Chemical Modification Of Biological Polymers

Author by : Roger L. Lundblad
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : Examining the chemical modification of biological polymers and the emerging applications of this technology, Chemical Modification of Biological Polymers reflects the change in emphasis in this subsection of biotechnology from the study of protein structure and function toward applications in therapeutics and diagnostics. Highlights The basic organic chemistry of the modification proteins, nucleic acids, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and their applications New analytical technologies used to characterize the chemical modification of biological polymers Identification of in vivo, non-enzymatic chemical modification of biological polymers Specific chemical modifications to generate biopharmaceutical products This book covers the basics on the organic chemistry underlying the chemical modification of biopolymers, including updates on the use of various chemical reagents. It describes the current status of chemical modification of biological polymers and emerging applications of this technology in biotechnology. These technologies are important for the manufacture of conjugate proteins used in drug delivery, for the preparation of nucleic acid microarrays, and for the preparation of hydrogels and other materials used in tissue engineering.


Synthesis Of Biocomposite Materials

Author by : Yukio Imanishi
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 116
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Description : Biomaterials have been used for artificial-organ and bioreactor materials, and have gained importance for enhancement of human welfare. This book summarizes research devoted to creating useful biofunctional materials by chemical modification of natural polymers, and forecasts future development.


Renewable Polymers

Author by : Marc A. Dubé
Languange : en
Publisher by : MDPI
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 884
File Size : 47,9 Mb
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Description : The utilization of bio-resourced macromolecules for polymer applications has been the subject of increasing interest, mainly for sustainability and functionality reasons. This Special Issue of Processes brings together nine papers from leading scientists and researchers active in the area of “Sustainable and Renewable Polymers, Processing, and Chemical Modifications”. The collected papers include seven original research and two review articles related to renewable feedstock for polymer applications, processes for the fabrication of renewable polymer-based nanomaterials, the design and modification of renewable polymers, and applications of renewable polymers. The journal Processes will continue to nurture progress in this field through its position as an open access platform.


Acrylic Polymers

Author by : Elsayed Nadia
Languange : en
Publisher by : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 291
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : During the last two decades functionalization of polymer surfaces has been recognized as a valuable tool to improve their adhesion properties. It is very interesting research field due to its wide range of applications in engineering and physical and biological behaviors.The polymers can be functionalized either by introducing functional groups to the polymer using normal chemical reaction or by physical methods using polyethylene or polypropylene. The other method of functionalization is to synthesize new monomers containing the desired functional groups followed by polymerization of the monomers. The first route of modification of existing polymers is faced by some problems such as the medium of the reaction and the extent of modification. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to synthesize a new monomer by the reaction of acryloyl chloride with different reactant such as aniline, naphthylamine, salicylic acid, 8-aminoquniline and 4-Hydroxybenzalthiobarbituric acid.These monomers on polymerization using AIBN, afforded polymers with different functional groups according to the chemical structure of the starting materials.


Functional Polymers By Post Polymerization Modification

Author by : Patrick Theato
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 58
Total Download : 313
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Description : In modern polymer science a variety of polymerization methods for the direct synthesis of polymers bearing functional groups are known. However, there is still a large number of functional groups that may either completely prevent polymerization or lead to side reactions. Post-polymerization modification, also known as polymer-analogous modification, is an alternative approach to overcome these limitations. It is based on the polymerization of monomers with functional groups that are inert towards the polymerization conditions but allow a quantitative conversion in a subsequent reaction step yielding a broad range of other functional groups. Thus, diverse libraries of functional polymers with identical average degrees of polymerization but variable side chain functionality may easily be generated. Filling the gap for a book dealing with synthetic strategies and recent developments, this volume provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the field of post-polymerization modification. As such, the international team of expert authors covers a wide range of topics, including new synthetic techniques utilizing different reactive groups for post-polymerization modifications with examples ranging from modification of biomimetic and biological polymers to modification of surfaces. With its guidelines this is an indispensable and interdisciplinary reference for scientists working in both academic and industrial polymer research.


