The Resurrection Of Christ

Author by : Gerd Lüdemann
Languange : en
Publisher by : Prometheus Books
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Description : Lüdemann''s The Resurrection of Christ: A Historical Inquiry talks straight, in an honest, open, direct way. He leads the lay reader through the maze of resurrection texts in a readable, even entertaining way. He has mastered an amazing quantity of ancient sources and scholarly literature, and published many highly-technical works. But here he writes simply, clearly, convincingly, in a way any intelligent reader can understand. He does not dodge issues or obscure problems with pious talk, but presses forward to the logical outcome in a way that brings the reader along with him.-James M. Robinson, Professor of Religion Emeritus, Claremont Graduate University, Director of the Nag Hammadi Project of the Institute for Antiquity and Christianity; Permanent Secretary of UNESCO''s International Committee for the Nag Hammadi CodicesLuedemann''s systematic analysis of both canonical and noncanonical texts coupled with his trenchant repudiation of fuzzy theological rhetoric challenges our understandings of both Christian origins and Christianity today. His answers will by no means find universal support, but his arguments deserve the attention of any interested in the often-uneasy relationship among fact, fiction, and faith.-A.-J. Levine, E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Professor of New Testament Studies, Vanderbilt University Divinity School and Graduate Department of ReligionAlthough the resurrection is the keystone dogma of Christian belief, and Sunday churchgoers rarely if ever think to question it, scholarly research shows with the utmost clarity that from a historical standpoint Jesus was not raised from the dead. In fact, it is almost universally recognized among scholars of New Testament textual criticism that the gospel narratives describing the resurrection appearances are not reliable eyewitness accounts, but expressions of faith written by the first Christian believers long after the death of Jesus.In this thorough exegesis of the primary texts dealing with the resurrection of Jesus, New Testament expert Gerd Lüdemann (University of Göttingen) presents compelling evidence that shows the resurrection was not a historical event and further argues that this development leaves little, if any, basis for Christian faith as presently defined.Beginning with Paul''s testimony in 1 Cor. 15: 3-8, in which the apostle declares that Jesus has been raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures, Lüdemann systematically evaluates every reference to Jesus'' resurrection in the New Testament, as well as apocryphal literature. He examines the purpose of the text writers, the ways in which they reworked tradition, and the historical value of each account. Through this approach, he offers a reconstruction of the probable course of events as well as the circumstances surrounding Jesus'' death on the cross, the burial of his body, his reported resurrection on the third day, and subsequent appearances to various disciples.Since the historical evidence leads to the firm conclusion that Jesus'' body was not raised from the dead, Lüdemann argues that the origin of the Easter faith must be sought in the visionary experiences of Christianity''s two leading apostles. From a modern perspective this leads to the inescapable conclusion that both primary witnesses to Jesus'' resurrection, Peter and Paul, were victims of self-deception.In conclusion, he asks whether in light of the nonhistoricity of Jesus'' resurrection, thinking people today can legitimately and in good conscience still call themselves Christians.Gerd Lüdemann is a professor of the history and literature of early Christianity at the University of Göttingen, Germany. Professor Lüdemann''s published conclusions about Christianity aroused great controversy in his native Germany, where the Confederation of Protestant Churches in Lower Saxony demanded his immediate dismissal from the theological faculty of his university. Despite this threat to his academic freedom, he has retained his post at


Christ S Resurrection In Early Christianity

Author by : Markus Vinzent
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Why is the Resurrection of Christ so remote, almost non-existent in many early Christian writings of the first 140 years of Christianity? This is the first Patristic book to focus on the development of the belief in the Resurrection of Christ through the first centuries A.D. By Paul, Christ's Resurrection is regarded as the basis of Christian hope. In the fourth century it becomes a central Christian tenet. But what about the discrepancy in the first three centuries? This thought provoking book explores this core topic in Christian culture and theology. Taking a broad approach - including iconography, archaeology, history, philosophy, Jewish Studies and theology - Markus Vinzent offers innovative reading of well known biblical and other texts complemented by rarely discussed evidence. Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity takes the reader on a fascinating journey through the wilderness of unorthodox perspectives in the breadth of early Christian writings. It is an eye-opening experience with insights into the craftsmanship of early Christianity - and the earliest existential debates about life and death, death and life - all centred on the cross, on suffering, enduring and sacrifice.


