Cell Mechanics

Author by : Yu-Li Wang
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
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Description : Cell mechanics is the field of study that looks at how cells detect, modify, and respond to the physical properties of the cell environment. Cells communicate with each other through chemical and physical signals which are involved in a range of process from embryogenesis and wound healing to pathological conditions such as cancerous invasion. Similar principles are also likely to be critical for success in regenerative medicine. Cell mechanics is thus central to understanding these principles. As cell mechanics draws from the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and mathematics, this book aims not only to provide a collection of research methods, but also to develop a common language among scientists who share the interest in cell mechanics but enter the field with diverse backgrounds. To this end all of the contributing authors have sought to explain in plain language the nature of the biological problems, the rationale for the approaches, in addition to the methods themselves. In addition, to balance practical utility against conceptual advances, Cell Mechanics has intentionally included both chapters that provide detailed recipes and those that emphasize basic principles. Presents a distinctive emphasis on matrix mechanics and their interplay with cell functions Includes highly significant topics relevant to basic and translational research, as well as tissue engineering Emphasizes mechanical input and output of cells


Cell Mechanics And Cellular Engineering

Author by : Van C. Mow
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 38
Total Download : 887
File Size : 50,5 Mb
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Description : Cell mechanics and cellular engineering may be defined as the application of principles and methods of engineering and life sciences toward fundamental understanding of structure-function relationships in normal and pathological cells and the development of biological substitutes to restore cellular functions. This definition is derived from one developed for tissue engineering at a 1988 NSF workshop. The reader of this volume will see the definition being applied and stretched to study cell and tissue structure-function relationships. The best way to define a field is really to let the investigators describe their areas of study. Perhaps cell mechanics could be compartmentalized by remembering how some of the earliest thinkers wrote about the effects of mechanics on growth. As early as 1638, Galileo hypothesized that gravity and of living mechanical forces place limits on the growth and architecture organisms. It seems only fitting that Robert Hooke, who gave us Hooke's law of elasticity, also gave us the word "cell" in his 1665 text, Micrographid, to designate these elementary entities of life. Julius Wolffs 1899 treatise on the function and form of the trabecular architecture provided an incisive example of the relationship between the structure of the body and the mechanical load it bears. In 1917, D' Arcy Thompson's On Growth and Form revolutionized the analysis of biological processes by introducing cogent physical explanations of the relationships between the structure and function of cells and organisms.


Introduction To Cell Mechanics And Mechanobiology

Author by : Christopher R. Jacobs
Languange : en
Publisher by : Garland Science
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 38
Total Download : 629
File Size : 42,9 Mb
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Description : Introduction to Cell Mechanics and Mechanobiology is designed for a one-semester course in the mechanics of the cell offered to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biomedical engineering, bioengineering, and mechanical engineering. It teaches a quantitative understanding of the way cells detect, modify, and respond to the physical prope


Cell Mechanics

Author by : Arnaud Chauvière
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
Total Download : 708
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : Ubiquitous and fundamental in cell mechanics, multiscale problems can arise in the growth of tumors, embryogenesis, tissue engineering, and more. Cell Mechanics: From Single Scale-Based Models to Multiscale Modeling brings together new insight and research on mechanical, mathematical, physical, and biological approaches for simulating the behavior of cells, specifically tumor cells. In the first part of the text, the book discusses the powerful tool of microrheology for investigating cell mechanical properties, multiphysics and multiscale approaches for studying intracellular mechanisms in cell motility, and the role of subcellular effects involving certain genes for inducing cell motility in cancer. Focusing on models based on physical, mathematical, and computational approaches, the second section develops tools for describing the complex interplay of cell adhesion molecules and the dynamic evolution of the cell cytoskeleton. The third part explores cell interactions with the environment, particularly the role of external mechanical forces and their effects on cell behavior. The final part presents innovative models of multicellular systems for developmental biology, cancer, and embryogenesis. This book collects novel methods to apply to cells and tissues through a multiscale approach. It presents numerous existing tools while stimulating the discovery of new approaches that can lead to more effective and accurate predictions of pathologies.


