China Building An Innovative Economy

China  Building An Innovative Economy
Author: Celeste Varum,Can Huang,Joaquim Borges Gouveia
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2007-11-30
ISBN: 1780632266
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

China Building An Innovative Economy Book Excerpt:

A comprehensive description of China’s innovation system through in-depth analysis of its transformation in the past two decades. The most recent developments are included in order to summarize Chinese experience of reforming its industry and academy sector to meet the challenge of innovation. The discussion is not only centred on the policy and its impact, but goes further to find the logic behind the actions. The book also examines the strengths and weaknesses of China’s innovation system in the global context. The book helps R&D managers, business professionals and academics grasp an understanding of the new changes in China from the perspective of innovation. It also facilitates policy makers and academics to understand the Chinese experience of building a dynamic and innovative economy. Comprehensive coverage of China’s innovation using the national innovation system approach Includes up-to-date information regarding data, policy reforms and policy impact Original comparative discussion of China’s innovation practice in the global context

Incentives for Innovation in China

Incentives for Innovation in China
Author: Xuedong Ding,Jun Li
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2015-02-11
ISBN: 1317537750
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Incentives for Innovation in China Book Excerpt:

In the past three decades, China has successfully transformed itself from an extremely poor economy to the world’s second largest economy. The country’s phenomenal economic growth has been sustained primarily by its rapid and continuous industrialization. Currently industry accounts for nearly two-fifths of China’s gross domestic product, and since 2009 China has been the world’s largest exporter of manufactured products. This book explores the question of how far this industrial growth has been the product of government policies. It discusses how government policies and their priorities have developed and evolved, examines how industrial policies are linked to policies in other areas, such as trade, technology and regional development, and assesses how new policy initiatives are encouraging China’s increasing success in new technology-intensive industries. It also demonstrates how China’s industrial policies are linked to development of industrial clusters and regions.

Innovative China

Innovative China
Author: Taco C.R. van Someren,Shuhua van Someren-Wang
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 257
Release: 2014-07-08
ISBN: 3642362370
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Innovative China Book Excerpt:

China is trying to turn its labor, capital and resources intensive, lower added-value and export dependent growth into a sustainable innovative economy. This is changing the world’s power balance and has sparked a race between East and West in knowledge-based, high added-value economic innovation. Inspired by their extensive experience in doing business with China, the authors show how the US, the EU and China have reached a crossroad where ten battle fields decide about their future earning capacity and prosperity. Whether China will be a threat or an opportunity depends on the main players in government, public and private organizations rethinking their innovation policies and paths of business development. This books offers a new view on innovation which can be applied by corporate leaders and policy makers to get ready for the future. ​

Contested Development in China s Transition to an Innovation driven Economy

Contested Development in China s Transition to an Innovation driven Economy
Author: Yvette To
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2022-05-13
ISBN: 100058769X
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Contested Development in China s Transition to an Innovation driven Economy Book Excerpt:

This book investigates how technology and innovation policies in contemporary China are impacted by collaboration and conflicts between different classes and interests in a world economy, in which competitiveness is defined by the successful leverage of emerging technologies. Focussing on the actual processes and outcomes of technological upgrading in three dynamic sectors, the book presents an alternative approach to understanding China’s industrial upgrading strategies, by examining the ways in which the making and implementation of policies are shaped by political struggles between state actors and dominant capitalist interests in the context of global capitalism. In doing so, the book challenges influential institutionalist approaches as explanations of institutional change, positing instead a political economy framework grounded in social conflict theory to reveal how power relationships and politics are intrinsic to the evolution, form and function of institutions. This book will be of key interest to scholars and students of international political economy, development studies, globalisation and innovation, China and Chinese politics, and public policy.

China s Innovation Economy

China s Innovation Economy
Author: Jon-Arild Johannessen
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 184
Release: 2021-09-30
ISBN: 1000454827
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

China s Innovation Economy Book Excerpt:

Two trends will have more influence than anything else on the world’s future political and economic situation: the development of artificial intelligence and the emergence of China as a competitor to the United States on the international stage. This book is about the emerging innovation economy. It uses systems theory and evolutionary economics as a theoretical point of departure and explains why the focal point of the geopolitical stage is moving away from the alliance between the United States and Europe, and towards an alliance between China, the 14 Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership countries, the countries along the new silk road, and Europe. The book argues that the globalization strategy of neoliberalism laid the foundation for the Chinese economic engine. Whereas the old globalization was driven by cost differences generally, and wage costs specifically, the new globalization is driven by divergence in competence in general, and technological competence in particular, and China’s primary goal is to develop artificial intelligence and intelligent robots. Further, the book posits that the interactions between the climate crisis and the new technology will change production, distribution and the creation of profits, both in China and more widely in the global innovation economy. The book develops a structure to describe, analyze and explain the Chinese innovation economy and contributes to the discussion regarding technological developments in China. The book is written for readers who are oriented towards the new globalization that is emerging in the innovation economy and the factors driving China's economic growth.

