Description : Children’s Fractional Knowledge elegantly tracks the construction of knowledge, both by children learning new methods of reasoning and by the researchers studying their methods. The book challenges the widely held belief that children’s whole number knowledge is a distraction from their learning of fractions by positing that their fractional learning involves reorganizing—not simply using or building upon—their whole number knowledge. This hypothesis is explained in detail using examples of actual grade-schoolers approaching problems in fractions including the schemes they construct to relate parts to a whole, to produce a fraction as a multiple of a unit part, to transform a fraction into a commensurate fraction, or to combine two fractions multiplicatively or additively. These case studies provide a singular journey into children’s mathematics experience, which often varies greatly from that of adults. Moreover, the authors’ descriptive terms reflect children’s quantitative operations, as opposed to adult mathematical phrases rooted in concepts that do not reflect—and which in the classroom may even suppress—youngsters’ learning experiences. Highlights of the coverage: Toward a formulation of a mathematics of living instead of being Operations that produce numerical counting schemes Case studies: children’s part-whole, partitive, iterative, and other fraction schemes Using the generalized number sequence to produce fraction schemes Redefining school mathematics This fresh perspective is of immediate importance to researchers in mathematics education. With the up-close lens onto mathematical development found in Children’s Fractional Knowledge, readers can work toward creating more effective methods for improving young learners’ quantitative reasoning skills.
Description : Supporting and understanding your students’ fractional knowledge is crucial to their overall grasp of numbers and mathematics. By centralising around three key stages of development, this effective guide will help you to assess your students’ understanding of fractions and modify your teaching accordingly. These key stages are identified as: · Stage 1a: Fair Sharing · Stage 1b: Part-Whole · Stage 2a: Disembedding and Iterating · Stage 2b: Measuring with Unit Fractions · Stage 2c: Reversing Fractions · Stage 3a: Fractions as Numbers · Stage 3b: Operating with Fractions As the newest addition to the bestselling Maths Recovery series, this book will be a useful guide for all primary classroom teachers and assistants, including experienced Mathematics Recovery instructors.
Description : Following the great success of the earlier books, this fourth book in the Mathematics Recovery series equips teachers with detailed pedagogical knowledge and resources for teaching number to 7 to 11-year olds. Drawing on extensive programs of research, curriculum development, and teacher development, the book offers a coherent, up-to-date approach emphasising computational fluency and the progressive development of students' mathematical sophistication. The book is organized in key domains of number instruction, including structuring numbers 1 to 20, knowledge of number words and numerals, conceptual place value, mental computation, written computation methods, fractions, and early algebraic reasoning. Features include: " fine-grained progressions of instruction within each domain; " detailed descriptions of students' strategies and difficulties; " assessment tasks with notes on students' responses; " classroom-ready instructional activities; " an accompanying CD with extensive instructional resources. This book is designed for classroom and intervention teachers, special education teachers and classroom assistants. The book is an invaluable resource for mathematics advisors and coaches, learning support staff, numeracy consultants, curriculum developers, teacher educators and researchers.
Description : The purpose of this special issue is to present several research perspectives on learning trajectories with the intention of encouraging the broader community to reflect on, better define, adopt, adapt, or challenge the concept. The issue begins by briefly introducing learning trajectories. The remaining articles provide elaboration, examples, and discussion of the construct. They purposefully are intended to be illustrative, exploratory, and provocative with regard to learning trajectories construct; they are not a set of verification studies.