Jesus Sin And Perfection In Early Christianity

Author by : Jeffrey S. Siker
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : The first full-length study to trace how early Christians came to perceive Jesus as a sinless human being. Jeffrey S. Siker presents a taxonomy of sin in early Judaism and examines moments in Jesus' life associated with sinfulness: his birth to the unwed Mary, his baptism by John the Baptist, his public ministry - transgressing boundaries of family, friends, and faith - and his cursed death by crucifixion. Although followers viewed his immediate death in tragic terms, with no expectation of his resurrection, they soon began to believe that God had raised him from the dead. Their resurrection faith produced a new understanding of Jesus' prophetic ministry, in which his death had been a perfect sacrificial death for sin, his ministry perfectly obedient, his baptism a demonstration of perfect righteousness, and his birth a perfect virgin birth. This study explores the implications of a retrospective faith that elevated Jesus to perfect divinity, redefining sin.


The Resurrection Of Jesus

Author by : Bernard Brandon Scott
Languange : en
Publisher by : Polebridge PressWestar Inst
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Description : The event of Jesus resurrection is like the event of creation: There were no eye-witnesses. So how does one make sense of the story of the resurrection or rather stories, for not one but many diverse reports survive from early Christianity? Brandon Scott suggests that we must begin by erasing all Christian art about the resurrection from our memory. And then forget all the sermons we heard at Easter. The best way to understand the resurrection, he argues, is to arrange the texts chronologically and observe how the story itself developed. The Resurrection of Jesus: A Soucebook begins with just such a list, compiled with commentaries by Robert W. Funk. It proceeds to a report of the Jesus Seminar s votes on the resurrection, followed by a collection and discussion by Robert Price of resurrection stories found in the Greek culture of Jesus day, and an in-depth study by Arthur Dewey of a little-known resurrection story in the Gospel of Peter. The final essays in the volume, by Roy W. Hoover and Thomas Sheehan, explore the origins of belief in Jesus resurrection and help put the pieces back together again, in ways that make sense in the modern world.


Rising To Everlasting Life

Author by : Teri S. Riddering
Languange : en
Publisher by : Xulon Press
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Description : "Jews and Christians Rising to Everlasting Life" is a compendium of foundational texts from Biblical and extra-Biblical sources that provide support to the Jewish and Christian belief in the final resurrection of the dead.Some of the questions addressed are: * What are the early Hebraic texts that formed each tradition?* How did Jesus' resurrection affect the "mainstream" Jewish view of the resurrection?* How did the Apostle Paul interpret and confirm Jesus' teaching and resurrection?* How did early Christians define our present Evangelical eschatology?* How did early Rabbinic sages formulate and shape modern Jewish theology on the resurrection?Are we both talking about the same resurrection event prior to the Messianic Age? Most importantly, are both Jews and Christians going to participate together in this once-in-all-of-humankind event?Teri S. Riddering has spent the last 16 years studying the subject of the final resurrection and other eschatological events. She finished her MA in Theological Studies at Liberty University of Lynchburg, Virginia in 2009 (Cum Laude), and is presently doing her PhD at the University of the Holy Land, Center for the Study of Early Christianity in Jerusalem, Israel.She has worked as translator, web manager, and radio producer of educational material in Spanish for Bridges for Peace since 1997. Between 1999 and 2005 she directed the National Office of Bridges for Peace for the Spanish-speaking population, speaking in churches and developing relations between Christians and Jews in several countries in Latin America, especially Puerto Rico. She lived and worked in Jerusalem between 1997-99, and then 2005-10, learning about the Jewish traditions and their worldview, while being a living example of Christian love and service to Israel.


The Lost Gospel Of The First Christians

Author by : James E. Leuschen
Languange : en
Publisher by : WestBow Press
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Description : Jude, the half-brother of Jesus, exhorted believers to “contend earnestly for the faith once for all delivered to the saints” (Jude 3). What was that original Hebrew-oriented faith? Reconstructing the original apostolic teaching from the evidence of the New Testament, this book systematically develops the true gospel foundation given to the first generation of believers. Learn the surprising message that inspired the first Jewish Christians (and then compare with what is taught today): How did Jesus’ bodily resurrection create a new way to grasp prophecy? What did a crucified Messiah really signify, and what about the cross? How did believing Jews transition from Old to New Covenant? Along with Abraham and David, why was Adam so important? What is the true nature of the Christian hope of eternal life? “Jim Leuschen’s book, The Lost Gospel of the First Christians, is a brilliant challenge to the modern Church to restore the Gospel that was preached in the early days following Christ’s resurrection. Calling us to recognize the center of the apostles’ preaching as the resurrection, rather than Christ’s death on the cross, Jim recaptures the New Testament’s focus on Christ’s victory over death as the essence of His triumph.” —Joe McIntyre, founder and senior minister, Word of His Grace Church President, Kenyon’s Gospel Publishing Society


