Capitalism from Above and Capitalism from Below

Capitalism from Above and Capitalism from Below
Author: T. Byres
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 490
Release: 1997-01-12
ISBN: 1349251178
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Capitalism from Above and Capitalism from Below Book Excerpt:

The distinction between 'capitalism from above' and 'capitalism from below' is important in the analysis of the agrarian question in poor countries. The 'Prussian path' and the 'American path' are here examined, against existing historical scholarship. Their unfolding, from their earliest roots to the point of final 'agrarian transition' in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, is considered. The dialectic between social relations and productive forces, mediated as it was by the state, is treated and the implications for capitalist industrialisation scrutinised.

Genealogies of Capitalism

Genealogies of Capitalism
Author: Keith Tribe
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 175
Release: 1981
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Agriculture
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genealogies of Capitalism Book Excerpt:

Making Capitalism Without Capitalists

Making Capitalism Without Capitalists
Author: Gil Eyal,Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies Eleanor Townsley,Iván Szelényi,Ivan Szelenyi,Eleanor R. Townsley
Publsiher: Verso
Total Pages: 280
Release: 1998
ISBN: 9781859848197
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Making Capitalism Without Capitalists Book Excerpt:

Focuses on the transition from socialism to capitalism in Eastern Europe since the 1980s, where capitalism was made without a capitalist class. This text reflects on the sociological characteristics of the Communist system and offers a theory of post-Communist societies.

Capitalism from Below

Capitalism from Below
Author: Victor Nee,Sonja Opper
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2012-06-19
ISBN: 0674065395
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Capitalism from Below Book Excerpt:

Over 630 million Chinese escaped poverty since the 1980s, the largest decrease in poverty in history. Studying 700 manufacturing firms in the Yangzi region, the authors argue that the engine of China’s economic miracle—private enterprise—did not originate at the top but bubbled up from below, overcoming initial obstacles set up by the government.

Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy Entries P Z

Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy  Entries P Z
Author: R. J. Barry Jones
Publsiher: Taylor & Francis
Total Pages: 1818
Release: 2001
ISBN: 9780415243520
Category: Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy Entries P Z Book Excerpt:

This important new work is the first comprehensive reference to the rapidly developing field of international political economy [IPE]. Featuring over 1200 A-Z entries, the coverage encompasses the full range of issues, concepts, and institutions associated with IPE in its various forms. Comprehensively cross-referenced and indexed, each entry provides suggestions for further reading along with guides to more specialized sources. Selected entries include: * African Development Bank * benign neglect * Black Monday * casino capitalism * debt management * efficiency * floating exchange rates * General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] *information society/economy * Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries [OPEC] * Microsoft * multinational corporations, definitions * NATO * patents * rent-seeking * Schellin, Thomas *tax havens * trusts * Value-Added Tax [VAT] * zero-sum games * and many more.

Political Economy and the Rise of Capitalism

Political Economy and the Rise of Capitalism
Author: David McNally
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1988-01-01
ISBN: 9780520061330
Category: Capitalism
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Political Economy and the Rise of Capitalism Book Excerpt:

Capitalism The Basics

Capitalism  The Basics
Author: David Coates
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2015-09-07
ISBN: 1135786178
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Capitalism The Basics Book Excerpt:

The global economy is dominated by a powerful set of established and emerging capitalisms, from the long-standing capitalist economies of the West to the rising economies of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries. An understanding of capitalism is therefore fundamental to understanding the modern world. Capitalism: The Basics is an accessible introduction to a variety of capitalisms and explores key topics such as: the history of major capitalist economies; the central role played by both states and markets in the global economy; the impact of capitalism on wages, workers and welfare; approaches to the analysis of capitalism, and choices for capitalism’s future. Examining capitalism from both above and below, featuring a range of case studies from around the globe, and including a comprehensive glossary, this book is the ideal introduction for students studying capitalism.

The Origin of Capitalism

The Origin of Capitalism
Author: Ellen Meiksins Wood
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 138
Release: 1999-03
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Origin of Capitalism Book Excerpt:

Ellen Meiksins Wood challenges most existing accounts of capitalism's origins, arguing that they fail to recognize its distinctive attributes as a social system by making its emergence seem natural and inevitable.

More than the Soil

More than the Soil
Author: Jonathan Rigg
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2014-09-25
ISBN: 1317877675
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

More than the Soil Book Excerpt:

More than the Soil focuses on the social, cultural, economic and technological processes that have transformed rural areas of Southeast Asia. The underlying premise is that rural lives and livelihoods in this region have undergone fundamental change. No longer can we assume that rural livelihoods are founded on agriculture; nor can we assume that people envisage their futures in terms of farming. The inter-penetration of the rural and urban, and the degree to which rural people migrate between rural and urban areas, and shift from agriculture to non-agriculture, raises fundamental questions about how we conceptualise the rural Southeast Asia and the households to be found there.

