marijuana. As the first state to legalize marijuana, Colorado has witnessed the sale of over 1 billion dollars of marijuana products in the most recent year. The State of Colorado collected $135 million in tax revenue from these sales. Since public attitudes toward liberalization are more pervasive among younger voters, it seems inevitable that the momentum for further relaxation of restrictions on marijuana will continue. Concurrently, prevalence of use of marijuana has doubled over the decade from 20022013. Public policy decisions relating to this phenomenon are complex and include implications for all institutions of society from law enforcement to public health and health care delivery. Constructive public debate about the pros and cons of liberalization must be informed by an understanding of what science has learned about the risks and benefits to health in different population groups. On September 21, 2015, the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) issued a new policy statement on marijuana, cannabinoids, and legalization that favors a more balanced response to legalization efforts. This monograph, conceived and written by psychiatrist members of the North Carolina Psychiatric Association and supported by the Psychiatric Foundation of North Carolina, is intended to meet the need for a summary statement of what is known from scientific research efforts about the effects of use of cannabis products on the mental health of those who are using at varying ages and levels of vulnerability.
Description : With relatable clinical vignettes that illustrate the applicability of each chapter’s content, as well as key chapter points that summarize major themes, Marijuana and Mental Health is the definitive, single source of comprehensive information on marijuana and mental health in modern American society. Balanced, focused, and highly readable, chapters address topics such as the effects of marijuana on the brain and mind, marijuana-related policy and legislation, the complex link between marijuana use and psychotic disorders, synthetic cannabinoids, and the treatment and prevention of marijuana misuse. Beyond offering clinical and research psychiatrists, psychiatric residents and fellows, clinical psychologists, and psychiatric nurses a comprehensive but concise compilation of research in this area, this reference informs clinical mental health practice as well as policy decisions by articulating the connection between marijuana and mental health, particularly in the United States.
Description : Cannabis use and mental health problems are highly prevalent among Canadian youth. While repercussions associated with cannabis are ubiquitous throughout the population, youth are at an increased risk as the brain is exceptionally susceptible to adverse effects during this stage of development. Youth are at a disproportionate risk for addiction, developing a cannabis use disorder, depression, anxiety and psychosis. Moreover, the risk of developing a substance use problem is doubled in people with mental illness compared to the general population, whereby at least 20% of people with a mental illness have a co-existing substance use problem. Gaps remain within the literature that explore how the effects of positive wellbeing, in the presence or absence of mental illness, can serve as a protective measure against cannabis use. The objective of my thesis was to examine if depression or anxiety were associated with youth cannabis use; and investigate whether flourishing moderates these associations. My approach was guided by the differential susceptibility framework and used a cross-sectional analysis of the mental health module pilot data collected in year 5 (Y5[2016-2017]) of the COMPASS study. Data from 8,179 grades 9-12 students were collected from 10 secondary schools in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. Participants were included based on a complete case analysis for a total of 8,040 students being eligible participants. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of depression [CESD-R-10], anxiety [GAD-7], flourishing [Deiner's Flourishing Scale] and cannabis consumption using measures that assess cannabis ever use and frequency of use. Logistic regression analysis (binary and ordinal) and product-term interactions were used to examine the associations between mental health and youth cannabis use, and the potential moderating effect(s) of flourishing. In my sample, 33% of participants had ever used cannabis, 51% and 38% reported elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Associations between depression, anxiety, and cannabis use were no longer significant when flourishing was added to the models. In addition, there was no evidence suggesting a moderating effect of flourishing as all interactions were not statistically significant. Instead, robust associations were found between flourishing and cannabis use. Indicators of mental wellbeing, such as flourishing, appear to be associated with a lower likelihood of cannabis use, even after controlling for depression and anxiety. Results suggest prevention strategies for youth cannabis use should aim to foster mental wellbeing among all youth, rather than exclusively targeting those experiencing mental health problems. Future longitudinal studies should test the sequential relationship between cannabis use and changes in both positive and negative mental health.
Description : The Health Effects of Cannabis is a definitive reference text on the adverse, and also the potentially beneficial, effects of cannabis use. Internationally recognized experts in the field contribute a wealth of information about the use and effects of Canada's most widely used illicit drug. The Health Effects of Cannabis will be of interest to addiction medicine specialists, educators, researchers, health program managers and policy-makers, and anyone else who wants scientific information on cannabis and its effects. Topics include: the epidemiology of cannabis use and related problems the long-term central nervous system effects of cannabis mental and behavioural disorders caused by cannabis use cannabis and immunity cannabis use during pregnancy therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids the health and psychological effects of cannabis use the comparative risks of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and opioid use.
