Censorship

Author by : Derek Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : "Censorship: A World Encyclopedia presents a comprehensive view of censorship, from Ancient Egypt to those modern societies that claim to have abolished the practice. For each country in the world, the history of censorship is described and placed in context, and the media censored are examined: art, cyberspace, literature, music, the press, popular culture, radio, television, and the theatre, not to mention the censorship of language, the most fundamental censorship of all. Also included are surveys of major controversies and chronicles of resistance. Censorship will be an essential reference work for students of the many subjects touched by censorship and for all those who are interested in the history of and contemporary fate of freedom of expression."--Publisher's description.


Censorship

Author by : Mark Paxton
Languange : en
Publisher by : Greenwood
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 964
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Description : Covers the many-faceted historical controversies surrounding censorship, and considers contemporary and future challenges.


Censorship

Author by : Frank Caso
Languange : en
Publisher by : Infobase Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 704
File Size : 42,7 Mb
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Description : The issue of censorship remains prevalent in society, taking on many different forms - from suppressing individuals' rights to speak freely and read what they choose to curtailing the independence of the media. This work examines the history and practices of censorship in five countries - the United States, Russia, China, Zimbabwe, and Egypt.


Encyclopedia Of Censorship

Author by : Jonathon Green
Languange : en
Publisher by : Infobase Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
Total Download : 606
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Description : Articles examine the history and evolution of censorship, presented in A to Z format.


Censorship And Interpretation

Author by : Annabel M. Patterson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Univ of Wisconsin Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
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Description : Annabel Patterson explores the effects of censorship on both writing and reading in early modern England, drawing analogies and connections with France during the same period.


Censorship And Silencing

Author by : David Poles Professor of Law Robert Post
Languange : en
Publisher by : Getty Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 435
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Description : Censorship was once a predictable topic, dividing liberals and conservatives down the middle on issues like obscenity and national security. Today, the debate over the regulation of speech offers no such easy dichotomy, with feminists joining forces with religious fundamentalists to control pornography, and abortion rights advocates seeking to restrict clinic demonstrations while prolife groups defend their freedom to picket. Underlying this trend is a fundamental intellectual shift--exemplified by the work of Michel Foucault--that holds that the state is not the only agent of censorship. The thirteen contributors here explore the topic of censorship from the viewpoint of numerous disciplines and viewpoints.


Giving Offense

Author by : J. M. Coetzee
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 50
Total Download : 121
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Description : Winner of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature. J. M. Coetzee presents a coherent, unorthodox analysis of censorship from the perspective of one who has lived and worked under its shadow. The essays collected here attempt to understand the passion that plays itself out in acts of silencing and censoring. He argues that a destructive dynamic of belligerence and escalation tends to overtake the rivals in any field ruled by censorship. From Osip Mandelstam commanded to compose an ode in praise of Stalin, to Breyten Breytenbach writing poems under and for the eyes of his prison guards, to Aleksander Solzhenitsyn engaging in a trial of wits with the organs of the Soviet state, Giving Offense focuses on the ways authors have historically responded to censorship. It also analyzes the arguments of Catharine MacKinnon for the suppression of pornography and traces the operations of the old South African censorship system. "The most impressive feature of Coetzee's essays, besides his ear for language, is his coolheadedness. He can dissect repugnant notions and analyze volatile emotions with enviable poise."—Kenneth Baker, San Francisco Chronicle Book Review "Those looking for simple, ringing denunciations of censorship's evils will be disappointed. Coetzee explicitly rejects such noble tritenesses. Instead . . . he pursues censorship's deeper, more fickle meanings and unmeanings."—Kirkus Reviews "These erudite essays form a powerful, bracing criticism of censorship in its many guises."—Publishers Weekly "Giving Offense gets its incisive message across clearly, even when Coetzee is dealing with such murky theorists as Bakhtin, Lacan, Foucault, and René; Girard. Coetzee has a light, wry sense of humor."—Bill Marx, Hungry Mind Review "An extraordinary collection of essays."—Martha Bayles, New York Times Book Review "A disturbing and illuminating moral expedition."—Richard Eder, Los Angeles Times Book Review