The Oxford Handbook Of Early Christian Biblical Interpretation

Author by : Paul M. Blowers
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : The Bible was the essence of virtually every aspect of the life of the early churches. The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Biblical Interpretation explores a wide array of themes related to the reception, canonization, interpretation, uses, and legacies of the Bible in early Christianity. Each section contains overviews and cutting-edge scholarship that expands understanding of the field. Part One examines the material text transmitted, translated, and invested with authority, and the very conceptualization of sacred Scripture as God's word for the church. Part Two looks at the culture and disciplines or science of interpretation in representative exegetical traditions. Part Three addresses the diverse literary and non-literary modes of interpretation, while Part Four canvasses the communal background and foreground of early Christian interpretation, where the Bible was paramount in shaping normative Christian identity. Part Five assesses the determinative role of the Bible in major developments and theological controversies in the life of the churches. Part Six returns to interpretation proper and samples how certain abiding motifs from within scriptural revelation were treated by major Christian expositors. The overall history of biblical interpretation has itself now become the subject of a growing scholarship and the final part skilfully examines how early Christian exegesis was retrieved and critically evaluated in later periods of church history. Taken together, the chapters provide nuanced paths of introduction for students and scholars from a wide spectrum of academic fields, including classics, biblical studies, the general history of interpretation, the social and cultural history of late ancient and early medieval Christianity, historical theology, and systematic and contextual theology. Readers will be oriented to the major resources for, and issues in, the critical study of early Christian biblical interpretation.


The Early Christian World

Author by : Philip F. Esler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : Early Christian World presents an exhaustive, erudite and lavishly illustrated treatment of how the small movement which formed around Jesus in Galilee became the pre-eminent religion of the ancient world. The work begins by firmly situating early Christianity within its Mediterranean social, political and religious contexts, before charting the history of the first Christian centuries. The creation and perpetuation of Christian communities through various means, including mission and monasticism, is explored, as is the everyday experience of early Christians, through discussion of gender and sexuality, religious practice, communication and social structures. The intellectual (particularly theological) and artistic heritage of the period is fully considered, and a vivid picture painted of the internal and external challenges faced by early Christianity. The book concludes with profiles of the most notable figures of the age. Comprehensive and accessible, Early Christian World provides up-to-date coverage of the most important topics in the study of early Christianity, together with an invaluable collection of visual material. It will be an indispensable resource for anyone studying this period


Resurrection Hell And The Afterlife

Author by : Mark Finney
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : This book begins by arguing that early Greek reflection on the afterlife and immortality insisted on the importance of the physical body whereas a wealth of Jewish texts from the Hebrew Bible, Second Temple Judaism and early (Pauline) Christianity understood post-mortem existence to be that of the soul alone. Changes begin to appear in the later New Testament where the importance of the afterlife of the physical body became essential, and such thoughts continued into the period of the early Church where the significance of the physical body in post-mortem existence became a point of theological orthodoxy. This book will assert that the influx of Greco-Romans into the early Church changed the direction of Christian thought towards one which included the body. At the same time, the ideological and polemical thrust of an eternal tortuous afterlife for the wicked became essential.


Resurrection In Paul

Author by : Frederick S. Tappenden
Languange : en
Publisher by : SBL Press
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Description : Explore the embodied foundations of Paul's resurrection ideals It is commonly recognized that Paul's resurrection ideals are bodily ideals, though this dictum is usually configured along literal and metaphorical lines. The realism of future resurrected bodies is disconnected from the metaphoricity of bodily transformation in the present. Drawing on cognitive linguistics, this fresh and innovative study addresses this problem. By eschewing the opposition of metaphor and realism, Tappenden explores the concepts and metaphors Paul uses to fashion notions of resurrection, and the uses to which those notions are put. Rather than asserting resurrection as a disembodied, cognicentric proposition, this book illuminates the body's central role in shaping and grounding the apostle's thought and writings. Features: Close examination of Paul's letters within multiple, interlocking cultural contexts Provides a novel and fresh approach to assessing (in)coherence across the undisputed letters Addresses the materialist nature of early Christian and Judean resurrection ideals without compromising the metaphoricity of those ideals


Biblical Interpretation In Early Christian Gospels Volume 1

Author by : Thomas Hatina
Languange : en
Publisher by : A&C Black
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Description : This collection of essays is the second volume in a projected series of five volumes that gather together recent research by leading scholars on the narrative function of embedded Jewish scripture texts (quotations or allusions) in early Christian Gospels. While the contributors employ a diverse range of methods, their research is directed towards considering the function of embedded scripture texts in the context of the Gospels as self-contained narratives written and read/heard in their early Christian settings. The essays are arranged according to their appropriate methodological categories.