The Biological Chemistry Of The Elements

Author by : J. J. R. Frausto da Silva
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 95
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Description : This text describes the functional role of the twenty inorganic elements essential to life in living organisms.


Modification Of Starch A Green Approach

Author by : Yogini Bambardekar
Languange : en
Publisher by : Walnut Publication
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 267
File Size : 40,6 Mb
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Description : This book intends to introduce significance and efficacy of bio-polymers in diverse fields to the learners at graduate and post graduate level in various universities. Synthetic polymeric materials have captured almost every single field from food packaging to medicines, but at the same time their indiscriminate use is becoming a major threat to the environment as disposal of non-degradable material is still a big challenge to the industries. The present book will enable the learners growing importance of modified bio-polymers with enhanced properties. The first chapter of the book elaborates on starch as a potential bio-polymer. It reviews the morphology and amylose composition of starch in detail. The next chapter throws light on physico-chemical properties of natural bio-polymer that can be enhanced further for broader range of applications. Chapter 3 and 4 are the key components of the book extensively covering contemporary methods of physical and chemical modification. Applications of starch are discussed in chapter 5 inviting scope for researchers to explore enhanced properties of modified bio-polymers for wide applications. Role of cross- linker in modifying native starch is emphasized in chapter 6 with special focus on application of modified starch as trace pollutant adsorbent. The concluding chapter reviews the experimental study of cross- linked potato starch supplemented by characterization using instrumental techniques. Author expects the learners to develop interest in studying and synthesizing modified bio-polymers to explore applications in diverse fields.


Biosynthetic Polymers For Medical Applications

Author by : Laura Poole-Warren
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 482
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Description : Biosynthetic Polymers for Medical Applications provides the latest information on biopolymers, the polymers that have been produced from living organisms and are biodegradable in nature. These advanced materials are becoming increasingly important for medical applications due to their favorable properties, such as degradability and biocompatibility. This important book provides readers with a thorough review of the fundamentals of biosynthetic polymers and their applications. Part One covers the fundamentals of biosynthetic polymers for medical applications, while Part Two explores biosynthetic polymer coatings and surface modification. Subsequent sections discuss biosynthetic polymers for tissue engineering applications and how to conduct polymers for medical applications. Comprehensively covers all major medical applications of biosynthetic polymers Provides an overview of non-degradable and biodegradable biosynthetic polymers and their medical uses Presents a specific focus on coatings and surface modifications, biosynthetic hydrogels, particulate systems for gene and drug delivery, and conjugated conducting polymers


Introduction To Polymer Chemistry

Author by : Judit E. Puskas, Ph.D
Languange : en
Publisher by : DEStech Publications, Inc
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 859
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Description : Fundamental concepts and reactions explained through polymers from plants and animals Macromolecular structures introduced via biological polymers Includes a course syllabus, study questions and exercises Extensive lab guidance and protocols for DNA isolation, amplification using PCR Full color figures shown throughout the text This book connects modern synthetic polymer chemistry to its roots by exploring the chemistry of natural polymers and self-assembled macromolecular structures. Designed to introduce students to the basics of polymer science, the text investigates intermolecular forces, functional groups and key reactions by means of polymers found in, and produced by, living plants and animals, including proteins, rubber, DNA, fibers, lignin, carbohydrates and many others. The author explains how varied natural polymeric systems illustrate a wide array of fundamental polymer concepts. Key analogies are demonstrated between mechanisms in biological and synthetic polymerization, and the text uses growth, DNA replication, self-assembly and other biological processes to assist the student in mastering the terminology and molecular-level mechanisms of polymer chemistry. To guide both instructors and students the book includes the outline of a one-semester course syllabus, end-of-chapter questions, as well as detailed instructions for setting up multiple labs dealing with gene isolation and amplification using polymerase chain reaction techniques (PCR). Each chapter also offers exercises based on real-world examples.