Censorship In Japan

Author by : Heung Wah Wong
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
Total Download : 500
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Description : This book explores censorship, particularly film and video censorship, in Japan in modern times. It shows how most censorship has been the film and video industry exercising self-censorship and how this system has been problematic in that it has allowed dominant players in the industry to impose their own standards and exclude independent filmmakers. It outlines notable obscenity cases and discusses how industry self-censorship bodies have been undermined both by industry outsiders setting up their own alternative regimes and by the industry self-censorship bodies themselves being prosecuted for obscenity. The book also examines the conflict between the obscenity law, introduced in Meiji times when Japan was importing Western models, and the freedom of speech law, which was put in place by the US occupation administration after World War II. The book concludes by assessing the current state of censorship in Japan and likely future developments.


Fighting Words

Author by : Charles A. Ruud
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Toronto Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
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Description : First published in 1982, Fighting Words focuses on the most common form of censorship in Imperial Russia: the governmental system that screened written works before or after publication to determine their acceptability.


Censorship Of Political Caricature In Nineteenth Century France

Author by : Robert Justin Goldstein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Kent State University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
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Description : This work is an account of the struggle over freedom of caricature in France during the period between 1815 and 1914. Illustrated with caricatures originally published during the 19th century, it traces the attempt of the French authorities to control opposition political drawings and the attempts of caricaturists to evade restrictions on their craft.


Modes Of Censorship

Author by : Francesca Billiani
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
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Description : Modes of Censorship and Translation articulates a variety of scholarly and disciplinary perspectives and offers the reader access to the widening cultural debate on translation and censorship, including cross-national forms of cultural fertilization. It is a study of censorship and its patterns of operation across a range of disciplinary settings, from media to cultural and literary studies, engaging with often neglected genres and media such as radio, cinema and theatre. Adopting an interdisciplinary and transnational approach and bringing together contributions based on primary research which often draws on unpublished archival material, the volume analyzes the multi-faceted relationship between censorship and translation in different national contexts, including Italy, Spain, Great Britain, Greece, Nazi Germany and the GDR, focusing on the political, ideological and aesthetic implications of censorship, as well as the hermeneutic play fostered by any translational act. By offering innovative methodological interpretations and stimulating case studies, it proposes new readings of the operational modes of both censorship and translation. The essays gathered here challenge current notions of the accessibility of culture, whether in overtly ideological and politically repressive contexts, or in seemingly 'neutral' cultural scenarios.


James Joyce And Censorship

Author by : Paul Vanderham
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
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Description : James Joyce and Censorship is the first book to tell the fascinating story of the trials of Ulysses. Based on extensive archival research, it is also the first study of the trials to analyze their influence on the reception and composition of Ulysses in the context of Joyce's lifelong struggle with the censors, to evaluate their significance as an important turning point in the history of censorship, and to emphasize their relevance to contemporary debates regarding freedom of literary expression.


Global Insights On Theatre Censorship

Author by : Catherine O'Leary
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 389
File Size : 44,6 Mb
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Description : Theatre has always been subject to a wide range of social, political, moral, and doctrinal controls, with authorities and social groups imposing constraints on scripts, venues, staging, acting, and reception. Focusing on a range of countries and political regimes, this book examines the many forms that theatre censorship has taken in the 20th century and continues to take in the 21st, arguing that it remains a live issue in the contemporary world. The book re-examines assumptions about prohibition and state control, and offers a more complex reading of theatre censorship as a continuum ranging from the unconscious self-censorship built into social structures and discursive practices, through bureaucratic regulation or unofficial influence, up to detention and physical violence. An international team of contributors offers an illuminating set of case studies informed by both new archival research and the first-hand experience of playwrights and directors, covering theatre censorship in areas such as Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Poland, East Germany, Nepal, Zimbabwe, the USA, Ireland, and Britain. Focusing on right-wing dictatorships, post-colonial regimes, communist systems and Western democracies, the essays analyze methods and discourses of censorship, identify the multiple agents involved, examine the responses of theatremakers, and show how each example reveals important features of its political and cultural contexts. Expanding understanding of the nature and effects of censorship, this volume affirms the power of theatre to challenge authorized discourses and makes a timely contribution to debates about freedom of expression through performance.