Judaism And The Early Christian Mind

Author by : Robert L. Wilken
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wipf and Stock Publishers
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Description : Unlike most studies of the thought of the early Church, which have concentrated on the Christian encounter with Hellenism, this investigation of the writings of Cyril of Alexandria reveals the crucial influence of the polemical conflicts with Judaism voiced by the early fathers. After tracing the relationships between Christians and Jews during the first four centuries A.D., Mr. Wilken demonstrates how Cyril's exegetical writings - two-thirds of the extant corpus - grew directly out of his polemical positions. He then discusses the influence of such thinking on Cyril's christology and on his controversy with Nestorius, the bishop of Constantinople during the early fifth century. His concluding analysis of the larger problem of Christian attitudes toward the Jews concentrates on the difficulties raised by the Christians' inability to understand Judaism as anything other than an inferior foreshadowing of Christianity.


Mary Magdalene

Author by : Charles River Charles River Editors
Languange : en
Publisher by : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
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Description : *Includes pictures *Includes Gospel passages and apocryphal passages *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading "After that, Jesus traveled about from one town and village to another. The Twelve were with him, and also some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases: Mary (called Mary Magdalene) from whom seven demons had come out-and many others. These women were helping to support them out of their own means." - Luke 8:1-3 Mary Magdalene is one of the most talked about figures in modern Christianity, a woman who mainstream media and modern sensibilities can hold with more conviction. The media, press, movie industry, and airport literature have been obsessed with this redhead for more than 100 years, a fascination that reached its climax in the first decade of this century, and does not seem likely to end any time soon. Mary Magdalene is frequently depicted as young and attractive, liberated and intelligent, a symbol of a freer spirituality, and not controlled by a male-dominated church. In the minds of many, she embodies opposition to a system dominated by old men in white cassocks, the "sacred feminine." As if that is not enough, she has the best bachelor in the world: Jesus Christ himself. The French-made, fair-haired Mary Magdalene who appears in innumerable works of medieval and modern art with a red robe, a symbol of rebellion and freedom (although in the Middle Ages the intention was to show her as a loose woman), is a creation of the Western Church and, more recently, the media. It is a depiction laden with centuries of intertextual struggles, patronizing homilies, medieval legends, novels looking for bestseller status, and documentaries for cable television. But there was a historical Mary Magdalene, a woman named Miriam (Hebrew for Mary) born in Galilee in the time of King Herod, and she died, most likely in present-day Turkey, when Christianity was only a variant of Judaism. Mary Magdalene would not recognize herself in modern portraits or the perception the average Christian of the last 1500 years has of her. If there has been a search for the historical Jesus since the 18th century, the real man who walked in the hills of Galilee and died on a cross in Jerusalem, a similar quest is necessary for the historical Mary Magdalene, but not out of mere curiosity, because she is important in the narrative of Jesus's life. If the early sources are accurate, Mary of Magdala was the first Christian in history, and the first to announce the fundamental kerygma of early Christianity: Jesus is risen! Despite the shortage of information, there are a few certain facts historians know about Mary Magdalene. For example, she was a respected and well-remembered follower of Jesus, one of the female disciples who supported the movement of the Galilean preacher. Some scholars studying the gospels believe that Mary Magdalene was an elderly woman and probably well-to-do, if not wealthy. "For all we know," opines E.P. Sanders in The Historical Figure of Jesus, "she was eighty-six, childless, and keen to mother unkempt young men." She not only remained by Jesus side in his darkest hour, the crucifixion, she also had a strange experience at Jesuss tomb on Easter morning. The gospels disagree on the details, but not in the fact that it happened to her. Mary Magdalene: The Life and Legacy of the Woman Who Witnessed the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus examines what is known and unknown about one of the Bible's most famous figures. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about Mary Magdalene like never before.


Early Christian Chapels In The West

Author by : Gillian Vallance Mackie
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Toronto Press
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Description : Gillian Mackie examines the decorative schemes, now often the only way to determine the function, patronage, and meaning of the building, of surviving early medieval chapels built in Italy and Istria from AD312-740.