Introduction To Polymer Chemistry Third Edition

Author by : Charles E. Carraher Jr.
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 144
File Size : 49,5 Mb
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Description : Continuing the tradition of its previous editions, the third edition of Introduction to Polymer Chemistry provides a well-rounded presentation of the principles and applications of natural, synthetic, inorganic, and organic polymers. With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this third edition offers detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, biomacromolecules, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, blends, caulks, composites, and ceramics. Using simple fundamentals, the book demonstrates how the basic principles of one polymer group can be applied to all of the other groups. It covers reactivities, synthesis and polymerization reactions, techniques for characterization and analysis, energy absorption and thermal conductivity, physical and optical properties, and practical applications. This edition addresses environmental concerns and green polymeric materials, including biodegradable polymers and microorganisms for synthesizing materials. Case studies woven within the text illustrate various developments and the societal and scientific contexts in which these changes occurred. Now including new material on environmental science, Introduction to Polymer Chemistry, Third Edition remains the premier book for understanding the behavior of polymers. Building on undergraduate work in foundational courses, the text fulfills the American Chemical Society Committee on Professional Training (ACS CPT) in-depth course requirement.


Carraher S Polymer Chemistry Ninth Edition

Author by : Charles E. Carraher Jr.
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 660
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : Most of the advancements in communication, computers, medicine, and air and water purity are linked to macromolecules and a fundamental understanding of the principles that govern their behavior. These fundamentals are explored in Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, Ninth Edition. Continuing the tradition of previous volumes, the latest edition provides a well-rounded presentation of the principles and applications of polymers. With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this edition offers detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, biomacromolecules, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, blends, caulks, composites, and ceramics. Using simple fundamentals, this book demonstrates how the basic principles of one polymer group can be applied to all of the other groups. It covers reactivities, synthesis and polymerization reactions, techniques for characterization and analysis, energy absorption and thermal conductivity, physical and optical properties, and practical applications. This edition includes updated techniques, new sections on a number of copolymers, expanded emphasis on nanotechnology and nanomaterials, and increased coverage of topics including carbon nanotubes, tapes and glues, photochemistry, and more. With topics presented so students can understand polymer science even if certain parts of the text are skipped, this book is suitable as an undergraduate as well as an introductory graduate-level text. The author begins most chapters with theory followed by application, and generally addresses the most critical topics first. He provides all of the elements of an introductory text, covering synthesis, properties, applications, and characterization. This user-friendly book also contains definitions, learning objectives, questions, and additional reading in each chapter.


Carraher S Polymer Chemistry Tenth Edition

Author by : Charles E. Carraher Jr.
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 426
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description : Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, Tenth Edition integrates the core areas of polymer science. Along with updating of each chapter, newly added content reflects the growing applications in Biochemistry, Biomaterials, and Sustainable Industries. Providing a user-friendly approach to the world of polymeric materials, the book allows students to integrate their chemical knowledge and establish a connection between fundamental and applied chemical information. It contains all of the elements of an introductory text with synthesis, property, application, and characterization. Special sections in each chapter contain definitions, learning objectives, questions, case studies and additional reading.


