Chromatin Readers in Health and Disease

Chromatin Readers in Health and Disease
Author: Olivier Binda
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2021-12-15
ISBN: 9780128233764
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chromatin Readers in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Chromatin Readers in Health and Disease, Volume 32, a new release in the Translational Epigenetics series, gathers and makes actionable our current understanding of how chromatin readers regulate access to genetic information, and how their aberrant regulation can contribute to human pathologies. Chromatin readers discussed include 14-3-3 Dinshaw, ADD, Ankyrin, BAH, BET, BIR, BRCT, bromodomains and Kac readers, chromodomains and chromobarrel readers, citrullination readers, macrodomains and poly-ADP-ribose readers, MBT, PHD and double PHD, PWWP, SUMO (H4K12) readers, Tudor and TTD, UDR and ubiquitin, WD40, YEATS (crotonyl reader)?, MBD, SRA, and Methyl-RNA readers. In the book, more than a dozen leaders in the field examine a range of protein readers, their relationship to human disease, and the early therapeutics that act as chromatin signaling factors to treat cancers and Huntington's disease, among other disorders. Enables researchers and clinicians to understand chromatin signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression through chromatin readers Highlights the role of chromatin readers in a variety of human pathologies, as well as early therapeutics that act on chromatin signaling Includes chapter contributions from international leaders in the field

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease
Author: Randy L Jirtle,Frederick L. Tyson
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2013-05-16
ISBN: 3642233805
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome.

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 254
Release: 2018-01-15
ISBN: 0128123400
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Volume 335, the latest release in the International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology reviews and details current advances in cell and molecular biology. The IRCMB series has a worldwide readership, maintaining a high standard by publishing invited articles on important and timely topics that are authored by prominent cell and molecular biologists. The articles published in IRCMB have a high impact and an average cited half-life of nine years. This great resource ranks high amongst scientific journals dealing with cell biology. Publishes only invited review articles on selected topics Authored by established and active cell and molecular biologists drawn from international sources Offers a wide range of perspectives on specific subjects

Human Epigenomics

Human Epigenomics
Author: Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 223
Release: 2018-02-01
ISBN: 9811076146
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Epigenomics Book Excerpt:

The term epigenetics describes regulatory and information storing mechanisms of specific genes that do not involve any change of their DNA sequence. Epigenetics is closely related to the extensively folded state, in which the genome is packaged, known as chromatin. New genomic tools nowadays allow the genome-wide assessment of, for example, chromatin states and DNA modifications, and led to the discovery of unexpected new epigenetic principles, such as epigenomic memory. This was the start of the field of epigenomics, the relation of which to human health and disease is discussed in this textbook. This book aims to summarize, in a condensed form, the role of epigenomics in defining chromatin states that are representative of active genes (euchromatin) and repressed genes (heterochromatin). Moreover, this book discusses the principles of gene regulation, chromatin stability, genomic imprinting and the reversibility of DNA methylation and histone modifications. This information should enable a better understanding of cell type identities and will provide new directions for studies of, for example, cellular reprograming, the response of chromatin to environmental signals and epigenetic therapies that can improve or restore human health. In order to facilitate the latter, we favor a high figure-to-text ratio following the rule “a picture tells more than thousand words”. The content of the book is based on the lecture course “Molecular Medicine and Genetics” that is given by one of us (C. Carlberg) in different forms since 2002 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. Thematically, this book is located between our textbooks “Mechanisms of Gene Regulation” (ISBN 978-94-017-7741-4) and “Nutrigenomics” (ISBN 978-3-319-30415-1), studying of which may also be interesting to our readers. The book is sub-divided into three sections and 13 chapters. Following the Introduction (section A), section B will explain the molecular basis of epigenomics, while section C will provide examples for the impact of epigenomics in human health and disease. The lecture course is primarily designed for Master level students of biomedicine, but is also frequented by PhD students as well as by students of other bioscience disciplines. Besides its value as a textbook, Human Epigenomics will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedicine.