Censorship And Literature In Fascist Italy

Author by : Guido Bonsaver
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Toronto Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 12
Total Download : 140
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Description : The history of totalitarian states bears witness to the fact that literature and print media can be manipulated and made into vehicles of mass deception. Censorship and Literature in Fascist Italy is the first comprehensive account of how the Fascists attempted to control Italy?s literary production. Guido Bonsaver looks at how the country?s major publishing houses and individual authors responded to the new cultural directives imposed by the Fascists. Throughout his study, Bonsaver uses rare and previously unexamined materials to shed light on important episodes in Italy?s literary history, such as relationships between the regime and particular publishers, as well as individual cases involving renowned writers like Moravia, Da Verona, and Vittorini. Censorship and Literature in Fascist Italy charts the development of Fascist censorship laws and practices, including the creation of the Ministry of Popular Culture and the anti-Semitic crack-down of the late 1930s. Examining the breadth and scope of censorship in Fascist Italy, from Mussolini?s role as ?prime censor? to the specific experiences of female writers, this is a fascinating look at the vulnerability of culture under a dictatorship.


Censorship Cultural Regulation In The Modern Age

Author by : Beate Müller
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rodopi
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
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Description : 'Censorship' has become a fashionable topic, not only because of newly available archival material from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, but also because the 'new censorship' (inspired by the works of Foucault and Bourdieu) has widened the very concept of censorhip beyond its conventional boundaries. This volume uses these new materials and perspectives to address the relationship of censorship to cultural selection processes (such as canon formation), economic forces, social exclusion, professional marginalization, silencing through specialized discourses, communicative norms, and other forms of control and regulation. Two articles in this collection investigate these issue theoretically. The remaining eight contributions address the issues by investigating censorial practice across time and space by looking at the closure of Paul's playhouse in 1606; the legacy of 19th century American regulations and representation of women teachers; the relationship between official and samizdat publishing in Communist Poland; the ban on Gegenwartsfilme (films about contemporary society) in East Germany in 1965/66; the censorship of modernist music in Weimar and Nazi Germany; the GDR's censorship of jazz and avantgarde music in the early 1950s; Aesopian strategies of textual resistance in the pop music of apartheid South Africa and in the stories of Mario Benedetti.


Internet Censorship A Reference Handbook

Author by : Bernadette H. Schell
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 40
Total Download : 998
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Description : Covering topics ranging from web filters to laws aimed at preventing the flow of information, this book explores freedom—and censorship—of the Internet and considers the advantages and disadvantages of policies at each end of the spectrum. • Introduces key concepts and traces the evolution of Internet censorship from its earliest days • Shows how anti-censorship groups—including the American Civil Liberties Union, the OpenNet Initiative, Reporters Without Borders, Anonymous, WikiLeaks, and the Censorware Project—band together to fight for freedom of information • Explores the role of American businesses in facilitating Internet censorship abroad • Shares opinions on Internet freedom versus Internet censorship from experts in a range of fields, including criminology, political science, philosophy, and psychology • Includes an overview of Internet usage and penetration rates by region and an examination of the Freedom on the Net 2012 findings


The Oxford Handbook Of Music Censorship

Author by : Patricia Hall
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 717
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Description : Throughout history and across the globe, governments have taken a strong hand in censoring music. Whether in the interests of "safeguarding" the moral and religious values of their citizens or of promoting their own political goals, the character and severity of actions taken to suppress and control music that has been categorized as unacceptable, immoral, or as the Nazi's termed the music of Jewish and modernist composers, "degenerate," ranges from economic sanctions to forced immigration, imprisonment, and death. Yet in almost all cases composers found methods to counter this suppression and to let their voices be heard, even through the very music they were often forced to compose for the oppressing parties. In this first major collection of its kind, thirty contributors tackle centuries of music censorship across the globe from the medieval era to the modern day. Case studies address a number of instances both well- and lesser-known, including the tumultuous history of Wagner and Israel, rap music in the United States, silencing of women composers, and music in post-revolutionary Iran. Sections are organized by nature of censorship - religious, racial, and sexual - and type of government enforcement - democratic, totalitarian, and transitional. Focusing on individual composers and artists as well as eras within single countries, this Handbook champions the efficacy of music as an agent of collective power and resilience.