Polysaccharides

Author by : M. Yalpani
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 280
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description : This book provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the structures and properties of polysaccharides, methods for their characterization, de novo synthesis, and modification, as well as advances in structure/function correlations. Many of these topics are summarized for the first time. A brief survey of polysaccharide structures is given highlighting the most significant advances in analytical and spectroscopic technology (NMR, MS, etc.). A chapter is devoted to glycan properties, including conformational aspects, rheological and compatibility characteristics, etc. There is a comprehensive overview of the de novo synthesis of carbohydrate polymers, the transformation of glycans into novel types of polymers, and the preparation of linear and branched polysaccharide analogues and conjugates with synthetic polymers via chemical and enzymatic approaches. The book also details the factors controlling the uniformity of substitutions in homogeneous and heterogeneous derivatization processes and the elucidation of the substitution patterns of partially modified polysaccharides, through combined spectroscopic and statistical methods. One of the important developments in the glycan field is based on the increasing demand for greater control of the functional properties of these biopolymers. The book provides a very extensive account of various types of modifications, including selective and non-selective chemical techniques, biological methods that facilitate alterations or specific functional groups and properties through the application of synthetic or degradative enzymes, and mutational or recombinant DNA techniques. The coverage extends to the control of glycan integrity and molecular weight through chemical enzymatic, physical or other methods. Electrochemical modification techniques are also discussed. A particularly up-to-date and comprehensive review is given of polysaccharide structure/property relations. Here, the effects of primary structural parameters (composition, molecular size, branching, polyelectrolyte character and non-carbohydrate substituents) are discussed, as are factors which affect glycan solubility, viscosity and gel-forming capacity. Also included are the phenomena resulting from the interactions of polysaccharides with solvents, salts, polyols, surfactants, synthetic and biological polymers. The impact of glycan structural parameters on various biological activities, such as immunological, anticoagulant, and antitumour properties, is surveyed. The book features a foreword by Dr. R.H. Marchessault, and contains almost 2,000 references to the state-of-the-art in the field, as well as an extensive subject index, over 40 tables, and 130 schemes and illustrations. It provides a wealth of valuable information for specialists in polysaccharides, biochemists, biotechnologists, enzymologists, microbiologists, organic chemists, polymer scientists, and others whose work involves these biopolymers.


The Chemistry Of Bio Based Polymers

Author by : Johannes Karl Fink
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 35
Total Download : 442
File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : An exhaustive and timely overview of renewable polymers from a respected chemist and successful author The recent explosion of interdisciplinary research has fragmented the knowledge base surrounding renewable polymers. The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers brings together, in one volume, the research and work of Professor Johannes Fink, focusing on biopolymers that can be synthesized from renewable polymers. After introducing general aspects of the field, the book’s subsequent chapters examine the chemistry of biodegradable polymeric types sorted by their chemical compounds, including the synthesis of low molecular compounds. Various categories of biopolymers are detailed including vinyl-based polymers, acid and lactone polymers, ester and amide polymers, carbohydrate-related polymers and others. Procedures for the preparation of biopolymers and biodegradable nanocomposites are arranged by chemical methods and in vitro biological methods, with discussion of the issue of “plastics from bacteria.” The factors influencing the degradation and biodegradation of polymers used in food packaging, exposed to various environments, are detailed at length. The book covers the medical applications of bio-based polymers, concentrating on controlled drug delivery, temporary prostheses, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Professor Fink also addresses renewable resources for fabricating biofuels and argues for localized biorefineries, as biomass feedstocks are more efficiently handled locally. Audience The Chemistry of Bio-based Polymers will be read by chemists, polymer and materials scientists, chemical, bio-based, and biomedical engineers, agricultural and environmental faculty and all those who work in the bioeconomy area. This book will be critical for engineers in a number of industries including food packaging, medical devices, personal care, fuels, auto, and construction.


Chemistry And Biology Of Artificial Nucleic Acids

Author by : Martin Egli
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wiley-VCH
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 87
Total Download : 369
File Size : 52,5 Mb
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Description : This is the first book to provide a comprehensive overview of the field of artificial nucleic acids. Covering a tremendous amount of literature on the chemistry, biology, and structure of artificial nucleic acids, it will constitute an invaluable source of information for the specialist and for young researchers interested in starting a career in this fascinating field of research alike. This book combines the contributions of many of the major players in this research field, and covers the synthesis of sugar-, base- and backbone-modified nucleic acids, their structural characteristics studied by X-ray crystallography, and NMR in solution as well as their chemical and biological properties.