Cellular Mechanics And Biophysics

Author by : Claudia Tanja Mierke
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 71
Total Download : 570
File Size : 47,5 Mb
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Description : This book focuses on the mechanical properties of cells, discussing the basic concepts and processes in the fields of immunology, biology, and biochemistry. It introduces and explains state-of-the-art biophysical methods and examines the role of mechanical properties in the cell/protein interaction with the connective tissue microenvironment. The book presents a unique perspective on cellular mechanics and biophysics by combining the mechanical, biological, physical, biochemical, medical, and immunological views, highlighting the importance of the mechanical properties of cells and biophysical measurement methods. The book guides readers through the complex and growing field of cellular mechanics and biophysics, connecting and discussing research findings from different fields such as biology, cell biology, immunology, physics, and medicine. Featuring suggestions for further reading throughout and addressing a wide selection of biophysical topics, this book is an indispensable guide for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in the fields of cellular mechanics and biophysics.


Measuring Cell Mechanics

Author by : Margaret Gardel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Biota Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 486
File Size : 47,8 Mb
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Description : Cells are inherently physical entities that both experience mechanical forces from their external environment and generate their own internal forces to drive cell motion. Our particular aim here is to present the reader with an introduction to the primary tools used to measure these mechanical interactions and the material properties of cells that result from them. These approaches can be applied to a diverse array of physiological processes and systems, providing important insight into the regulatory roles of mechanical interactions in cells. We cover techniques at both the molecular and cellular scales, including those that actively and passively probe the system. Along the way we cover the fundamental principles of each approach, while emphasizing the relevant length and timescales, along with the typical magnitudes of the measurements that can be made. Each section ends by highlighting uses of the various techniques in recent relevant publications, illustrating the exciting future of cell mechanics in quantitative cell biology research.


Advances In Cell Mechanics

Author by : Shaofan Li
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
Total Download : 641
File Size : 47,5 Mb
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Description : "Advances in Cell Mechanics" presents the latest developments in cell mechanics and biophysics, mainly focusing on interdisciplinary research in cell biology and the biophysics of cells. Moreover, a unique feature of the book is its emphasis on the molecular and complex continuum modeling and simulations of the cells. It may be the first work that brings rigorous and quantitative scientific analysis and state-of-the-art simulation technology into cell biology research. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the fields of molecular cell biology, bio-engineering and bio-mechanics, soft matter physics, computational mechanics, bio-chemistry and bio-medicine. All contributors are leading scholars in their respective fields. Dr. Shaofan Li is a professor and an expert for computational mechanics at the University of California-Berkeley, USA; Dr. Bohua Sun is a professor at Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.


Nano And Cell Mechanics

Author by : Horacio D. Espinosa
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
Total Download : 978
File Size : 44,5 Mb
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Description : Research in nano and cell mechanics has received much attention from the scientific community as a result of society needs and government initiatives to accelerate developments in materials, manufacturing, electronics, medicine and healthcare, energy, and the environment. Engineers and scientists are currently engaging in increasingly complex scientific problems that require interdisciplinary approaches. In this regard, studies in this field draw from fundamentals in atomistic scale phenomena, biology, statistical and continuum mechanics, and multiscale modeling and experimentation. As a result, contributions in these areas are spread over a large number of specialized journals, which prompted the Editors to assemble this book. Nano and Cell Mechanics: Fundamentals and Frontiers brings together many of the new developments in the field for the first time, and covers fundamentals and frontiers in mechanics to accelerate developments in nano- and bio-technologies. Key features: • Provides an overview of recent advances in nano and cell mechanics. • Covers experimental, analytical, and computational tools used to investigate biological and nanoscale phenomena. • Covers fundamentals and frontiers in mechanics to accelerate developments in nano- and bio-technologies. • Presents multiscale-multiphysics modeling and experimentation techniques. • Examines applications in materials, manufacturing, electronics, medicine and healthcare. Nano and Cell Mechanics: Fundamentals and Frontiers is written by internationally recognized experts in theoretical and applied mechanics, applied physics, chemistry, and biology. It is an invaluable reference for graduate students of nano- and bio-technologies, researchers in academia and industry who are working in nano and cell mechanics, and practitioners who are interested in learning about the latest analysis tools. The book can also serve as a text for graduate courses in theoretical and applied mechanics, mechanical engineering, materials science, and applied physics.


