Causal Learning

Causal Learning
Author: Alison Gopnik,Laura Schulz
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 358
Release: 2007-03-22
ISBN: 0195176804
Category: Family & Relationships
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Causal Learning Book Excerpt:

Understanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and cognitive development, and moreover, the causal learning mechanisms it has uncovered go dramatically beyond the traditional mechanisms of both nativist theories, such as modularity theories, and empiricist ones, such as association or connectionism.

Causal Learning

Causal Learning
Author: Alison Gopnik,Laura Schulz
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2007-03-22
ISBN: 9780198039280
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Causal Learning Book Excerpt:

Understanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and cognitive development, and moreover, the causal learning mechanisms it has uncovered go dramatically beyond the traditional mechanisms of both nativist theories, such as modularity theories, and empiricist ones, such as association or connectionism.

The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology Vol 1

The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology  Vol  1
Author: Philip David Zelazo
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 960
Release: 2013-01-15
ISBN: 0199958467
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology Vol 1 Book Excerpt:

Research in developmental psychology--which examines the history, origins, and causes of behavior and age-related changes in behavior--seeks to construct a complex, multi-level characterization of behavior as it unfolds in time across a range of time scales, from the milliseconds of reaction time to the days and weeks of childhood, the decades of the human lifespan, and even beyond, to multiple generations. Behavior, in this view, is embedded within what is essentially a dynamic system of relations extending deep within individuals. Thorough and engaging, this handbook explores the impact of this research on what is now known about psychological development, from birth to biological maturity, and it highlights the extent to which the most cutting-edge developmental science reflects a new kind of intellectual synthesis: one that reveals how cultural, social, cognitive, neural, and molecular processes work together to yield human behavior and changes in human behavior. With insightful contributions from more than 50 of the world's leading developmental scientists, these two volumes will serve as an influential and informed text for students and as an authoritative desk reference for years to come.

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development
Author: Usha Goswami
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 816
Release: 2013-11-11
ISBN: 1118586662
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development Book Excerpt:

This definitive volume is the result of collaboration by top scholars in the field of children's cognition. New edition offers an up-to-date overview of all the major areas of importance in the field, and includes new data from cognitive neuroscience and new chapters on social cognitive development and language Provides state-of-the-art summaries of current research by international specialists in different areas of cognitive development Spans aspects of cognitive development from infancy to the onset of adolescence Includes chapters on symbolic reasoning, pretend play, spatial development, abnormal cognitive development and current theoretical perspectives

Understanding Counterfactuals Understanding Causation

Understanding Counterfactuals  Understanding Causation
Author: Christoph Hoerl,Teresa McCormack,Sarah R. Beck
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011-10-27
ISBN: 019161839X
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Understanding Counterfactuals Understanding Causation Book Excerpt:

How are causal judgements such as 'The ice on the road caused the traffic accident' connected with counterfactual judgements such as 'If there had not been any ice on the road, the traffic accident would not have happened'? This volume throws new light on this question by uniting, for the first time, psychological and philosophical approaches to causation and counterfactuals. Traditionally, philosophers have primarily been interested in connections between causal and counterfactual claims on the level of meaning or truth-conditions. More recently, however, they have also increasingly turned their attention to psychological connections between causal and counterfactual understanding or reasoning. At the same time, there has been a surge in interest in empirical work on causal and counterfactual cognition amongst developmental, cognitive, and social psychologists—much of it inspired by work in philosophy. In this volume, twelve original contributions from leading philosophers and psychologists explore in detail what bearing empirical findings might have on philosophical concerns about counterfactuals and causation, and how, in turn, work in philosophy might help clarify the issues at stake in empirical work on the cognitive underpinnings of, and relationships between, causal and counterfactual thought.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time
Author: Craig Callender
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 704
Release: 2011-04-07
ISBN: 0199298203
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time Book Excerpt:

This is the first comprehensive book on the philosophy of time. Leading philosophers discuss the metaphysics of time, our experience and representation of time, the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially quantum mechanics and relativity theory.