Description : This book is an unbiased scientific compendium documenting the state-of-the-art in the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of Cannabis Use Disorders (CUD). Unlike any other current medical text, this volume focuses on the scientific aspects of CUDs and provides a resource for researchers, physicians and other health care providers who treat patients suffering from the disorder or its consequences. It begins by establishing the landscape of the disorder, including its prevalence, association with disabilities and comorbidities, and frequency of patients seeking treatment. The text delves into the complexity of the disorder in today’s environment by including the discoveries on the nature and extent of the endocannabinoid system as well as potential breakthroughs in safe and effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Experts in the field contribute discussions on the most cutting-edge diagnostic and biological topics, including genetics, medical consequences, and clinical manifestations. The text also covers the challenges and risks presented by external factors, including social repercussions, protective factors, psychiatric comorbidities, withdrawal, and treatment services. Cannabis Use Disorders is a vital resource for researchers, psychiatrists, psychologists, addiction medicine specialists, toxicologists, hospital administrators, nurses, social workers, and all health care professionals working with patients who misuse cannabis.
Description : Research Paper from the year 2011 in the subject Psychology - Clinic and Health Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, grade: 4.0, Michigan State University, language: English, abstract: This paper explores the long term effect of cannabis on mental health. These studies prove a clear correlation between cannabis use and mental health disorders, however, none of the them conclude that cannabis is the sole cause of the development of the disorders. such as, schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder and depression. Keywords: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), Cannabidiol (CBN), Cannabinol (CBC), schizophrenia, depression, bi-polar disorder
Description : Helps healthcare professionals to navigate the maze of information and disinformation about medical cannabis Written for all healthcare professionals who are considering including medical cannabis in their treatment plans, this is the first handbook to disseminate all the information needed to advise patients safely and legally. Replete with evidence-based guidelines firmly grounded in the most up-to-date research, this resource covers the historical, legal, and biological context of medical cannabis so healthcare professionals can confidently discuss possible plans with their patients. Medical Cannabis Handbook for Healthcare Professionals delves into the biology of the endocannabinoid system addressing how cannabis interacts with the body, its effects and side effects, and how to manage cannabis-drug interactions. Chapters discuss in detail how to talk to patients, what language providers can and cannot use, protocols for patient-centered dosing, and the variety of available cannabinoid pharmaceuticals. Based on the latest research, this book demonstrates the efficacy of cannabis in treating a broad range of symptoms and conditions. Written for any healthcare professional who might have to answer patient questions about medical cannabis, this handbook dispels common myths and confirms little-known facts about medical cannabis. KEY FEATURES: Delivers the most up-to-date, evidence-based research on medical cannabis to enhance understanding of this complex topic Provides historical, legal, and biological content so that healthcare providers can confidently discuss medical cannabis with patients Dispels common cannabis myths and misinformation Discusses pain management regarding cannabis and opioids Co-published with Medical Marijuana 411, the leading medical cannabis education provider to offer online CME, CPE and CNE courses to health professionals worldwide; and required certifications for dispensary consultants
Description : Should marijuana be legalized? The latest Gallup poll reports that exactly half of Americans say "yes"; opinion couldn't be more evenly divided. Marijuana is forbidden by international treaties and by national and local laws across the globe. But those laws are under challenge in several countries. In the U.S., there is no short-term prospect for changes in federal law, but sixteen states allow medical use and recent initiatives to legalize production and non-medical use garnered more than 40% support in four states. California's Proposition 19 nearly passed in 2010, and multiple states are expected to consider similar measures in the years to come. The debate and media coverage surrounding Proposition 19 reflected profound confusion, both about the current state of the world and about the likely effects of changes in the law. In addition, not all supporters of "legalization" agree on what it is they want to legalize: Just using marijuana? Growing it? Selling it? Advertising it? If sales are to be legal, what regulations and taxes should apply? Different forms of legalization might have very different results. Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know® will provide readers with a non-partisan primer about the topic, covering everything from the risks and benefits of using marijuana, to describing the current laws around the drug in the U.S. and abroad. The authors discuss the likely costs and benefits of legalization at the state and national levels and walk readers through the "middle ground" of policy options between prohibition and commercialized production. The authors also consider how marijuana legalization could personally impact parents, heavy users, medical users, drug traffickers, and employers. What Everyone Needs to Know® is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press.