Building the Ohio Innovation Economy

Building the Ohio Innovation Economy
Author: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy,Committee on Competing in the 21st Century: Best Practice in State and Regional Innovation Initiatives
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2013-03-02
ISBN: 0309266769
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Building the Ohio Innovation Economy Book Excerpt:

Since 1991, the National Research Council, under the auspices of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, has undertaken a program of activities to improve policymakers' understandings of the interconnections of science, technology, and economic policy and their importance for the American economy and its international competitive position. The Board's activities have corresponded with increased policy recognition of the importance of knowledge and technology to economic growth. One important element of STEP's analysis concerns the growth and impact of foreign technology programs. U.S. competitors have launched substantial programs to support new technologies, small firm development, and consortia among large and small firms to strengthen national and regional positions in strategic sectors. Some governments overseas have chosen to provide public support to innovation to overcome the market imperfections apparent in their national innovation systems. They believe that the rising costs and risks associated with new potentially high-payoff technologies, and the growing global dispersal of technical expertise, underscore the need for national R&D programs to support new and existing high-technology firms within their borders. Similarly, many state and local governments and regional entities in the United States are undertaking a variety of initiatives to enhance local economic development and employment through investment programs designed to attract knowledge-based industries and grow innovation clusters. These state and regional programs and associated policy measures are of great interest for their potential contributions to growth and U.S. competitiveness and for the "best practice" lessons that they offer for other state and regional programs. STEP's project on State and Regional Innovation Initiatives is intended to generate a better understanding of the challenges associated with the transition of research into products, the practices associated with successful state and regional programs, and their interaction with federal programs and private initiatives. The study seeks to achieve this goal through a series of complementary assessments of state, regional, and federal initiatives; analyses of specific industries and technologies from the perspective of crafting supportive public policy at all three levels; and outreach to multiple stakeholders. Building the Ohio Innovation Economy: Summary of a Symposium explains the of the study, which is to improve the operation of state and regional programs and, collectively, enhance their impact.

China s Path to Innovation

China s Path to Innovation
Author: Xiaolan Fu
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2015-02-05
ISBN: 1107046998
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

China s Path to Innovation Book Excerpt:

A rigorous examination of the motivations, sources, obstacles to and consequences of China's drive to become a leading innovative nation.

Research and Innovation Forum 2020

Research and Innovation Forum 2020
Author: Anna Visvizi,Miltiadis D. Lytras,Naif R. Aljohani
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 677
Release: 2021-02-11
ISBN: 3030620662
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Research and Innovation Forum 2020 Book Excerpt:

This book features research presented and discussed during the Research & Innovation Forum (Rii Forum) 2020. As such, this book offers a unique insight into emerging topics, issues and developments pertinent to the fields of technology, innovation and education and their social impact. Papers included in this book apply inter- and multi-disciplinary approaches to query such issues as technology-enhanced teaching and learning, smart cities, information systems, cognitive computing and social networking. What brings these threads of the discussion together is the question of how advances in computer science – which are otherwise largely incomprehensible to researchers from other fields – can be effectively translated and capitalized on so as to make them beneficial for society as a whole. In this context, Rii Forum and Rii Forum proceedings offer an essential venue where diverse stakeholders, including academics, the think tank sector and decision-makers, can engage in a meaningful dialogue with a view to improving the applicability of advances in computer science.

Building the Illinois Innovation Economy

Building the Illinois Innovation Economy
Author: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy,Committee on Competing in the 21st Century: Best Practice in State and Regional Innovation Initiatives
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2013-06-06
ISBN: 0309278694
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Building the Illinois Innovation Economy Book Excerpt:

Responding to the challenges of fostering regional growth and employment in an increasingly competitive global economy, many U.S. states and regions have developed programs to attract and grow companies as well as attract the talent and resources necessary to develop innovation clusters. These state and regionally based initiatives have a broad range of goals and increasingly include significant resources, often with a sector focus and often in partnership with foundations and universities. These are being joined by recent initiatives to coordinate and concentrate investments from a variety of federal agencies that provide significant resources to develop regional centers of innovation, business incubators, and other strategies to encourage entrepreneurship and high-tech development. Building the Illinois Innovation Economy is a study of selected state and regional programs to identify best practices with regard to their goals, structures, instruments, modes of operation, synergies across private and public programs, funding mechanisms and levels, and evaluation efforts. This report reviews selected state and regional efforts to capitalize on federal and state investments in areas of critical national needs. This review includes both efforts to strengthen existing industries as well as specific new technology focus areas such as nanotechnology, stem cells, and energy in order to improve our understanding of program goals, challenges, and accomplishments. As a part of this review, The Committee on Competing in the 21st Century: Best Practice in State and Regional Innovation Initiatives is convening a series of public workshops and symposia involving responsible local, state, and federal officials and other stakeholders. These meetings and symposia will enable an exchange of views, information, experience, and analysis to identify best practice in the range of programs and incentives adopted. Building the Illinois Innovation Economy summarizes discussions at these symposia, fact-finding meetings, and commissioned analyses of existing state and regional programs and technology focus areas, the committee will subsequently produce a final report with findings and recommendations focused on lessons, issues, and opportunities for complementary U.S. policies created by these state and regional initiatives.

China s Quest for Innovation

China s Quest for Innovation
Author: Shuanping Dai,Markus Taube
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 290
Release: 2019-11-27
ISBN: 1351019724
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

China s Quest for Innovation Book Excerpt:

The transition from a catching-up style economy to an innovation-driven economy poses a major challenge for China. This book examines the major issues at stake, outlines developments in crucial business fields and industries, and discusses the roles of top-down politics and bottom-up entrepreneurship. It focuses in particular on the institutional foundations of innovation, arguing that successful innovation relies on the favourable interplay of business, politics, and society, and that comprehensive institutional and organizational changes will be required in China in order for innovation to succeed. Overall, the book assesses how far China will be able to depart from the Western paradigm of successful innovation regimes and create its own innovation system with Chinese characteristics.

Economy Emotion and Ethics in Chinese Cinema

Economy  Emotion  and Ethics in Chinese Cinema
Author: David Leiwei Li
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 246
Release: 2016-02-05
ISBN: 131730988X
Category: Performing Arts
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Economy Emotion and Ethics in Chinese Cinema Book Excerpt:

The First and Second Comings of capitalism are conceptual shorthands used to capture the radical changes in global geopolitics from the Opium War to the end of the Cold War and beyond. Centring the role of capitalism in the Chinese everyday, the framework can be employed to comprehend contemporary Chinese culture in general and, as in this study, Chinese cinema in particular. This book investigates major Chinese-language films from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in order to unpack a hyper-compressed capitalist modernity with distinctive Chinese characteristics. As a dialogue between the film genre as a mediation of microscopic social life, and the narrative of economic development as a macroscopic political abstraction, it engages the two otherwise remotely related worlds, illustrating how the State and the Subject are reconstituted cinematically in late capitalism. A deeply cultural, determinedly historical, and deliberately interdisciplinary study, it approaches "culture" anthropologically, as a way of life emanating from the everyday, and aesthetically, as imaginative forms and creative expressions. Economy, Emotion, and Ethics in Chinese Cinema will appeal to students and scholars of Chinese cinema, cultural studies, Asian studies, and interdisciplinary studies of politics and culture.

Building the Arkansas Innovation Economy

Building the Arkansas Innovation Economy
Author: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy,Committee on Competing in the 21st Century: Best Practice in State and Regional Innovation Initiatives
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 186
Release: 2013-01-03
ISBN: 0309266432
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Building the Arkansas Innovation Economy Book Excerpt:

A committee under the auspices of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP), is conducting a study of selected state and regional programs in order to identify best practices with regard to their goals, structures, instruments, modes of operation, synergies across private and public programs, funding mechanisms and levels, and evaluation efforts. The committee is reviewing selected state and regional efforts to capitalize on federal and state investments in areas of critical national needs. Building the Arkansas Innovation Economy: Summary of a Symposium includes both efforts to strengthen existing industries as well as specific new technology focus areas such as nanotechnology, stem cells, and energy in order to better understand program goals, challenges, and accomplishments. As a part of this review, the committee is convening a series of public workshops and symposia involving responsible local, state, and federal officials and other stakeholders. These meetings and symposia will enable an exchange of views, information, experience, and analysis to identify best practice in the range of programs and incentives adopted. Drawing from discussions at these symposia, fact-finding meetings, and commissioned analyses of existing state and regional programs and technology focus areas, the committee will subsequently produce a final report with findings and recommendations focused on lessons, issues, and opportunities for complementary U.S. policies created by these state and regional initiatives. Since 1991, the National Research Council, under the auspices of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, has undertaken a program of activities to improve policymakers' understandings of the interconnections of science, technology, and economic policy and their importance for the American economy and its international competitive position. The Board's activities have corresponded with increased policy recognition of the importance of knowledge and technology to economic growth. One important element of STEP's analysis concerns the growth and impact of foreign technology programs.1 U.S. competitors have launched substantial programs to support new technologies, small firm development, and consortia among large and small firms to strengthen national and regional positions in strategic sectors. Some governments overseas have chosen to provide public support to innovation to overcome the market imperfections apparent in their national innovation systems. They believe that the rising costs and risks associated with new potentially high-payoff technologies, and the growing global dispersal of technical expertise, underscore the need for national R&D programs to support new and existing high-technology firms within their borders.