The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning

The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning
Author: Michael Waldmann
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 542
Release: 2017-03-30
ISBN: 0199399573
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning Book Excerpt:

Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Although causal reasoning is a component of most of our cognitive functions, it has been neglected in cognitive psychology for many decades. The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning offers a state-of-the-art review of the growing field, and its contribution to the world of cognitive science. The Handbook begins with an introduction of competing theories of causal learning and reasoning. In the next section, it presents research about basic cognitive functions involved in causal cognition, such as perception, categorization, argumentation, decision-making, and induction. The following section examines research on domains that embody causal relations, including intuitive physics, legal and moral reasoning, psychopathology, language, social cognition, and the roles of space and time. The final section presents research from neighboring fields that study developmental, phylogenetic, and cultural differences in causal cognition. The chapters, each written by renowned researchers in their field, fill in the gaps of many cognitive psychology textbooks, emphasizing the crucial role of causal structures in our everyday lives. This Handbook is an essential read for students and researchers of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive, developmental, social, comparative, and cross-cultural psychology; philosophy; methodology; statistics; artificial intelligence; and machine learning.

Navigating the Social World

Navigating the Social World
Author: Mahzarin R. Banaji,Susan A. Gelman
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2013-03-26
ISBN: 0199890722
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Navigating the Social World Book Excerpt:

Navigating the social world requires sophisticated cognitive machinery that, although present quite early in crude forms, undergoes significant change across the lifespan. This book will be the first to report on evidence that has accumulated on an unprecedented scale, showing us what capacities for social cognition are present at birth and early in life, and how these capacities develop through learning in the first years of life. The volume will highlight what is known about the discoveries themselves but also what these discoveries imply about the nature of early social cognition and the methods that have allowed these discoveries -- what is known concerning the phylogeny and ontogeny of social cognition. To capture the full depth and breadth of the exciting work that is blossoming on this topic in a manner that is accessible and engaging, the editors invited 70 leading researchers to develop a short report of their work that would be written for a broad audience. The purpose of this format was for each piece to focus on a single core message: are babies aware of what is right and wrong, why do children have the same implicit intergroup preferences that adults do, what does language do to the building of category knowledge, and so on. The unique format and accessible writing style will be appealing to graduate students and researchers in cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and social psychology.

Modern Approaches in Applied Intelligence

Modern Approaches in Applied Intelligence
Author: Kishan G. Mehrotra,Chilukuri Krishna Mohan,Jae C. Oh,Pramod K. Varshney,Moonis Ali
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 581
Release: 2011-06-17
ISBN: 3642218261
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modern Approaches in Applied Intelligence Book Excerpt:

The two volume set LNAI 6703 and LNAI 6704 constitutes the thoroughly refereed conference proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2011, held in Syracuse, NY, USA, in June/July 2011. The total of 92 papers selected for the proceedings were carefully reviewed and selected from 206 submissions. The papers cover a wide number of topics including feature extraction, discretization, clustering, classification, diagnosis, data refinement, neural networks, genetic algorithms, learning classifier systems, Bayesian and probabilistic methods, image processing, robotics, navigation, optimization, scheduling, routing, game theory and agents, cognition, emotion, and beliefs.

Unifying Causality and Psychology

Unifying Causality and Psychology
Author: Gerald Young
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 950
Release: 2016-05-17
ISBN: 3319240943
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Unifying Causality and Psychology Book Excerpt:

This magistral treatise approaches the integration of psychology through the study of the multiple causes of normal and dysfunctional behavior. Causality is the focal point reviewed across disciplines. Using diverse models, the book approaches unifying psychology as an ongoing project that integrates genetics, experience, evolution, brain, development, change mechanisms, and so on. The book includes in its integration free will, epitomized as freedom in being. It pinpoints the role of the self in causality and the freedom we have in determining our own behavior. The book deals with disturbed behavior, as well, and tackles the DSM-5 approach to mental disorder and the etiology of psychopathology. Young examines all these topics with a critical eye, and gives many innovative ideas and models that will stimulate thinking on the topic of psychology and causality for decades to come. It is truly integrative and original. Among the topics covered: Models and systems of causality of behavior. Nature and nurture: evolution and complexities. Early adversity, fetal programming, and getting under the skin. Free will in psychotherapy: helping people believe. Causality in psychological injury and law: basics and critics. A Neo-Piagetian/Neo-Eriksonian 25-step (sub)stage model. Unifying Causality and Psychology appeals to the disciplines of psychology, psychiatry, epidemiology, philosophy, neuroscience, genetics, law, the social sciences and humanistic fields, in general, and other mental health fields. Its level of writing makes it appropriate for graduate courses, as well as researchers and practitioners.