Researching Music Censorship

Author by : Annemette Kirkegaard
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
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Description : Freedom of expression and its direct counterpart, censorship and silencing, are increasingly gaining attention in the world of art and culture. Through the growth of social media and its worldwide distribution, arts and cultural products are shared, and the increased visibility and audibility of culture is highlighted through iconic and pivotal clashes, such as the fatwa on The Satanic Verses in 1989, the recurring bans on the music of Wagner, the alleged censorship of playlists following 9/11, and the cartoon crisis in 2006. This volume takes the discussion directly to the field of music studies in a broad frame and insists on examining music censorship in a global perspective. The book addresses the important and increasingly relevant issue of scholarship on music censorship and thus contributes to a detailed understanding of the phenomenon. Often, words and semantic meaning are held to be determining to the restrictions on musicians and singers, but as this collection documents, the reasons for censorship might not always be found in verbal messages. Rather, the positioning of a more broad understanding of why and how music can convey meaning and accordingly trigger censorship and bans is at the heart of this work. The complexity of music censorship includes historical, structural as well as emotional ‘listenings’ and interpretations of sound. The topic, accordingly, is political, as well as scholarly urgent.


Anatomy Of Censorship

Author by : Harry White
Languange : en
Publisher by : University Press of America
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
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Description : Bringing together diverse disciplines such as literary and legal history, modern psychology and contemporary feminism, Anatomy of Censorship sorts out the many confusing explanations and often misleading justifications for censorship to reveal the underlying conditions and motivations that lead to the suppression of various forms of communication. It explains why censors are notoriously incapable of identifying what defines obscene, immoral or illicit expression and how they actually profit from this failure on their part. It shows how censors ultimately aim not to define expression, but people: how they use censorship to stigmatize classes of people as more prone to corruption and depravity, and how they thereby seek to protect the authority of the few rather than, as they falsely claim, the morality of the many. Above all, it offers a timely critique of the most seductive and bogus justification for censorship: that expression has the capacity to cause actual harm. It shows how the law and the censor conspire to foster this unsupported fabrication in the face of overwhelming evidence that no causal link between expression and harm has ever been discovered.


British Modernism And Censorship

Author by : Celia Marshik
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
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Description : Government censorship was a benefit as well as a constraint for many modernists, as this enlightening study shows.


Negotiating Censorship In Modern Japan

Author by : Rachael Hutchinson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
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Description : Censorship in Japan has seen many changes over the last 150 years and each successive system of rule has possessed its own censorship laws, regulations, and methods of enforcement. Yet what has remained constant through these many upheavals has been the process of negotiation between censor and artist that can be seen across the cultural media of modern society. By exploring censorship in a number of different Japanese art forms – from popular music and kabuki performance through to fiction, poetry and film – across a range of historical periods, this book provides a striking picture of the pervasiveness and strength of Japanese censorship across a range of media; the similar tactics used by artists of different media to negotiate censorship boundaries; and how censors from different systems and time periods face many of the same problems and questions in their work. The essays in this collection highlight the complexities of the censorship process by investigating the responsibilities and choices of all four groups – artists, censors, audience and ideologues – in a wide range of case studies. The contributors shift the focus away from top-down suppression, towards the more complex negotiations involved in the many stages of an artistic work, all of which involve movement within boundaries, as well as testing of those boundaries, on the part of both artist and censor. Taken together, the essays in this book demonstrate that censorship at every stage involves an act of human judgment, in a context determined by political, economic and ideological factors. This book and its case studies provide a fascinating insight into the dynamics of censorship and how these operate on both people and texts. As such, it will be of great interest to students and scholars interested in Japanese studies, Japanese culture, society and history, and media studies more generally.