The Death Of Jesus In Early Christianity

Author by : John T. Carroll
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hendrickson Pub
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Description : The centrality of the death of Jesus for the Christian faith can hardly be overstated, and interest in the subject is "red hot." As each generation of Christians comes to terms with its historical claims, and its theological import, it is only natural that its implications merit reexamination. Taking a studied look at the death of Jesus" from the Old Testament's perspective to that of the Gospels and Hebrews to that of extra-canonical accounts" Carroll and Green put us in their debt for their comprehensive survey of the effects and implications of a central tenet of Christianity. "John Carroll and Joel Green have harvested bountiful scholarship on a central issue in Christian thought, offering us a volume as impressive in its range as in its depth, as satisfying in its parts as in its cohesiveness. Thoroughly conversant with current research, their study remains, to its great credit, concentrated on the primary texts. The end product is historically grounded, literarily perceptive, and theologically astute. Well-balanced and admirably clear, "The Death of Jesus in Early Christianity" belongs off the shelf and on the desk of scholar and pastor alike." " C. Clifton Black, Associate Professor of New Testament, Perkins School of Theology "Carroll and Green have written the perfect book for those interested in exploring the meaning and significance of Jesus' death. Well-organized, carefully documented, it can serve as a text for theological students as well as a source book for exegetes and systematicians." Frank J. Matera, Professor of New Testament, The Catholic University of America "This is the most comprehensive treatment of the NT material on this subject now available. Itis not simply an analysis of key passages, but sets them in the context of the different writings, showing full awareness of narrative nuance as well as of theological crux. It tackles historical questions and the sensitive issue of anti-Judaism in the passion narratives with equal flair. It is concerned with the meaning of atonement then but also its significance now. And all this in highly competent and often incisive dialogue with the most recent literature on the subject. If you can afford only one volume on your shelves on this subject, this is it. " James D.G. Dunn, Lightfoot Professor of Divinity, University of Durham


If Christ Has Not Been Raised

Author by : Joseph Verheyden
Languange : en
Publisher by : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
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Description : The present volume contains the proceedings of the fourth symposium of the Novum Testamentum Patristicum project (NTP), an international re-search project on the reception history of the New Testament in the early Church. The symposium was held in October 2012 at the University of Leuven. It was organised by Joseph Verheyden, Tobias Nicklas, and An-dreas Merkt, the coordinators of NTP. The topic of the meeting was the reception of the resurrection and empty tomb stories and the development of the belief in resurrection in the early Church.The belief in the resurrection constitutes the core issue of Christianity and of Christian tradition. The earliest references to the resurrection and witnesses to such a belief are found in the canonical gospels and in the letters of Paul, but the topic obviously remained of the utmost importance all through the early Church. Contributions to this volume offer studies on reception of the resurrection and empty tomb stories and the development of the belief in resurrection in the early Church by examining the most important early references on this topic.


Orthodoxy And Heresy In Early Christian Contexts

Author by : Paul A. Hartog
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wipf and Stock Publishers
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Description : Eighty years ago, Walter Bauer promulgated a bold and provocative thesis about early Christianity. He argued that many forms of Christianity started the race, but one competitor pushed aside the others, until this powerful "orthodox" version won the day. The victors re-wrote history, marginalizing all other perspectives and silencing their voices, even though the alternatives possessed equal right to the title of normative Christianity. Bauer's influence still casts a long shadow on early Christian scholarship. Were heretical movements the original forms of Christianity? Did the heretics outnumber the orthodox? Did orthodox heresiologists accurately portray their opponents? And more fundamentally, how can one make any objective distinction between "heresy" and "orthodoxy"? Is such labeling merely the product of socially situated power? Did numerous, valid forms of Christianity exist without any validating norms of Christianity? This collection of essays, each written by a relevant authority, tackles such questions with scholarly acumen and careful attention to historical, cultural-geographical, and socio-rhetorical detail. Although recognizing the importance of Bauer's critical insights, innovative methodologies, and fruitful suggestions, the contributors expose numerous claims of the Bauer thesis (in both original and recent manifestations) that fall short of the historical evidence. With contributions from: Rodney Decker Carl Smith William Varner Rex Butler Bryan Litfin Brian Shelton David Alexander Edward Smither Glen Thompson