Epigenomics in Health and Disease

Epigenomics in Health and Disease
Author: Mario Fraga,Agustin Fernandez Fernandez
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2015-10-12
ISBN: 0128004967
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epigenomics in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Epigenomics in Health and Disease discusses the next generation sequencing technologies shaping our current knowledge with regards to the role of epigenetics in normal development, aging, and disease. It includes the consequences for diagnostics, prognostics, and disease-based therapies made possible by the study of the complete set of epigenetic modifications to the genetic material of human cells. With coverage pertinent to both basic biology and translational research, the book will be of particular interest for medical and bioscience researchers and students seeking current translational knowledge in epigenesis and epigenomics. Coverage includes the latest findings on epigenome-wide research in disease-based profiling, epidemiological implications, epigenome-wide epigenetic studies, the cancer epigenome, and other pervasive disease categories. Presents critical reviews that provide the means for reviewing and analyzing the epigenome as a whole, also discussing its translational potential Combines basic epigenomic knowledge with methodological and biostatistical topics related to technology and data analysis Includes coverage of relatively new topics, including DNA methylation dynamics during development and differentiation, genome-wide histone post-translational modifications during development and differentiation, and genome-wide DNA methylation changes during aging

Human Epigenetics How Science Works

Human Epigenetics  How Science Works
Author: Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 153
Release: 2019-09-24
ISBN: 3030229076
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Epigenetics How Science Works Book Excerpt:

The view “It’s all in our genes and we cannot change it” developed in the past 150 years since Gregor Mendel’s experiments with flowering pea plants. However, there is a special form of genetics, referred to as epigenetics, which does not involve any change of our genes but regulates how and when they are used. In the cell nucleus our genes are packed into chromatin, which is a complex of histone proteins and genomic DNA, representing the molecular basis of epigenetics. Our environment and lifestyle decisions influence the epigenetics of our cells and organs, i.e. epigenetics changes dynamically throughout our whole life. Thus, we have the chance to change our epigenetics in a positive as well as negative way and present the onset of diseases, such a type 2 diabetes or cancer. This textbook provides a molecular explanation how our genome is connected with environmental signals. It outlines that epigenetic programming is a learning process that results in epigenetic memory in each of the cells of our body. The central importance of epigenetics during embryogenesis and cellular differentiation as well as in the process of aging and the risk for the development of cancer are discussed. Moreover, the role of the epigenome as a molecular storage of cellular events not only in the brain but also in metabolic organs and in the immune system is described. The book represents an updated but simplified version of our textbook “Human Epigenomics” (ISBN 978-981-10-7614-8). The first five chapters explain the molecular basis of epigenetics, while the following seven chapters provide examples for the impact of epigenetics in human health and disease.

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation
Author: Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 211
Release: 2016-06-06
ISBN: 9401777411
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation Book Excerpt:

This textbook aims to describe the fascinating area of eukaryotic gene regulation for graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences. Gene expression is essential in shaping the various phenotypes of cells and tissues and as such, regulation of gene expression is a fundamental aspect of nearly all processes in physiology, both in healthy and in diseased states. This pivotal role for the regulation of gene expression makes this textbook essential reading for students of all the biomedical sciences, in order to be better prepared for their specialized disciplines. A complete understanding of transcription factors and the processes that alter their activity is a major goal of modern life science research. The availability of the whole human genome sequence (and that of other eukaryotic genomes) and the consequent development of next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly changed nearly all areas of the biological sciences. For example, the genome-wide location of histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites, such as provided by the ENCODE consortium, has greatly improved our understanding of gene regulation. Therefore, the focus of this book is the description of the post-genome understanding of gene regulation. The purpose of this book is to provide, in a condensed form, an overview on the present understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation. The authors are not aiming to compete with comprehensive treatises, but rather focus on the essentials. Therefore, the authors have favored a high figure-to-text ratio following the rule stating that “a picture tells more than thousand words”. The content of the book is based on the lecture course, which is given by Prof. Carlberg since 2001 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. The book is subdivided into 4 sections and 13 chapters. Following the Introduction there are three sections, which take a view on gene regulation from the perspective of transcription factors, chromatin and non-coding RNA, respectively. Besides its value as a textbook, Mechanisms of Gene Regulation will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedical laboratories.