Cytoskeletal Mechanics

Author by : Mohammad R. K. Mofrad
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 448
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : This book presents a full spectrum of views on current approaches to modeling cell mechanics. The authors come from the biophysics, bioengineering and physical chemistry communities and each joins the discussion with a unique perspective on biological systems. Consequently, the approaches range from finite element methods commonly used in continuum mechanics to models of the cytoskeleton as a cross-linked polymer network to models of glassy materials and gels. Studies reflect both the static, instantaneous nature of the structure, as well as its dynamic nature due to polymerization and the full array of biological processes. While it is unlikely that a single unifying approach will evolve from this diversity, it is the hope that a better appreciation of the various perspectives will lead to a highly coordinated approach to exploring the essential problems and better discussions among investigators with differing views.


Computational Blood Cell Mechanics

Author by : Ivan Cimrak
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
Total Download : 647
File Size : 54,9 Mb
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Description : Simulating blood cells for biomedical applications is a challenging goal. Whether you want to investigate blood flow behavior on the cell scale, or use a blood cell model for fast computational prototyping in microfluidics, Computational Blood Cell Mechanics will help you get started, and show you the path forward. The text presents a step-by-step approach to cell model building that can be adopted when developing and validating models for biomedical applications, such as filtering and sorting cells, or examining flow and deformations of individual cells under various conditions. It starts with basic building-blocks that, together, model the red blood cell membrane according to its physical properties, before moving on to discuss several issues that may pose problems along the way, and finally leads to suggestions on how to set up computational experiments. More details available at www.compbloodcell.eu


Mechanics Of The Cell

Author by : David Boal
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 775
File Size : 51,5 Mb
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Description : Exploring the mechanical features of biological cells, including their architecture and stability, this textbook is a pedagogical introduction to the interdisciplinary fields of cell mechanics and soft matter physics from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. This second edition has been greatly updated and expanded, with new chapters on complex filaments, the cell division cycle, the mechanisms of control and organization in the cell, and fluctuation phenomena. The textbook is now in full color which enhances the diagrams and allows the inclusion of new microscopy images. With around 280 end-of-chapter exercises exploring further applications, this textbook is ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics and biomedical engineering. A website hosted by the author contains extra support material, diagrams and lecture notes, and is available at www.cambridge.org/Boal.