Soil Degradable Bioplastics For A Sustainable Modern Agriculture

Author by : Mario Malinconico
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 40
Total Download : 287
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : This book shows how the use of biodegradable plastics in agriculture can have a profound positive impact on plasticulture. Starting with an organic chemistry approach to biodegradable and compostable plastics, both natural and synthetic, it then analyzes the technological and agronomic aspects of existing bioplastics for protected cultivation (mulching, direct cover, low tunnels). It describes the new sprayable biodegradable mulching method, which is based on the use of waterborne polysaccharides and cellulosic fibers. A further chapter describes the research and technology of biodegradable plastics for different agricultural practices. It also includes chapters on life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodegradable plastics for agriculture, and existing and developing standards in the field. It is a valuable resource for agronomists, chemical and materials engineers, polymer technologists and scientists, as well as for a more general readership interested in the application of green chemistry principles to the vast world of crop production. Mario Malinconico is Research Director at the Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Italy. /p


Synthesis Biocomp Mtls Chem Bio Mod Natural Polymers

Author by : Yukio Imanishi
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC-Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 53
Total Download : 294
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Description : Modification of biologically active substances for biocompatible materials. Biocomposite materials for drug delivery systems. Modification of proteins for synthesizing biofunctional materials. Biocomposite materials for cell culture. Concluding remarks.


Polymers From Biobased Materials

Author by : Helena L. Chum
Languange : en
Publisher by : Noyes Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 965
File Size : 48,9 Mb
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Description : Polymers from biobased materials are polymers derived from renewable resources by chemical or combined chemical and mechanical methods, or produced directly in biological processes. Combinations of renewable and conventional fossil-fuel-derived plastics are also biobased materials. This assessment reviews materials from renewable resources and their properties including major biopolymers produced by plants and selected animal sources.


Biodegradable And Biobased Polymers For Environmental And Biomedical Applications

Author by : Susheel Kalia
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 136
File Size : 46,5 Mb
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Description : This volume incorporates 13 contributions from renowned experts from the relevant research fields that are related biodegradable and biobased polymers and their environmental and biomedical applications. Specifically, the book highlights: Developments in polyhydroxyalkanoates applications in agriculture, biodegradable packaging material and biomedical field like drug delivery systems, implants, tissue engineering and scaffolds The synthesis and elaboration of cellulose microfibrils from sisal fibres for high performance engineering applications in various sectors such as the automotive and aerospace industries, or for building and construction The different classes and chemical modifications of tannins Electro-activity and applications of Jatropha latex and seed The synthesis, properties and applications of poly(lactic acid) The synthesis, processing and properties of poly(butylene succinate), its copolymers, composites and nanocomposites The different routes for preparation polymers from vegetable oil and the effects of reinforcement and nano-reinforcement on the physical properties of such biobased polymers The different types of modified drug delivery systems together with the concept of the drug delivery matrix for controlled release of drugs and for antitumor drugs The use of nanocellulose as sustainable adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants mainly heavy metal ions, organic molecules, dyes, oil and CO2 The main extraction techniques, structure, properties and different chemical modifications of lignins Proteins and nucleic acids based biopolymers The role of tamarind seed polysaccharide-based multiple-unit systems in sustained drug release


Radiation Effects On Polymers For Biological Use

Author by : Henning Kausch
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 799
File Size : 54,5 Mb
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Description : Biomaterials repair, reinforce or replace damaged functional parts of the (human) body. All mechanical and biological interactions between an implant and the body occur across the interface, which has to correspond as nearly as possible to its particular function. Much of the progress in adapting polymer materials for use in a biological environment has been obtained through irradiation techniques. For this reason the most recent developments in four key areas are reviewed in this special volume: (1) the analysis of the topology and the elemental composition of a functional surface, (2) the chemical modification of the surface which results in highly pure, sterile and versatile surfaces, (3) the sterilisation of implantable devices via ionising radiation and its possible effects on the structural mechanical properties of polymers, and (4) the radiation effects on living cells and tissues which are of particular importance for radiation protection and radiotherapy.