Surprised By Hope

Author by : N. T. Wright
Languange : en
Publisher by : Zondervan
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Description : For years Christians have been asking, "If you died tonight, do you know where you would go?" It turns out that many believers have been giving the wrong answer. It is not heaven. Award-winning author N. T. Wright outlines the present confusion about a Christian's future hope and shows how it is deeply intertwined with how we live today. Wright, who is one of today's premier Bible scholars, asserts that Christianity's most distinctive idea is bodily resurrection. He provides a magisterial defense for a literal resurrection of Jesus and shows how this became the cornerstone for the Christian community's hope in the bodily resurrection of all people at the end of the age. Wright then explores our expectation of "new heavens and a new earth," revealing what happens to the dead until then and what will happen with the "second coming" of Jesus. For many, including many Christians, all this will come as a great surprise. Wright convincingly argues that what we believe about life after death directly affects what we believe about life before death. For if God intends to renew the whole creation—and if this has already begun in Jesus's resurrection—the church cannot stop at "saving souls" but must anticipate the eventual renewal by working for God's kingdom in the wider world, bringing healing and hope in the present life. Lively and accessible, this book will surprise and excite all who are interested in the meaning of life, not only after death but before it.


The Birth Of Christianity

Author by : John Dominic Crossan
Languange : en
Publisher by : HarperOne
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Description : "This book is about the lost years of earliest Christianity, about the 30s and 40s of the first century, about those dark decades immediately after the execution of Jesus...The obscurity of the 30s and 40s can be emphasized by the comparative brilliancy of the 50s. From that later decade we have the letters of Paul...From them, above all else, we receive the temptation to gloss speedily over the 30s or 40s and move swiftly to those better-documented 50s...Before there was Paul the apostle in the early 50s, there was Paul the persecutor in the early 30s. What was there for him to persecute?" -from The Birth of Christianity In this long-awaited companion to his landmark The Historical Jesus, John Dominic Crossan, the world's foremost expert on the historical Jesus, explores the lost years of earliest Christianity, those immediately following the execution of Jesus. He establishes the contextual setting by an interdisciplinary combination of anthropological, historical, and archaeological approaches. He identifies the textual sources by a literary analysis of the earliest discernible layers within our present gospels, both inside and outside the New Testament. Context and text come together to challenge long-standing assumptions about the role of Paul and the meaning of resurrection, and to forge an eloquent and powerful new understanding of the birth of the Christian church. John Dominic Crossan, one of the most influential figures in biblical scholarship, combines innovative scholarship with compelling insight in illuminating the mysteries of the origins of Christianity. Crossan's meticulous research into the anthropological milieu within which Christianity arose, and his study of the emergence of early Christian communities, form the basis for his stunning and original theory. Separating history from theology and redaction, he presents a vivid account of early Christianity's interaction with the world around it, and of the new traditions and communities established as Jesus' companions continued their movement after his death. With ancient traditional Judaism under increasing pressure from both Roman commercial exploitation and Greek cultural domination, the Kingdom-of-God movement of Jesus and his followers establish radical but non-violent resistance in the Lower Galilee of the late 20s. As early Jewish and Greek-influenced schools of thought present competing visions of the nature of the spirit and the flesh, it is the message brought by Jesus during his life that creates the spiritual center of the early church. The Resurrection, while essential to the story of Christ as told through the centuries, is understood in a different light when presented in the setting of a Mediterranean culture in which events such as apparitions by the dead and ecstatic visions were far from unusual. While the eschatological teachings of Paul play a large role in the growth and development of the church, they are seen to follow, rather than define, the moment of its birth. Ground-breaking and brilliantly crafted, The Birth of Christianity is an indispensable addition to our understanding of the origins of the Christian faith. John Dominic Crossan is the author of The Historical Jesus, Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography, Who Killed Jesus?, and Who Is Jesus? He chairs the Historical Jesus section of the Society of Biblical Literature and was codirector of the Jesus Seminar. John Dominic Crossan, the world's foremost expert and best-selling author on the historical Jesus, presents a fascinating and essential inquiry into the rise of Christianity in the years preceding and immediately following the Crucifixion. Crossan's interdisciplinary approach sheds new light on the cultural and theological context in which the Christian church arose, and raises essential questions about the role of St. Paul and the significance of the Resurrection.


Narratives Of The Passion Resurrection And Ascension Of Jesus Of Nazareth

Author by : Del Mueller
Languange : en
Publisher by : Author House
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Description : Have you ever wondered what it would be like to be a member of the group that witnessed Jesus’ suffering, death, resurrection, and ascension? What would have been your response as you stood in the Garden of Gethsemane when the soldiers arrived; as you observed the trials that condemned your Master; listened to the echo of nails piercing his body; watched him hang from that cross and die? Then walk with Mary Magdalene, Peter, and John to witness the empty tomb. Experience the feelings of unbelief, hope, assurance, and finally the ecstasy, the joy beyond description, as you talk with, touch, and worship your risen Lord. Finally, accept with joyful anticipation your Savior ascending into the heavens with the promise of a glorious return. Del Mueller takes readers into the thoughts and hearts of the key witnesses to Christ’s last days on earth. He writes a first person account that provides readers with a unique historical perspective on the stories as they really could have happened. Narratives of the Passion, Resurrection, and Ascension of Jesus of Nazareth will personalize the events that transformed the world and show readers the humanness of those who were changed because of Jesus.