Cell And Matrix Mechanics

Author by : Roland Kaunas
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 364
File Size : 45,7 Mb
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Description : Explores a Range of Multiscale Biomechanics/Mechanobiology Concepts Cell and Matrix Mechanics presents cutting-edge research at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in the field of cell mechanics. This book involves key experts in the field, and covers crucial areas of cell and tissue mechanics, with an emphasis on the roles of mechanical forces in cell–matrix interactions. Providing material in each chapter that builds on the previous chapters, it effectively integrates length scales and contains, for each length scale, key experimental observations and corresponding quantitative theoretical models. Summarizes the Three Hierarchical Levels of Cell Mechanics The book contains 14 chapters and is organized into three sections. The first section focuses on the molecular level, the second section details mechanics at the cellular level, and the third section explores cellular mechanics at the tissue level. The authors offer a thorough description of the roles of mechanical forces in cell and tissue biology, and include specific examples. They incorporate descriptions of associated theoretical models, and provide the data and modeling framework needed for a multi-scale analysis. In addition, they highlight the pioneering studies in cell–matrix mechanics by Albert K. Harris. The topics covered include: The passive and active mechanical properties of cytoskeletal polymers and associated motor proteins along with the behavior of polymer networks The mechanical properties of the cell membrane, with an emphasis on membrane protein activation caused by membrane forces The hierarchical organization of collagen fibrils, revealing that a delicate balance exists between specific and nonspecific interactions to result in a structure with semicrystalline order as well as loose associations The roles of matrix mechanical properties on cell adhesion and function along with different mechanical mechanisms of cell–cell interactions The effects of mechanical loading on cell cytoskeletal remodeling, summarizing various modeling approaches that explain possible mechanisms regulating the alignment of actin stress fibers in response to stretching The mechanical testing of cell-populated collagen matrices, along with theory relating the passive and active mechanical properties of the engineered tissues Cell migration behavior in 3-D matrices and in collective cell motility The role of mechanics in cartilage development The roles of both cellular and external forces on tissue morphogenesis The roles of mechanical forces on tumor growth and cancer metastasis Cell and Matrix Mechanics succinctly and systematically explains the roles of mechanical forces in cell–matrix biology. Practitioners and researchers in engineering and physics, as well as graduate students in biomedical engineering and mechanical engineering related to mechanobiology, can benefit from this work.


Cell Mechanics And Tumor Development

Author by : Ronald L Huston
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Scientific
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
Total Download : 337
File Size : 43,6 Mb
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Description : The focus of this book is on centrioles — small organelles adjacent to the nucleus in all human and animal (eucaryotic) cells. It provides the findings and critical analyses of over 750 articles written in this century.In addition to centrioles, the topics include: centrosomes, chromosomes, microtubules and kinetochores, cell division and duplication, and tumor development. The book also includes discussions on centriole dynamics and electromagnetics effects. It concludes with a chapter on centriole errors — particularly cells with supernumerary centrioles.The book is intended for students, scholars, and researchers studying and working in the field of nuclear mechanics. In addition to the book content, it provides a guide for literature investigation.


Cell Mechanics

Author by : Ludwig Rhumbler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 725
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Cell Mechanics

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
Total Download : 420
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Cellular And Biomolecular Mechanics And Mechanobiology

Author by : Amit Gefen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 94
Total Download : 579
File Size : 49,9 Mb
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Description : This book describes these exciting new developments, and presents experimental and computational findings that altogether describe the frontier of knowledge in cellular and biomolecular mechanics, and the biological implications, in health and disease. The book is written for bioengineers with interest in cellular mechanics, for biophysicists, biochemists, medical researchers and all other professionals with interest in how cells produce and respond to mechanical loads.


Modeling The Electrochemo Poromechanics Of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites And Cell Clusters

Author by : Alessandro Leronni
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 73
Total Download : 426
File Size : 41,5 Mb
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Description : This book presents a novel continuum finite deformation framework addressing the complex interactions among electrostatics, species transport, and mechanics in solid networks immersed in a fluid phase of solvent and ions. Grounded on cutting-edge multiphysics theories for soft active materials, the proposed model is primarily applied to ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs). First, the influence of shear deformation on the IPMC response is analyzed through semi-analytical solutions obtained via the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Second, the novel electrochemo-poromechanical theory is used to predict the curvature relaxation and electric discharge that are observed in IPMC actuation and sensing, respectively, under a sustained stimulus. This newly formulated theory is, in turn, applied to biological cell clusters. Here, important mechanical considerations are integrated into classical bioelectrical models, thus offering novel insights into the interplay of mechanical and electrical signaling in the coordination of developmental processes.