Polyampholytes

Author by : Sarkyt E. Kudaibergenov
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 437
File Size : 55,6 Mb
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Description : In order to adapt the properties of living materials to their biological functions, nature has developed unique polyelectrolytes with outstanding physical, chemical and mechanical behavior. Namely polyampholytes can be suitable substances to model protein folding phenomenon and enzymatic activity most of biological macromolecules due to the presence of acidic and basic groups. The ability of linear and crosslinked amphoteric macromolecules to adopt globular, coil, helix and stretched conformations and to demonstrate coil-globule, helix-coil phase transitions, and sol-gel, collapsed expanded volume changes in relation to internal (nature and distribution of acid and base substituents, copolymer composition, hydrophobicity etc. ) and external (pH, temperature, ionic strength of the solution, thermodynamic quality of solvents etc. ) factors is very important and constantly attracts the attention of theorists and experimentalists because the hierarchy of amphoteric macromolecules can repeat, more or less, the structural organization of proteins. That is why polyampholytes fall within eyeshot of several disciplines, at least polymer chemistry and physics, molecular biology, colloid chemistry, coordination chemistry and catalysis. The main purpose of this monograph is to bridge the gap between synthetic and natural polymers and to show a closer relationship between two fascinating worlds. The first chapter of the book acquaints the readers with synthetic strategy of "annealed", "quenched" and "zwitterionic" polyampholytes. Radical copolymerization, chemical modification and radiation-chemical polymerization methods are thoroughly considered. Kinetics and mechanism of formation of random, alternating, graft, di-block or tri-block sequences is discussed. The second chapter deals with behavior of polyampholytes in solutions.


Biotechnology Of Plasma Proteins

Author by : Roger L. Lundblad
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
Total Download : 248
File Size : 54,9 Mb
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Description : The fractionation of human blood plasma can be considered to be a mature industry, with the basic technology, alcohol fractionation, dating back at least to the 1940s. Many of the products described in the current work have been approved biologics since the 1950s. The information gathered from the development of plasma proteins has proved vital to


Handbook Of Polymer Synthesis

Author by : Hans R. Kricheldorf
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
Total Download : 517
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Description : A compact but comprehensive review of the most important preparative methods for the synthesis and chemical modification of polymers. The contents of the two-volume handbook (Part A was cited in the May 1992 SciTech Book News) are subdivided according to the chemical structure of the polymer backbone on the one hand (Chapters 1-14 of Part A and 15-18 of Part B) and special properties and applications of polymers regardless of their chemical structure on the other hand (Chapters 19-27 of Part B). The latter chapters deal with, for instance, electroconductive polymers, polymeric reagents, and models of bio-polymers. Includes some 11,000 references to the original literature. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.


Handbook Of Thermoset Plastics

Author by : Ana Dotan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 31
Total Download : 991
File Size : 47,8 Mb
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Description : Thermosets from renewable sources have been a research focus for the last few decades. Bio-based thermoset resins are considered important candidates for sustainable development since they present the potential to reduce both CO2 footprints and the dependence on petroleum. In order to reduce the ecological impact of a polymer without compromising mechanical and thermal behavior, in some cases, partially bio-based raw materials are accepted. High bio-content resins based on low-toxicity raw materials are the goal for future bio-based thermoset polymers. Free formaldehyde bio-based phenol resins and free bisphenol A–epoxy resins are some examples of this green chemistry concept. The importance of the conversion of biomass into sustainable bio-based polymers is discussed. Chemical pathways developed to make monomers for thermoset polymers from vegetable oils, sugar, and bio-based polyphenols (lignin, tannin, cardanol) will be reviewed.