Rational Constructivism in Cognitive Development

Rational Constructivism in Cognitive Development
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2012-12-31
ISBN: 0123984637
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Rational Constructivism in Cognitive Development Book Excerpt:

Volume 43 of Advances in Child Development and Behavior includes chapters that highlight some of the most recent research in the area of Rational Constructivism. Each chapter provides in-depth discussions, and this volume serves as an invaluable resource for Developmental or educational psychology researchers, scholars, and students. Chapters that highlight some of the most recent research in the area Rational Constructivism discussed in detail

The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Imagination

The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Imagination
Author: Marjorie Taylor
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2013-04-02
ISBN: 0199909199
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Imagination Book Excerpt:

Children are widely celebrated for their imaginations, but developmental research on this topic has often been fragmented or narrowly focused on fantasy. However, there is growing appreciation for the role that imagination plays in cognitive and emotional development, as well as its link with children's understanding of the real world. With their imaginations, children mentally transcend time, place, and/or circumstance to think about what might have been, plan and anticipate the future, create fictional relationships and worlds, and consider alternatives to the actual experiences of their lives. The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Imagination provides a comprehensive overview of this broad new perspective by bringing together leading researchers whose findings are moving the study of imagination from the margins of mainstream psychology to a central role in current efforts to understand human thought. The topics covered include fantasy-reality distinctions, pretend play, magical thinking, narrative, anthropomorphism, counterfactual reasoning, mental time travel, creativity, paracosms, imaginary companions, imagination in non-human animals, the evolution of imagination, autism, dissociation, and the capacity to derive real life resilience from imaginative experiences. Many of the chapters include discussions of the educational, clinical, and legal implications of the research findings and special attention is given to suggestions for future research.

Cognitive Development and Cognitive Neuroscience

Cognitive Development and Cognitive Neuroscience
Author: Usha Goswami
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 630
Release: 2019-09-26
ISBN: 131741005X
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Development and Cognitive Neuroscience Book Excerpt:

Cognitive Development and Cognitive Neuroscience: The Learning Brain is a thoroughly revised edition of the bestselling Cognitive Development. The new edition of this full-colour textbook has been updated with the latest research in cognitive neuroscience, going beyond Piaget and traditional theories to demonstrate how emerging data from the brain sciences require a new theoretical framework for teaching cognitive development, based on learning. Building on the framework for teaching cognitive development presented in the first edition, Goswami shows how different cognitive domains such as language, causal reasoning and theory of mind may emerge from automatic neural perceptual processes. Cognitive Neuroscience and Cognitive Development integrates principles and data from cognitive science, neuroscience, computer modelling and studies of non-human animals into a model that transforms the study of cognitive development to produce both a key introductory text and a book which encourages the reader to move beyond the superficial and gain a deeper understanding of the subject matter. Cognitive Development and Cognitive Neuroscience is essential for students of developmental and cognitive psychology, education, language and the learning sciences. It will also be of interest to anyone training to work with children.

The Mystery of Rationality

The Mystery of Rationality
Author: Gérald Bronner,Francesco Di Iorio
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 259
Release: 2018-07-12
ISBN: 3319940287
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Mystery of Rationality Book Excerpt:

This book contributes to the developing dialogue between cognitive science and social sciences. It focuses on a central issue in both fields, i.e. the nature and the limitations of the rationality of beliefs and action. The development of cognitive science is one of the most important and fascinating intellectual advances of recent decades, and social scientists are paying increasing attention to the findings of this new branch of science that forces us to consider many classical issues related to epistemology and philosophy of action in a new light. Analysis of the concept of rationality is a leitmotiv in the history of the social sciences and has involved endless disputes. Since it is difficult to give a precise definition of this concept, and there is a lack of agreement about its meaning, it is possible to say that there is a ‘mystery of rationality’. What is it to be rational? Is rationality merely instrumental or does it also involve the endorsement of values, i.e. the choice of goals? Should we consider rationality to be a normative principle or a descriptive one? Can rationality be only Cartesian or can it also be argumentative? Is rationality a conscious skill or a partly tacit one? This book, which has been written by an outstanding collection of authors, including both philosophers and social scientists, tries to make a useful contribution to the debates on these problems and shed some light on the mystery of rationality. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field.