Jesus Sin And Perfection In Early Christianity

Author by : Jeffrey S. Siker
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
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Description : The first full-length study to trace how early Christians came to view Jesus as sinless, this volume presents a taxonomy of sin in early Judaism and examines moments in Jesus' life associated with sinfulness. It explores the implications of a retrospective faith that elevated Jesus to perfect divinity, redefining sin.


The Jesus Of The Early Christians

Author by : George Albert Wells
Languange : en
Publisher by : London : Pemberton
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Description :


The Routledge Handbook Of Early Christian Philosophy

Author by : Mark Edwards
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : This volume offers the most comprehensive survey available of the philosophical background to the works of early Christian writers and the development of early Christian doctrine. It examines how the same philosophical questions were approached by Christian and pagan thinkers; the philosophical element in Christian doctrines; the interaction of particular philosophies with Christian thought; and the constructive use of existing philosophies by all Christian thinkers of late antiquity. While most studies of ancient Christian writers and the development of early Christian doctrine make some reference to the philosophic background, this is often of an anecdotal character, and does not enable the reader to determine whether the likenesses are deep or superficial, or how pervasively one particular philosopher may have influenced Christian thought. This volume is designed to provide not only a body of facts more compendious than can be found elsewhere, but the contextual information which will enable readers to judge or clarify the statements that they encounter in works of more limited scope. With contributions by an international group of experts in both philosophy and Christian thought, this is an invaluable resource for scholars of early Christianity, Late Antiquity and ancient philosophy alike.


Investigating The Resurrection Of Jesus Christ

Author by : Andrew Loke
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
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Description : This book provides an original and comprehensive assessment of the hypotheses concerning the origin of resurrection Christology. It fills a gap in the literature by addressing these issues using a transdisciplinary approach involving historical-critical study of the New Testament, theology, analytic philosophy, psychology and comparative religion. Using a novel analytic framework, this book demonstrates that a logically exhaustive list of hypotheses concerning the claims of Jesus’ post-mortem appearances and the outcome of Jesus’ body can be formulated. It addresses these hypotheses in detail, including sophisticated combinations of hallucination hypothesis with cognitive dissonance; memory distortion; and confirmation bias. Addressing writings from both within and outside of Christianity, it also demonstrates how a comparative religion approach might further illuminate the origins of Christianity. This is a thorough study of arguably the key event in the formation of the Christian faith. As such, it will be of keen interest to theologians, New Testament scholars, philosophers, and scholars of religious studies.


Encyclopedia Of Early Christianity Second Edition

Author by : Everett Ferguson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 49
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Description : First published in 1990. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