Studies on China s Special Economic Zones

Studies on China s Special Economic Zones
Author: Yiming Yuan
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 157
Release: 2017-03-15
ISBN: 9811037043
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Studies on China s Special Economic Zones Book Excerpt:

This book offers an authoritative study on special economic zones in China. With articles from economic experts and scholars, the scope of the book includes new theories, methods and discoveries in the field of special economic zone studies. It foscuses on discussing recent advances in the area, including research on current industrial upgrade and transformation, the development patterns of special economic zones, innovation construction and special-economic-zone system innovation. It offers a valuable data source for economics undergraduates and postgraduates, economics researchers at social science institutions and government officals.

The China Business Model

The China Business Model
Author: Elisabeth Paulet,Chris Rowley
Publsiher: Chandos Publishing
Total Pages: 290
Release: 2017-01-17
ISBN: 0081007574
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The China Business Model Book Excerpt:

The China Business Model: Originality and Limits emphasizes transformation of the Chinese Business Model over the last decades. The impact of the financial crisis on China helps the reader understand its evolution towards capitalism. Topics covered include CSR, leadership, and management in China, how do these organizations impact the performance of companies, the financing policy of Chinese firms and its evolution till the slowdown, finance and business in China, and how could the banking sector and/or the financial markets help the development of Chinese companies? Helps the reader understand the impact of the financial crisis on China and its evolution towards capitalism Contains coverage of CSR, leadership, and management in China Answers the question "how can financial markets help the development of Chinese companies?"

Party Hegemony and Entrepreneurial Power in China

Party Hegemony and Entrepreneurial Power in China
Author: Elena Meyer-Clement
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2015-09-16
ISBN: 1317423321
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Party Hegemony and Entrepreneurial Power in China Book Excerpt:

Economic liberalisation processes and the rapid development of the private sector are widely visible signs of over thirty years of reform policies in the People’s Republic of China. Nevertheless, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has managed to preserve the basic political institutions of the Leninist Party-state, including its own unrestrained position of political power. Against this background, this book investigates the interrelationship between processes of marketisation and commercialisation, and the stability of the CCP regime. The aim of the book is to complement existing literature on adaptive governance in China and on the reasons for the CCP regime’s relative stability, while providing new information about the relationship between the Chinese party-state and private entrepreneurs. Taking case studies from the film and music industries, the book gives a detailed account of the political and economic history of these industries in China, with special attention given to the role played by private production companies as intermediaries between artistic creation, political and ideological constraints, and the market. A historical institutionalist approach is employed to trace the effect of Chinese policies on popular culture and the institutions of administrative, economic, political and ideological control over the film and music industries back to the 1950s, revealing the mechanisms and prospects of CCP hegemony in the cultural sector. Examining the effects of the marketisation and commercialisation processes on the communist regime and vice versa, this book also offers a fresh perspective on the origins of today’s Chinese popular cultural mainstream. It will therefore be of great interest to students and scholars of Chinese politics, Chinese culture and media and Chinese government-business relations.

Chinese Migration and Economic Relations with Europe

Chinese Migration and Economic Relations with Europe
Author: Marco Sanfilippo,Agnieszka Weinar
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 202
Release: 2017-11-03
ISBN: 1317592409
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chinese Migration and Economic Relations with Europe Book Excerpt:

This book explores how far existing networks of overseas Chinese and new flows of migrants act as drivers of economic relations between China and the host countries. It considers migration, trade, the flow of capital, and foreign direct investment, includes both skilled and unskilled migrants, and outlines the complex different waves of migration flows. It includes detailed case studies, based on extensive original research, on the position in a range of European countries, and concludes with policy-oriented analysis and with an overall assessment of how far the Chinese diaspora matters in stimulating increased bilateral economic activity and stronger bilateral economic relationships.