Authority and Inequality Under Capitalism and Socialism

Authority and Inequality Under Capitalism and Socialism
Author: Barrington Moore,Moore Barrington
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 142
Release: 1987
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Authoritarianism.
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Authority and Inequality Under Capitalism and Socialism Book Excerpt:

Adopts an historical approach to describe and explain the principal similarities and differences in the systems of authority and inequality in the USA, the USSR, and China.

Cities Capitalism and Civilization

Cities  Capitalism and Civilization
Author: R.J. Holton
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 176
Release: 2013-04-15
ISBN: 1135675201
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cities Capitalism and Civilization Book Excerpt:

Cities, Capitalism and Civilization looks at the character and distinctiveness of Western Civilization. R.J. Holton sets out to challenge the belief that cities and urban social classes have formed the main component of the advance of civilization, and the principle dynamic of Western capitalism. This book was first published in 1986.

Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America

Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America
Author: Andre Gunder Frank
Publsiher: NYU Press
Total Pages: 298
Release: 1967
ISBN: 0853450935
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America Book Excerpt:

The four essays in this book offer a sweeping reinterpretation of Latin American history as an aspect of the world-wide spread of capitalism in its commercial and industrial phases. Dr. Frank lays to rest the myth of Latin American feudalism, demonstrating in the process the impossibility of a bourgeois revolution in a part of the world which is already part and parcel of the capitalist system.

Capitalism and the Third World

Capitalism and the Third World
Author: Wil Hout
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Pub
Total Pages: 227
Release: 1993
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Capitalism and the Third World Book Excerpt:

Capitalism and the Third World aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of dependency and world systems scholarship, and questions whether such theories offer a scientific basis for the study of international relations. Wil Hout compares the theories of dependency and world systems with their theoretical predecessors and competitors.

The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism

The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism
Author: Paul Marlor Sweezy
Publsiher: New Left Books
Total Pages: 195
Release: 1976
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Capitalism
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism Book Excerpt:

Essays largely on Studies in the development of capitalism, by M. Dobb.

Agrarian Change and Pre capitalist Reproduction on the Nepal Terai

Agrarian Change and Pre capitalist Reproduction on the Nepal Terai
Author: Fraser John Sugden,Andrea Nightingale,John Cameron
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 396
Release: 2010
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Agrarian Change and Pre capitalist Reproduction on the Nepal Terai Book Excerpt:

Nepal occupies a unique global position as a peripheral social formation subject to decades of relative isolation from capitalism. Although the agrarian sector has long been understood to be dominated by pre-capitalist economic formations, it is important to examine whether contemporary changes underway in the country are transforming the rural economy. There has been an expansion of capitalist markets following economic liberalization and improvements in the transport infrastructure. Furthermore, neo-liberal commercialisation initiatives such as the Agriculture Perspective Plan provide the ideological justification and pre-conditions for the broader process of capitalist expansion, despite the pro-poor rhetoric. However, just as neo-liberal poverty alleviation strategy is flawed, there are also shortcomings in many Marxian understandings of the transition from pre-capitalist to capitalist agriculture in peripheral social formations. There is a tendency for political-economic theorists to assume the inevitable 'dominance' of capitalism, contradicting considerable evidence to the contrary from throughout the world. The central objective of this thesis is to understand how pre-capitalist economic formations have been able to 'resist' capitalist expansion in rural Nepal. There is a necessity to understand the mechanisms through which older 'modes of production' are reproduced, their articulations with other economic formations - including capitalism - and how they are situated globally. As a case study, one year's fieldwork was completed on Nepal's eastern Terai using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The research suggested that surplus appropriation through rent in a mode of production which can only be described as 'semi-feudal', has for a majority of farming households impeded accumulation and profitable commercialisation, a precondition for the emergence of capitalist relations. Semi-feudalism has been reproduced for decades internally by the political control over land and externally by Nepal's subordinate position in the global economy. The latter process has constrained industrialization and rendered much of the peasantry dependent upon landlords who have no incentive to lower rents. The economic insecurity which has arisen in the context of semi-feudal production relations has allowed further forms of surplus appropriation in the sphere of circulation to flourish, through for example, interest on loans and price manipulation on commodity sales. This further hinders profitable commercialisation amongst both semi-feudal tenants and also owner cultivators who farm under what can be termed an 'independent peasant' mode of production. Even wealthier independent peasant producers who could potentially become capitalist farmers are constrained both by high cultural capital expenses, oligoposnistic activity by industry in the capitalist grain markets, and Indian rice imports which depress local prices. Furthermore, development initiatives which could potentially facilitate capitalist transition through the introduction of productivity boosting techniques have had limited success under the prevailing relations of production and the associated ideological relations of caste and gender. The above findings are of crucial significance if one is to develop policies and political strategies for equitable change in peripheral social formations such as Nepal.

