Description : Recent years have seen an upsurge of interest in the notion of salience in linguistics and related disciplines. While in top-down salience, perceivers endogenously direct their attention to a certain stimulus, in the bottom-up salience, it is the stimulus itself which attracts attention. In prototypical cases of bottom-up salience, the stimulus stands out because it is incongruous with a given ground by virtue of intrinsic physical characteristics. But a stimulus may also cause surprise by virtue of deviating from a cognitive ground, e.g., when violating social or probabilistic expectations. This has prompted researchers to examine the relationship between expectations and the perceptual salience of linguistic stimuli in new ways. This e-book features contributions from different scientific frameworks. The reader will find commentaries, reviews, and original research articles on models of sociolinguistic and morphological salience, the role of attention, affect, and predictability, and on how salient items are processed, categorized and learned. Taken together, the articles in this volume contribute to our understanding of how the perceptual salience of linguistic forms and variants can be theoretically framed and methodologically operationalized in different areas of linguistic processing.
Description : The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology is intended as a companion volume to The Oxford Handbook of Compounding (OUP 2009) Written by distinguished scholars, its 41 chapters aim to provide a comprehensive and thorough overview of the study of derivational morphology. The handbook begins with an overview and a consideration of definitional matters, distinguishing derivation from inflection on the one hand and compounding on the other. From a formal perspective, the handbook treats affixation (prefixation, suffixation, infixation, circumfixation, etc.), conversion, reduplication, root and pattern and other templatic processes, as well as prosodic and subtractive means of forming new words. From a semantic perspective, it looks at the processes that form various types of adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs, as well as evaluatives and the rarer processes that form function words. The book also surveys derivation in fifteen language families that are widely dispersed in terms of both geographical location and typological characteristics.
Description : Written by experienced professionals, this book provides a state-of-the-art account of the construction of offshore concrete structures, It describes the construction process and includes: *concept definition *project management, *detailed design and quality assurance *simplified analyses and detailed design
Description : This book deals with one of the central problems for theories of word-formation, the productivity of morphological processes. The productivity of these processes is assessed, using both text-based and dictionary - based measures (Cobuild corpus vs. Oxford English Dictionary). Implementing Optimality Theory and Jackendorff's Lexical Conceptual Semantics, a large number of 20th century neologisms extracted from the OED are investigated with regard to their phonological, morphological and semantic characteristics. On the theoretical level the proposed analysis presents evidence against the separation of meaning and form in derivational morphology and for a sign-based, output-oriented model instead.
Description : This book presents a comprehensive and unifying theory to promote the under standing of technical systems. Such a theory is useful as a foundation for a ratio nal approach to the engineering design process, as a background to engineering education, and other applications. The term "technical system" is used to represent all types of man-made artifacts, including technical products and processes. The technical system is therefore the subject (in the grammatical sense of the word) of the collection of activities which are performed by engineers within the processes of engineering design, including generating, retrieving, processing and transmitting of information about products. It is also the subject of various tasks in the production process, including work preparation and production planning, and in many economic considerations, company-internal and societal. In this way, the Theory of Technical Systems is a contribution to science, as in terpreted in the wider, Germanic sense of a "co-ordinated and codified body of knowledge". It brings together the various viewpoints of engineers, scientists, economists, ergonomists, managers, users, sociologists, etc., and shows where and how they influence the forms of engineering products. It also explains the influ ences that a product exerts on its environment. This Theory of Technical Systems should thus interest design engineers, and en gineers involved in production, management, sales, etc. In an interdisciplinary ap plication of value analysis, the Theory of Technical Systems should provide answers to many questions raised in this field.
Description : Lifestyle and Social Structure: Concepts, Definitions, Analyses is devoted the relationship between lifestyle and social structure. The book begins by constructing a meaningful concept of lifestyle in order to understand and model this relationship. The general formulation of the concept hinges on the descriptive word style, defined as ""any distinctive, and therefore recognizable way in which an act is performed or an artifact made or ought to be performed and made."" After developing the implications of the definition, lifestyle is defined, by analogy, as ""any distinctive, and therefore recognizable mode of living."" The notion of social structure is then introduced, arguing that structural differentiation engenders lifestyle differentiation. The remainder of the work is concerned primarily with the modeling of this relationship using data from the 1972-1973 Survey of Consumer Expenditures, and with the concept of stylistic unity. Key topics discussed include the relationship between the theory of lifestyle differentiation and modern economic utility theory; psychographic notions of lifestyle; and the relationships between lifestyle and other key sociological concepts (stratification, alienation). The concept of lifestyle should be of interest to a broad range of applied and theoretical researchers.
Collapse Operations for First Responders discusses in detail the common warning signs of structural collapse and what to do when they are encountered, providing a practical, hands-on approach to operating safely and effectively in collapse rescue situations.
Discussion is chiefly directed toward one of the most common types of structures around the country, wood and brick-and-joist (ordinary-constructed) buildings, known as URM (unreinforced masonry) construction.
Various types of shoring and cribbing techniques vital to collapse rescue operations, as well as void size-up, safety at collapse operations, tools used in voids, and void procedures are explored.
Collapse Operations for First Responders is a must-have resource for firefighters, officers, chiefs, and technical rescue response personnel.
Description : The New Wider World Coursemate for OCR A GCSE Geography provides summaries of key content and key ideas to support OCR's 2001 Geography A specification.