The Mary Magdalene Tradition

Author by : Holly E. Hearon
Languange : en
Publisher by : Liturgical Press
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Total Read : 38
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Description : In The Mary Magdalene Tradition, Holly E. Hearon offers an understanding of the early Church, the role of women in the Church, and the power of narrative to shape community understanding and practice. By examining the rhetorical function of the post-resurrection appearance to Mary Magdalene traditions in early Christian communities, Hearon draws connections between these ancient communities and the life of the Church today. Beginning with a reconstruction of the practice of storytelling in the world of antiquity, Hearon situates the Magdalene narratives in this oral, storytelling environment. Focusing on the fluid nature of storytelling, Hearon explores how the traditions were used to further arguments by storytellers with respect to women?s leadership in Christian communities. Particular attention is given to the Gospels of Matthew and John, highlighting the relationship of the Gospel narratives to specific historical circumstances facing the early Church. Chapters are ?Storytelling in the World of Antiquity,? ?Origins of the Post-Resurrection Appearance to Mary Magdalene Tradition,? ?The Function of the Mary Magdalene Tradition in Oral Storytelling Circles,? ?Storytelling Strategies in Matthew: The Function of the Mary Magdalene Tradition In Its Literary Context,? ?The Mary Magdalene Tradition and Matthean Communities: The Function of the Tradition in Response to Historical Circumstances,? ?Storytelling Strategies in John: The Function of the Mary Magdalene Tradition In Its Literary Context,? ?The Mary Magdalene Tradition and Johannine Communities: The Function of the Tradition in Response to Historical Circumstances,? ?Epilogue: A Consideration of Storytelling in Relation To Our Understanding of Communities in the Past and the Shaping of Communities for the Future.??. . .views the Magdalene stories as an intersection of gender, power, and conflict and suggests how they might continue to offer meaning today.? Theology Digest?This book is a major study of the resurrection appearances to Mary Magdalene in the gospels. It includes a detailed consideration of the passages, their roles in the oral storytelling context and in the narratives of Matthew and John, and an analysis of the tensions they reveal about leadership and gender in Matthean and Johannine communities and in the wider oral Christian context. In the process, Holly Hearon provides the most comprehensive study of oral storytelling in antiquity to date, making the book is an invaluable resource for all scholars of early Christianity. The book makes important new contributions in the areas of storytelling in antiquity and the role of women in Christian origins as well as in the understanding of the Mary Magdalene passages and their significance for early Christianity.? Joanna Dewey, Ph.D. Academic Dean and Harvey H. Guthrie, Jr. Professor of Biblical Studies Episcopal Divinity School Cambridge, Massachusetts?I have learned a tremendous amount from this excellent, well-crafted, imaginative book. Hearon?s work, informed by in-depth study of oral transmission and gender analysis, introduces us to different ways and possible reasons the Magdalene stories may have been remembered and performed in the pre-Gospel period and beyond. She analyzes the dynamics that brought stories to life, and the storytellers? various strategies. Identifying traces of those tellings in Matthew, John (as well as in the Markan Appendix), she helps us see more clearly how the stories were reinterpreted by and for their communities. She has convinced me that the oral existence of Magdalene stories is as essential as the written texts, and is crucial to discussion of how these stories might function today, as they are shaped and reshaped in our debates about women?s authority.? Jane D. Schaberg Professor of Religious Studies and Women?s Studies University of Detroit Mercy"With methodological precision and literary sensitivity, Hearon uncovers tracings of oral composition behind Matthew 28, John 20 and the Longer Ending of Mark; her study reveals plausible performance contexts, redactional adaptations, and the means by which stories of Mary Magdalene at the tomb addressed questions of gender roles and community authority." Amy-Jill Levine E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Professor of New Testament Studies Vanderbilt Divinity School and Graduate Department of Religion?Using folkloric and literary critical theories, Holly Hearon very skilfully reconstructs storytelling in the world of antiquity in order to determine women's engagement in this very significant activity in the shaping of culture. This provides her with a particular lens to examine anew the Mary Magdalene tradition in the oral and early written stages of its development. The Mary Magdalene Tradition will, therefore, not only make a unique contribution to the current exploration of that tradition among leading scholars of early Christianity, but it will provide new insights for the study of gospel traditions generally. An important contribution to the study of early Christianity and a challenge to contemporary Christian communities to reflect on the rhetorical effect of their current storytelling.? Elaine Wainwright Brisbane College of Theology Australia? . . . substantial resource for the study of women in the Church.? Magistra?Hearon?s exegeses support the point that women, and Mary Magdalene especially, played a significant part in the formation of Christianity and its survival in its early days.? The Midwest Book Review?Holly E. Hearon has written an interesting book on the Mary Magdalene Tradition which will be appreciated by those scholars who are seeking to focus on women?s experiences in Biblical traditions. . . . This study beckons those who read the Biblical accounts and try to attain meaning from sacred scripture, and to identify with persons who have been ignored or marginalized in any era.? Catholic Studies"I recommend this book as an important resource for the biblical storyteller. Reading it will deepen your understanding of the rhetorical context of a particular story, and will give you useful tools for interpreting and telling." The Biblical Storyteller?The Mary Magdalene Tradition is a well crafted work which offers its readers a careful analysis not only of the tradition within the first century of the Common Era but also of its rhetorical function in a number of early Christian communities including two gospel communities. This careful analysis is accompanied by very diligent attention to and explication of the methodologies used for each developing stage of the study. I would, therefore, highly recommend this text not only to established scholars but to students who are learning their way in the craft. In it they will find a fine example of good biblical scholarship.? Pacifica


The Risen Jesus Future Hope

Author by : Gary R. Habermas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
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Description : Gary R. Habermas begins his apologetic for Christianity by demonstrating the historicity of the resurrection of Christ. He then connects the resurrection to several key tenets of Christian theology, through paths not only historical, but also philosophical, counseling, and experiential.