A Millennium of Family Change

A Millennium of Family Change
Author: Wally Seccombe
Publsiher: London [England] : Verso
Total Pages: 343
Release: 1992
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Millennium of Family Change Book Excerpt:

How do changes in family form relate to changes in society as a whole? In a work which combines theoretical rigour with historical scope, Wally Seccombe provides a powerful study of the changing structure of families from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Responding to feminist critiques of 'sex-blind' historical materialism, Seccombe argues that family forms must be seen to be at the heart of modes of production. He takes issue with the mainstream consensus in family history which argues that capitalism did not fundamentally alter the structure of the nuclear family, and makes a controversial intervention in the long-standing debate over European marriage patterns and their relation to industrialization. Drawing on an astonishing range of studies in family history, historical demography and economic history, A Millennium of Family Change provides an integrated overview of the long transition from feudalism to capitalism, illuminating the far-reaching changes in familial relations from peasant subsistence to the making of the modern working class.

Neoliberal Globalisation and Resistance from Below

Neoliberal Globalisation and Resistance from Below
Author: Jasper Abembia Ayelazuno
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2018-08-15
ISBN: 1317089049
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neoliberal Globalisation and Resistance from Below Book Excerpt:

As bearers of their own emancipation, the political agency of the subaltern classes is a vexed question, a time-honoured one at that. Why do the subalterns endure injustices without revolting most of the time, but revolt sometimes against some injustices? The euphoria of ’globalisation-from-below’, this book argues, skirts responsibility of addressing this question by presuming a groundswell of resistance across the world against neoliberal globalisation. In contrast to this oeuvre, Neoliberal Globalisation and Resistance from Below engages this question squarely by using the socio-historical approach to explain why the subalterns resist neoliberal globalisation in Bolivia and not in Ghana. The author urges scholars of critical political economy to pay greater attention to why the subalterns resist, rather than how they resist, or what the ideal end of their resistance should be. Such refocusing of the research and political lens will yield a more realistic picture of what is politically possible in the social context of peripheral capitalism regarding an anti-capitalist revolution. The author further argues that this refocusing will cure many of the romantic anti-capitalist claims and banal wishful thinking of a socialist revolution in peripheral capitalist regions such as Latin American, The Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and Sub-Saharan Africa. Neoliberal Globalisation and Resistance from Below will be of interest to students and scholars of African politics, neoliberalism, globalisation, political economy and subaltern politics.

Workers and Labour in a Globalised Capitalism

Workers and Labour in a Globalised Capitalism
Author: Maurizio Atzeni
Publsiher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2013-12-06
ISBN: 1137172770
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Workers and Labour in a Globalised Capitalism Book Excerpt:

An introduction to work and society for undergraduate and postgraduate students. This new text brings together international experts on work and employment from a range of disciplines to debate key themes and issues related to work in a globalised economy.

The Crises of Capitalism

The Crises of Capitalism
Author: Saral Sarkar
Publsiher: Catapult
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2012-09-01
ISBN: 1619021250
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Crises of Capitalism Book Excerpt:

For nearly 300 years, capitalism propelled the world's most successful economies to new heights of development. But a spate of global environmental disasters and severe economic crises compels thinkers to question whether the system continues to function. Leveraging historical perspective, extensive research, and case studies, The Crises of Capitalism builds a compelling argument that challenges the most fundamental assumptions of prevailing economic theory. Saral Sarkar exposes capitalism's flaws through the lens of ecosocialism, a philosophy that asserts that natural resources drive production and development. Keynes, Schumpeter, Marx, and Engles had no reason to believe that there would ever be a shortage of oil, minerals, water, or food—and that technological innovation could surmount any obstacle. But oil extraction has peaked, food is harder to come by, and the cost to maintain what natural resources remain has increased exponentially. Capitalism requires constant innovation to create growth—but as Sarkar establishes, even computers wouldn't exist without copper, gold, and zinc. The Crises of Capitalism exists at the intersection of environmental awareness and economic theory. Sarkar challenges predominant explanations for catastrophic events like the 2008 global economic crisis, revises the classic paradigm of growth, and points to evidence of systemic economic failure. In this provocative, revolutionary criticism, Sarkar suggests that like other long–abandoned economic theories, capitalism has reached its limits. "This is an important book, and it is on the front edge of the thinking that has to come to bear on the real crisis the world is facing, of the impossible idea of growth forever and the economic model that is driving the planet into irreversible crises." —Doug Tompkins

State Capitalism The Wages System under New Management

State Capitalism  The Wages System under New Management
Author: Adam Buick,John Crump
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 165
Release: 1986-10-10
ISBN: 1349184268
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

State Capitalism The Wages System under New Management Book Excerpt:

Here is the first comprehensive exposition of the theory of state capitalism. Using a Marxist theoretical approach, Buick and Crump show that private capitalism and state capitalism are equally suitable institutional arrangements for allowing capital to exploit wage-workers. State capitalism is examined in its Western form of selective nationalisation and in its full-scale form, as found in Russia or China. The origins of Russian state capitalism are traced back to the 1917 revolution and Lenin's ideology. Finally, Buick and Crump suggest the kind of changed social relationships which would allow world capitalism to be replaced by world socialism.