Cinema Censorship And Sexuality 1909 1925 Routledge Revivals

Author by : Annette Kuhn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
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Description : First published in 1988. This book shows how censorship as a set of institutions, practices and discourses was involved in the struggle over the nature of cinema in the early twentieth century. It also reveals the part played in this struggle by other institutions, practices and discourses � for example �new� knowledge about sexuality and organisations devoted to the promotion of public morality. Instead of censorship simply being an act of prohibition by a special institution, this work reveals the issues at work were far more complex and contradictory � opening up critical scrutiny and challenging assumptions. This title will be of interest to students of media and film studies.


Banned In The Media

Author by : Herbert N. Foerstel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Greenwood
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 72
Total Download : 490
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Description : Examines the history of censorship in the media, discusses seven prominent cases of media censorship, and presents a chronological history of twenty-eight media-censorship court cases since 1812


You Can T Read This Book Censorship In An Age Of Freedom

Author by : Nick Cohen
Languange : en
Publisher by : HarperCollins UK
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
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Description : The uncompromising Nick Cohen exposes the reality behind the freedoms we enjoy in the book that won Polemic of the Year at the 2013 Political Book Awards.


Censoring Translation

Author by : Michelle Woods
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
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Description : A play is written, faces censorship and is banned in its native country. There is strong international interest; the play is translated into English, it is adapted, and it is not performed. Censoring Translation questions the role of textual translation practices in shaping the circulation and reception of foreign censored theatre. It examines three forms of censorship in relation to translation: ideological censorship; gender censorship; and market censorship. This examination of censorship is informed by extensive archival evidence from the previously unseen archives of Václav Havel's main theatre translator, Vera Blackwell, which includes drafts of playscripts, legal negotiations, reviews, interviews, notes and previously unseen correspondence over thirty years with Havel and central figures of the theatre world, such as Kenneth Tynan, Martin Esslin, and Tom Stoppard. Michelle Woods uses this previously unresearched archive to explore broader questions on censorship, asking why texts are translated at a given time, who translates them, how their identity may affect the translation, and how the constituents of success in a target culture may involve elements of censorship.


The New Censorship

Author by : Joel Simon
Languange : en
Publisher by : Columbia University Press
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Total Read : 52
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Description : An examination of how the media is under fire and how to safeguard journalists and the information they seek to share with the public. Journalists are being imprisoned and killed in record numbers. Online surveillance is annihilating privacy, and the Internet can be brought under government control at any time. Joel Simon, the executive director of the Committee to Protect Journalists, warns that we can no longer assume that our global information ecosystem is stable, protected, and robust. Journalists are increasingly vulnerable to attack by authoritarian governments, militants, criminals, and terrorists, who all seek to use technology, political pressure, and violence to set the global information agenda. Reporting from Pakistan, Russia, Turkey, Egypt, and Mexico, among other hotspots, Simon finds journalists under threat from all sides. The result is a growing crisis in information—a shortage of the news we need to make sense of our globalized world and fight human rights abuses, manage conflict, and promote accountability. Drawing on his experience defending journalists on the front lines, he calls on “global citizens,” U.S. policy makers, international law advocates, and human rights groups to create a global freedom-of-expression agenda tied to trade, climate, and other major negotiations. He proposes ten key priorities, including combating the murder of journalists, ending censorship, and developing a global free-expression charter to challenge the criminal and corrupt forces that seek to manipulate the world's news. “Wise and insightful. [Simon] offers hope to all who care about maintaining the free flow of information in a world full of would-be censors.”—Ann Cooper, Columbia Journalism School


Film Censorship In The Asia Pacific Region

Author by : Saw Tiong Guan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
Total Download : 215
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Description : Film censorship has always been a controversial matter, particularly in jurisdictions with restrictive state-based censorship systems. This book reviews the film censorship system in the Asia-Pacific by comparing the systems used in Malaysia, Hong Kong and Australia. It identifies the key issues and concerns that arise from the design and implementation of the system by examining the censorship laws, policies, guidelines and processes. The book evaluates film practitioners’ and censors’ opinion of, and experience in, dealing with those issues, and goes on to develop reform proposals for the film censorship system.