Radiation Effects On Polymers For Biological Use

Author by : Henning Kausch
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 31
Total Download : 803
File Size : 51,8 Mb
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Description : Biomaterials repair, reinforce or replace damaged functional parts of the (human) body. All mechanical and biological interactions between an implant and the body occur across the interface, which has to correspond as nearly as possible to its particular function. Much of the progress in adapting polymer materials for use in a biological environment has been obtained through irradiation techniques. For this reason the most recent developments in four key areas are reviewed in this special volume: (1) the analysis of the topology and the elemental composition of a functional surface, (2) the chemical modification of the surface which results in highly pure, sterile and versatile surfaces, (3) the sterilisation of implantable devices via ionising radiation and its possible effects on the structural mechanical properties of polymers, and (4) the radiation effects on living cells and tissues which are of particular importance for radiation protection and radiotherapy.


Handbook Of Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Fourth Edition

Author by : Roger L. Lundblad
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 956
File Size : 44,5 Mb
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Description : Edited by renowned protein scientist and bestselling author Roger L. Lundblad, with the assistance of Fiona M. Macdonald of CRC Press, this fourth edition of the Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology represents a dramatic revision — the first in two decades — of one of biochemistry's most referenced works. This edition gathers a wealth of information not easily obtained, including information not found on the web. Offering a molecular perspective not available 20 years ago, it provides physical and chemical data on proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Presented in an organized, concise, and simple-to-use format, this popular reference allows quick access to the most frequently used data. Covering a wide range of topics, from classical biochemistry to proteomics and genomics, it also details the properties of commonly used biochemicals, laboratory solvents, and reagents. Just a small sampling of the wealth of information found inside the handbook: Buffers and buffer solutions Heat capacities and combustion levels Reagents for the chemical modification of proteins Comprehensive classification system for lipids Biological characteristics of vitamins A huge variety of UV data Recommendations for nomenclature and tables in biochemical thermodynamics Guidelines for NMR measurements for determination of high and low pKa values Viscosity and density tables Chemical and physical properties of various commercial plastics Generic source-based nomenclature for polymers Therapeutic enzymes About the Editors: Roger L. Lundblad, Ph.D. Roger L. Lundblad is a native of San Francisco, California. He received his undergraduate education at Pacific Lutheran University and his PhD degree in biochemistry at the University of Washington. After postdoctoral work in the laboratories of Stanford Moore and William Stein at the Rockefeller University, he joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He joined the Hyland Division of Baxter Healthcare in 1990. Currently Dr. Lundblad is an independent consultant and writer in biotechnology in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. He is an adjunct Professor of Pathology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Editor-in-Chief of the Internet Journal of Genomics and Proteomics. Fiona M. Macdonald, Ph.D., F.R.S.C. Fiona M. Macdonald received her BSc in chemistry from Durham University, UK. She obtained her PhD in inorganic biochemistry at Birkbeck College, University of London, studying under Peter Sadler. Having spent most of her career in scientific publishing, she is now at Taylor and Francis and is involved in developing chemical information products.


Bio And Multifunctional Polymer Architectures

Author by : Brigitte Voit
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
Total Download : 769
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : This reference/text addresses concepts and synthetic techniques for the preparation of polymers for state-of-the-art use in biomedicine, synthetic biology, and bionanotechnology.


Lignin

Author by : Swati Sharma
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 310
File Size : 52,9 Mb
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Description : This book presents a comprehensive overview on origin, structure, properties, modification strategies and applications of the biopolymer lignin. It is organized into four themed parts. The first part focuses on the analysis and characterization of the second most abundant biopolymer. The following part is devoted to the biological aspects of lignin such as biosynthesis and degradation. In the third part, chemical modification strategies and the preparation of composites as well as nano- and microparticles are discussed.The final part addresses the industrial application of lignin and its derivatives, as well as lignin materials. The usage for synthesis of biofuels, fine chemicals and in agriculture and food industry is covered. This book is a comprehensive source for researchers, scientists and engineers working in the field of biopolymers as well as renewable materials and sources.