13th International Conference On Biomedical Engineering

Author by : Chwee Teck Lim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 405
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Description : th On behalf of the organizing committee of the 13 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, I extend our w- mest welcome to you. This series of conference began in 1983 and is jointly organized by the YLL School of Medicine and Faculty of Engineering of the National University of Singapore and the Biomedical Engineering Society (Singapore). First of all, I want to thank Mr Lim Chuan Poh, Chairman A*STAR who kindly agreed to be our Guest of Honour to give th the Opening Address amidst his busy schedule. I am delighted to report that the 13 ICBME has more than 600 participants from 40 countries. We have received very high quality papers and inevitably we had to turndown some papers. We have invited very prominent speakers and each one is an authority in their field of expertise. I am grateful to each one of them for setting aside their valuable time to participate in this conference. For the first time, the Biomedical Engineering Society (USA) will be sponsoring two symposia, ie “Drug Delivery S- tems” and “Systems Biology and Computational Bioengineering”. I am thankful to Prof Tom Skalak for his leadership in this initiative. I would also like to acknowledge the contribution of Prof Takami Yamaguchi for organizing the NUS-Tohoku’s Global COE workshop within this conference. Thanks also to Prof Fritz Bodem for organizing the symposium, “Space Flight Bioengineering”. This year’s conference proceedings will be published by Springer as an IFMBE Proceedings Series.


Anisotropy In Cell Mechanics

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
Total Download : 570
File Size : 52,5 Mb
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Description :


Cell Imaging Techniques

Author by : Douglas J. Taatjes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 50
Total Download : 692
File Size : 46,8 Mb
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Description : Cell imaging methodologies have now become essential research tools for a variety of disciplines that traditionally had not relied on them. In Cell Imaging Techniques: Methods and Protocols, distinguished international researchers describe in detail their state-of-the-art methods for the microscopic imaging of cells and molecules. The authors cover a wide spectrum of complementary techniques, including such methods as fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and laser scanning cytometry. Additional protocols on confocal scanning laser microscopy, quantitative computer-assisted image analysis, laser-capture microdissection, microarray image scanning, near-field scanning optical microscopy, and reflection contrast microscopy round out this eclectic collection of cutting-edge imaging techniques now available. The authors also discuss preparative methods for particles and cells by transmission electron microscopy. The protocols follow the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, each offering step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principles behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Timely and highly practical, Cell Imaging Techniques: Methods and Protocols provides researchers and clinicians with a richly useful guide to selecting and performing the best imaging method from a bewildering variety of microscopy-based techniques.


Cytoskeletal Mechanics

Author by : Mohammad R. K. Mofrad
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
Total Download : 470
File Size : 52,5 Mb
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Description : This book presents a full spectrum of views on current approaches to modeling cell mechanics. The authors of this book come from the biophysics, bioengineering, and physical chemistry communities and each joins the discussion with a unique perspective on biological systems. Consequently, the approaches range from finite element methods commonly used in continuum mechanics to models of the cytoskeleton as a cross-linked polymer network to models of glassy materials and gels. Studies reflect both the static, instantaneous nature of the structure, as well as its dynamic nature due to polymerization and the full array of biological processes. While it is unlikely that a single unifying approach will evolve from this diversity, it is our hope that a better appreciation of the various perspectives will lead to a highly coordinated approach to exploring the essential problems and better discussions among investigators with differing views.


Biomechanics Of Cells And Tissues

Author by : Paola Lecca
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 91
Total Download : 456
File Size : 54,5 Mb
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Description : The application of methodological approaches and mathematical formalisms proper to Physics and Engineering to investigate and describe biological processes and design biological structures has led to the development of many disciplines in the context of computational biology and biotechnology. The best known applicative domain is tissue engineering and its branches. Recent domains of interest are in the field of biophysics, e.g.: multiscale mechanics of biological membranes and films and filaments; multiscale mechanics of adhesion; biomolecular motors and force generation. Modern hypotheses, models, and tools are currently emerging and resulting from the convergence of the methods and phylosophycal apporaches of the different research areas and disciplines. All these emerging approaches share the purpose of disentangling the complexity of organisms, tissues, and cells and mimiking the function of living systems. The contributions presented in this book are current research highlights of six challenging and representative applicative domains of phyisical, engineering, and computational approaches in medicine and biology, i.e tissue engineering, modelling of molecular structures, cell mechanics and cell adhesión processes, cancer physics, and physico-chemical processes of metabolic interactions. Each chapter presents a compendium or a review of the original results achieved by authors in the last years. Furthermore, the book also wants to pinpoint the questions that are still open and that could propel the future research.