Dictionary Of Literary And Dramatic Censorship In Tudor And Stuart England

Author by : Dorothy Auchter
Languange : en
Publisher by : Greenwood Publishing Group
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
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Description : The Tudor and Stuart eras have been described as England's golden age, in large part because of the flowering of its literary and dramatic culture. Ironically, repressive government controls over freedom of expression existed side-by-side with some of the greatest literary accomplishments of the age. The 92 entries in this reference book highlight the major issues which could provoke the wrath of the censor, the ways in which works were modified in response to censorship, and the fate of the authors who faced the censor's wrath. Although there is a wealth of information on censorship in the twentieth century, this is one of the few reference works to address censorship during the Renaissance.


Theatre Censorship From Walpole To Wilson

Author by : David Thomas
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 97
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Description : Using previously unpublished material from the National Archives, David Thomas, David Carlton, and Anne Etienne provide a new perspective on British cultural history. Statutory censorship was first introduced in Britain by Sir Robert Walpole with his Licensing Act of 1737. Previously theatre censorship was exercised under the Royal Prerogative. By giving the Lord Chamberlain statutory powers of theatre censorship, Walpole ensured that confusion over the relationship between theRoyal Prerogative and statute law would prevent any serious challenge to theatre censorship in Parliament until the twentieth century.The authors place theatre censorship legislation and its attempted reform in their wider political context. Sections outlining the political history of key periods explain why theatre censorship legislation was introduced in 1737, why attempts to reform the legislation failed in 1832, 1909, and 1949, and finally succeeded in 1968. Opposition from Edward VII helped to prevent the abolition of theatre censorship in 1909. In 1968, theatre censorship was abolished despite opposition from ElizabethII, Lord Cobbold (her Lord Chamberlain) and Harold Wilson (her Prime Minister). There was strong support for theatre censorship on the part of commercial theatre managers who saw censorship as offering protection from vexatious prosecution. A policy of inertia and deliberate obfuscation on the partof Home Office officials helped to prevent the abolition of theatre censorship legislation until 1968. It was only when playwrights, directors, critics, audiences, and politicians (notably Roy Jenkins) applied combined pressure that theatre censorship was finally abolished.The volume concludes by exploring whether new forms of covert censorship have replaced the statutory theatre censorship abolished with the 1968 Theatres Act.


Versions Of Censorship

Author by : Mairi MacInnes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 31
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Description : Censorship and all it implies in terms both of our historical understanding and of issues of enormous moment in contemporary life defies brief definition because it is an idea that always engages our prejudices, penetrates to the dim regions where our manners and mores take form, and shapes our attitude to the rule law, while at the same time the responses it evokes, whether pernicious or benevolent, depend upon the actualities of the historical moment. Censorship is fascinating because its theory demands some decision on its practice whenever there is an intellectual or political crisis; it is a measure of individual rationality and liberalism. History, which has accelerated so powerfully in recent decades, has diffused our attention, and we tend to overlook the most urgent of the threats to ourselves from ourselves. Censorship is one of the gauges of civilization, and it has always aroused men's most passionate and partisan feelings. The issues involved exploded into the modern world with John Milton's Areopagitica in 1644, and have become ever more pressing as our world has grown smaller and smaller. This anthology is therefore of urgent relevance to our own lives and times. Milton's thesis rests upon the issue of religious belief, and it introduces the book's first part, "Censorship and Belief." With "Censorship and Fact," the book moves to the conflict of the interests of science and freedom of speech with those of the state. In "Censorship and the Imagination," the issue turns on the question of what art is and how it functions in society. And, finally, comes "Self-Censorship," with Dostoievsky and Freud opening up that modern vista where neurosis and politics meet.