Stumbling Giant

Stumbling Giant
Author: Timothy Beardson
Publsiher: Yale University Press
Total Pages: 529
Release: 2013-05-21
ISBN: 030016551X
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stumbling Giant Book Excerpt:

Can anything prevent China surpassing the United States and becoming the world’s superpower? While dozens of recent books and articles have predicted the near-certainty of China’s rise to global supremacy, this book boldly counters such widely-held assumptions. Timothy Beardson brings to light the daunting array of challenges that today confront China, as well as the inadequacy of the policy responses. Threats to China come on many fronts, Beardson shows, and by their number and sheer weight these problems will thwart any ambition to become the world’s “Number One power.” Drawing on extensive research and experience living and working in Asia over the last 35 years, the author spells out China’s situation: an inexorable demographic future of a shrinking labor force, relentless aging, extreme gender disparity, and even a falling population. Also, the nation faces social instability, a devastated environment, a predominantly low-tech economy with inadequate innovation, the absence of an effective welfare safety net, an ossified governance structure, and radical Islam lurking at the borders. Beardson’s nuanced, first-hand look at China acknowledges its historic achievements while tempering predictions of its imminent hegemony with a no-nonsense dose of reality.

Forecasting China s Future

Forecasting China s Future
Author: Roger Irvine
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2015-06-26
ISBN: 1317424093
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Forecasting China s Future Book Excerpt:

China’s future development is likely to have a huge impact on twenty-first century global outcomes. It is therefore surprising that, thus far, so little attention has been given to comparing and evaluating expert forecasts of China’s future in the post-Mao era. This book presents an illuminating and comprehensive summary record of contrasting and competing expert forecasts and judgements about the major issues confronting China within four principal domains – political, economic, environmental, and international. After considering the principal forecasting methods available to experts, the author comments critically on the degree of success achieved in using those methods and emphasises the confusion created by the polarisation of opinion and by the failure of many experts to accept the high degree of uncertainty that characterises most of the key issues. The book recommends a new approach based on the study of a hierarchy of critical uncertainties and on continuing analysis of opposing expert opinions about these uncertainties. It emphasises the potential for both positive and negative outcomes for these critical uncertainties, and the importance of maximising the potential for positive outcomes through improved analytical and policy frameworks. Providing insights for specialists and non-specialists into the most critical issues that will determine China’s future direction, this book will be of particular interest to students and scholars of political, economic, environmental, and international relations issues in China and Asia, as well as to readers in business and government.

China s Military Procurement in the Reform Era

China s Military Procurement in the Reform Era
Author: Yoram Evron
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2015-06-26
ISBN: 1317478932
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

China s Military Procurement in the Reform Era Book Excerpt:

The decisions that shape the policy of weapons procurement are an important area of national security policy. This is all the more true for China, which during recent decades has vacillated between different sources and directions of military build-up. This book explores the politics of military procurement in China under the successive leaderships of Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao. It shows how China’s political and military leaders have sought to adjust military procurement policy to meet China's strategic objectives, to relate it to non-military needs, to strike a balance between the import of weapons and indigenous production, and to determine the connections between hardware and other components of military power. Exploring in detail five major shifts in the nation’s military procurement, it traces the considerations and negotiations among China's civilian and military leaderships. By doing so, it offers both a conceptual framework and empirical grounds for evaluating the factors that shape China's military procurement directions, as well as their limitations, prospects, and operational implications. As the first book to study comprehensively and systematically the attributes shaping China's military procurement, it will be of great interest to students and scholars of Chinese politics, Chinese history and military and strategic studies.

The Geopolitics of Red Oil

The Geopolitics of Red Oil
Author: Andrew Stephen Campion
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 206
Release: 2016-01-08
ISBN: 131735429X
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Geopolitics of Red Oil Book Excerpt:

Energy security has emerged as one of the most important contemporary geopolitical issues. Access to reliable, cheap energy has become essential to the functioning of modern economies but the uneven distribution of energy supplies has led to perceptions of significant Western vulnerability. At the same time, many in the West have become wary of China’s re-emergence as a major power in global politics, with its impact on Western foreign policies and potential threat to Western energy security. This book offers fresh insights into the rise of China as a global superpower and the ways in which its rise is perceived to threaten Western energy security, engaging specifically with how the idea of the China threat has emerged in popular discourse. The author questions how recent US foreign policy has sought to position China as an antagonist to Western energy interests and explores how this image has become the dominant understanding of China by the West. Rather than treating these issues as given, which orthodox approaches tend to do, this book analyses the discursive relationship between US identity, foreign policy and energy security, which leads to a more nuanced and critical understanding of perceptions of China’s potential threat to Western energy security. Filling an important gap in the emerging corpus of research on energy security, this book will be particularly valuable to students and scholars of Politics, International Relations and Chinese Studies.