Neoconstructivism

Neoconstructivism
Author: Scott Johnson
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 367
Release: 2010
ISBN: 0195331052
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neoconstructivism Book Excerpt:

This work brings together theoretical views that embrace computational models and developmental neurobiology, and emphasize the interplay of time, experience, and cortical architecture to explain emergent knowledge.

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Science

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Science
Author: Susan F. Chipman
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 375
Release: 2017
ISBN: 0199842191
Category: Cognition
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Science Book Excerpt:

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Science emphasizes the research and theory most central to modern cognitive science: computational theories of complex human cognition. Additional facets of cognitive science are discussed in the handbook's introductory chapter.

Philosophy of Psychology Causality and Psychological Subject

Philosophy of Psychology  Causality and Psychological Subject
Author: Wenceslao J. Gonzalez
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 293
Release: 2018-06-11
ISBN: 3110573989
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy of Psychology Causality and Psychological Subject Book Excerpt:

Contemporary philosophy of science analyzes psychology as a science with special features, because this discipline includes some specific philosophical problems – descriptive and normative, structural and dynamic. Some of these are particularly relevant both theoretically (casual explanation) and practically (the configuration of the psychological subject and its relations with psychiatry). Two central aspects in this book are the role of causality, especially conceived as intervention or manipulation, and the characterization of the psychological subject. This requires a clarification of scientific explanations in terms of causality in psychology, because characterizations of causality are quite different in epistemological and ontological terms. One of the most influential views is James Woodward’s approach to causality as intervention, which entails an analysis of its characteristics, new elements and limits. This means taking into account the structural and dynamic aspects included in causal cognition and psychological explanations. Psychology seen as special science also requires us to consider the scientific status of psychology and the psychological subject, which leads to limits of naturalism in psychology.

Evolution and Rationality

Evolution and Rationality
Author: Samir Okasha,Ken Binmore
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2012-06-21
ISBN: 1139510517
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Evolution and Rationality Book Excerpt:

This volume explores from multiple perspectives the subtle and interesting relationship between the theory of rational choice and Darwinian evolution. In rational choice theory, agents are assumed to make choices that maximize their utility; in evolution, natural selection 'chooses' between phenotypes according to the criterion of fitness maximization. So there is a parallel between utility in rational choice theory and fitness in Darwinian theory. This conceptual link between fitness and utility is mirrored by the interesting parallels between formal models of evolution and rational choice. The essays in this volume, by leading philosophers, economists, biologists and psychologists, explore the connection between evolution and rational choice in a number of different contexts, including choice under uncertainty, strategic decision making and pro-social behaviour. They will be of interest to students and researchers in philosophy of science, evolutionary biology, economics and psychology.

Sentence First Arguments Afterward

Sentence First  Arguments Afterward
Author: Lila Gleitman
Publsiher: Oxford Cognitive Development
Total Pages: 920
Release: 2020
ISBN: 0199828091
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sentence First Arguments Afterward Book Excerpt:

Sentence First, Arguments Afterward collects the important papers of Lila Gleitman, a pioneer of the field of cognitive science. The book explores language from the perspective of language acquisition, linguistic relativity, and the very nature of syntax and semantics. Gleitman reveals insights that are important both for their perspective on the history of the field and for current practice in the study of language and thought.

Probabilistic and Causal Inference

Probabilistic and Causal Inference
Author: Hector Geffner,Rina Dechter,Joseph Halpern
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool
Total Pages: 944
Release: 2022-03-10
ISBN: 1450395899
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Probabilistic and Causal Inference Book Excerpt:

Professor Judea Pearl won the 2011 Turing Award “for fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.” This book contains the original articles that led to the award, as well as other seminal works, divided into four parts: heuristic search, probabilistic reasoning, causality, first period (1988–2001), and causality, recent period (2002–2020). Each of these parts starts with an introduction written by Judea Pearl. The volume also contains original, contributed articles by leading researchers that analyze, extend, or assess the influence of Pearl’s work in different fields: from AI, Machine Learning, and Statistics to Cognitive Science, Philosophy, and the Social Sciences. The first part of the volume includes a biography, a transcript of his Turing Award Lecture, two interviews, and a selected bibliography annotated by him.