Description : Trust Kennedy, Tipps and Johnson's market-leading text, GUIDING CHILDREN'S LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS, Eleventh Edition, to give you a thorough introduction to mathematics methods and to provide you with a practical resource guide to teaching pre-school through sixth grade level mathematics. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Description : Give your students a foundation of algebra for math success – now and in the future! Students and teachers must become friendly with algebraic foundations, as they have increasingly become the gateway to careers in the STEM fields. Monica Neagoy empowers teachers to embrace algebra and connect it to higher math concepts, tuning you and your students to algebraic thinking, reasoning, and doing. You’ll discover: ?Four explorations to help you weave key algebraic ideas into everyday mathematics Step-by-step lessons from real classrooms that will guide you in teaching concepts and in establishing their relevance and applicability New methods that break down difficult algebraic concepts and build a critical foundation for higher math
Description : For over a decade, Teaching Fractions and Ratios for Understanding has pushed readers beyond the limits of their current understanding of fractions and rational numbers, challenging them to refine and explain their thinking without falling back on rules and procedures they have relied on throughout their lives. All of the material offered in the book has been used with students, and is presented so that readers can see the brilliance of their insights as well as the issues that challenge their understanding. Written in a user-friendly, conversational style, this text helps teachers build the comfort and confidence they need to begin talking to children about fractions and ratios. The clear distillation of complex ideas and the translation of research into usable ideas for the classroom make this text a valuable resource for all pre- and in-service mathematics teachers. The highly anticipated third edition of this popular text has been heavily expanded and reorganized to make the connectivity of topics even more transparent, including more mathematics content, teaching/reasoning techniques, classroom activities, connections to other content, and applications to everyday life. In addition, the most effective features from previous editions have been retained. Special Features: Children’s Strategies and samples of student work are provided in each chapter for teacher analysis. Activities for practicing the thinking strategies explained in each chapter, designed to be solved without rules or algorithms, using reasoning alone. Online Resources for Instructors including a sample syllabus, chapter overviews and relevant Big Content ideas for each chapter, and graphics that can be copied and resized for use in instruction and in constructing exams. An equally valuable component of this text is MORE! Teaching Fractions and Ratios for Understanding, Third Edition---a supplement that is not merely an answer key but a resource that provides the scaffolding for this groundbreaking approach to fraction and ratio instruction. Also heavily expanded, MORE! includes in-depth discussions of selected problems in the main text, supplementary activities, Praxis preparation questions, more student work, and templates for key manipulatives.
Description : In this book, the author presents a new vision of learning through design and production, and describes computer programming as a source of a learning and design power. As means of studying this extended notion of children's programming, the author implemented "Instructional Software Design Projects" to explore the learning that takes place when students develop complete mathematical software products designed for other students in their school. The results demonstrate that the young designers learned not only about mathematics (fractions) and programming (Logo), but also about design and user interfaces, as well as representational, pedagogical, and communicational issues.
Description : Ways adults think about mathematics and the ways children think about mathematics are not necessarily the same. Listening, observing, and talking with children is necessary so that teachers, parents, and carers can figure out where they are coming from mathematically. If children’s mathematics encompasses their own meanings and understandings, and those meanings and understandings may be different to mine, then to provide effective assistance and support, I must make every effort to see mathematics from their perspective. In this book I highlight important aspects of children’s beginning understandings of mathematics, illustrated with examples taken from observations of children. In Chapter 1 I discuss the origins of mathematics in infants with illustrations provided from three major strands of mathematics: number, space, and measurement. In Chapter 2 I give examples of different ways young children use fingers in their efforts to solve simple mathematical problems, looking in detail at one child’s behavior. Chapter 3 focuses on a 4-year-old’s views about numbers. There is a commonly held belief that before children start school they have not really thought about numbers; that young children’s mathematical minds are a blank slate. Nothing could be further from the case. In Chapter 4 I discuss the topic of counting, focusing firstly on the spontaneous counting behavior of a 4-year-old, followed by interviews that further reveal how his knowledge of numbers and counting are related. Chapter 5 further discusses how children learn about numbers; in particular the various conceptions children have of the number 10. I explain the significance of part-whole knowledge in children’s numerical thinking in Chapter 6, with examples taken from preschool, the 2nd grade, and 5th grade. Chapter 7 is about sharing, its origins, contexts when sharing arises, types of sharing, and the relationship between sharing and counting, sharing and division, and sharing as a platform for learning fractions. In Chapter 8 I begin by discussing early geometric ideas, including basic operations for moving items in two dimensions, followed by three-dimensional activities. I discuss the key notion of conservation of quantity and conclude with comments about scale and distance. Chapter 9 begins with the question “What is measurement?” I discuss the issue of measurement error, then sketch out a general development of measurement thinking. Types of conservation are described, as are unit systems. Finally, children’s thinking in area situations, including common misconceptions, are discussed. In Chapter 10, after a story showing how fractions can be introduced naturally, I focus on the fraction knowledge of an 11-year-old, who responded to a range of tasks designed to tease out this child’s conceptual understanding of fractions.