Advances In Experimental Mechanics Viii

Author by : Richard L. Burguete
Languange : en
Publisher by : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 72
Total Download : 611
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : This volume of Applied Mechanics and Materials contains the papers presented at the joint 2011 Annual British Society for Strain Measurement Conference and the 2011 Fall Society for Experimental Mechanics Conference. This is the first time that the two societies have held their conferences together. However, it is the sixth time that the papers from an Annual British Society for Strain Measurement Conference have been published as a collection in a volume of Applied Mechanics and Materials. Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). The 82 papers in this volume reflect the diverse nature of Experimental Mechanics, with the emphasis placed on Integrating Simulation and Experimentation for Validation. The papers come from both academia and industry, with more than half of the contributions originating from outside the UK; thus indicating the international flavour of this event.


Cell Cycle In Development

Author by : Jacek Z. Kubiak
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 859
File Size : 52,6 Mb
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Description : This book focuses on the intersection between cell cycle regulation and embryo development. Specific modifications of the canonical cell cycle occur throughout the whole period of development and are adapted to fulfil functions coded by the developmental program. Deciphering these adaptations is essential to comprehending how living organisms develop. The aim of this book is to review the best-known modifications and adaptations of the cell cycle during development. The first chapters cover the general problems of how the cell cycle evolves, while consecutive chapters guide readers through the plethora of such phenomena. The book closes with a description of specific changes in the cell cycle of neurons in the senescent human brain. Taken together, the chapters present a panorama of species - from worms to humans - and of developmental stages - from unfertilized oocyte to aged adult.


Microfabricated Systems Integrated With Biomolecular Probes For Cell Mechanics

Author by : Yunus Alapan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 946
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : Cell mechanics is a multidisciplinary field bridging cell biology with mechanics, and micro/nanotechnology, which synergize for better understanding of the complex nature of cells in their native microenvironment. Engineered microsystems integrated with biomolecular probes have remarkably robust compatibility with cells in terms of function, size, and physical properties. These new technologies have been rapidly advancing the cell mechanics field, such as in evaluation of mechanical alterations of red blood cells (RBCs) in sickle cell disease (SCD) and mechanical behavior of cells in directional three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. Decreased deformability and increased adhesion of RBCs to vascular endothelium is at the root of vaso-occlusion, which is the clinical hallmark of SCD and can result in pain crisis, wide-spread organ damage, and early mortality. However, these factors have been studied in isolation due to significant technological barriers faced in directly analyzing blood samples from diverse clinical phenotypes. In this work, a microfluidic device (SCD Biochip) functionalized with endothelium associated biomolecular probes, that allows simultaneous interrogation of RBC properties in physiological flow conditions at a single cell level, is developed. With this method, deformability and adhesion strength of healthy hemoglobin (HbA) and homozygous sickle hemoglobin (HbS) containing RBCs using whole blood samples from twelve subjects are studied. Heterogeneity of HbS-containing RBCs in terms of adhesion and deformability in flow is reported. Moreover, with the SCD Biochip, blood samples from over hundred subjects are analyzed and associations between the measured RBC adhesion to endothelium associated proteins and individual RBC characteristics, including hemoglobin content, fetal hemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate dehydrogenase level, and reticulocyte count are shown. Furthermore, it is critical to mimic physical properties of the native 3D cell environment to achieve aligned and elongated cellular phenotype for controlled and hierarchical study of cell behavior. A microfabricated pillar substrate is developed to confine, align, and elongate cells, allowing decoupled analysis of stiffness and directionality in 3D. Mesenchymal stem cells and cardiomyocytes are successfully confined in a 3D environment with precisely tunable stiffness anisotropy. It is discovered that anisotropically stiff micropillar substrates provide cellular confinement in 3D, aligning cells in the stiffer direction with extraordinary elongation.