Systems Analysis of Chromatin Related Protein Complexes in Cancer

Systems Analysis of Chromatin Related Protein Complexes in Cancer
Author: Andrew Emili,Jack Greenblatt,Shoshana Wodak
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2013-08-13
ISBN: 1461479312
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Systems Analysis of Chromatin Related Protein Complexes in Cancer Book Excerpt:

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Epigenetic modifications underlie all aspects of human physiology, including stem cell renewal, formation of cell types and tissues. They also underlie environmental impacts on human health, including aging and diseases like cancer. Consequently, cracking the epigenetic "code" is considered a key challenge in biomedical research. Chromatin structure and function are modified by protein complexes, causing genes to be turned “on” or “off” and controlling other aspects of DNA function. Yet while there has been explosive growth in the epigenetics field, human chromatin-modifying machines have only recently started to be characterized. To meet this challenge, our book explores complementary experimental tracks, pursued by expert international research groups, aimed at the physical and functional characterization of the diverse repertoire of chromatin protein machines - namely, the "readers, writers and erasers" of epigenomic marks. These studies include the identification of RNA molecules and drugs that interact selectively with components of the chromatin machinery. What makes this book distinctive is its emphasis on the systematic exploration of chromatin protein complexes in the context of human development and disease networks.

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Author: Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2015-10-10
ISBN: 0128016728
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease synthesizes the existing knowledge on how the in utero environment could be the most important environment in shaping later risk for various diseases or to conversely promote the health of the offspring. The book mines the existing literature from a variety of disciplines from toxicology to nutrition to epigenetics to reveal how contrasting maternal in utero environmental changes might be leading to epigenetic convergence and the resulting deleterious phenotypic and physiological effects in our offspring. It is increasingly becoming apparent that even subtle changes in the mother’s diet, stress, and exposure to low concentrations of toxic chemicals at levels deemed safe by the EPA and FDA, such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), can dramatically impact the health of our children, possibly leading to metabolic, cardiovascular, immunological, neurobehavioral disorders, and increased risk for cancer to list but a few examples. Informs how everyday choices pregnant women make can impact child development Ties together how in utero environmental changes may be inducing epigenetic changes in the offspring leading to overlapping phenotypes regardless of the initial insult (toxic, nutrition, or stress) Includes a boxed-in area in each chapter for further references and resources to keep up with the field Features video interviews with the authors and other key leaders in the field

Genome Plasticity in Health and Disease

Genome Plasticity in Health and Disease
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2020-04-08
ISBN: 0128178205
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genome Plasticity in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Genome Plasticity in Health and Disease provides a fully up-to-date overview on genome plasticity and its role in human physiology and disease. Following an introduction to the field, a diverse range of chapters cover genomic and epigenomic analysis and the use of model organisms and genomic databases in studies. Specific molecular and biochemical mechanisms of genome plasticity are examined, including somatic variants, De Novo variants, founder variations, isolated populations dynamics, copy-number variations, mobile elements, DNA methylation, histone modifications, transcription factors, non-coding RNAs, telomere dynamics and RNA editing. Later chapters explore disease relevance for cancer, as well as cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, inflammatory, and endocrine disease, and associated pathways for drug discovery. Examines the role of genome plasticity across a range of disease types, from cardiovascular disease, to cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders Adopts an interdisciplinary approach, with expert contributions across the spectrum of basic science and disease relevance to drug discovery

Toxicoepigenetics

Toxicoepigenetics
Author: Shaun D. McCullough,Dana Dolinoy
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2018-11-02
ISBN: 0128124342
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toxicoepigenetics Book Excerpt:

Toxicoepigenetics: Core Principles and Applications examines the core aspects of epigenetics, including chromatin biology, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNA, as well as fundamental techniques and considerations for studying each of these mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. Although its integration into the field of toxicology is in its infancy, epigenetics have taken center stage in the study of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Increasing the presence of epigenetics in toxicological research allows for a more in-depth understanding of important aspects of toxicology such as the role of the environment and lifestyle influencing the individual susceptibility to these effects and the trans-generational transmission of these health effects and susceptibilities. Methods chapters are included to help improve efficacy and efficiency of protocols in both the laboratory and the classroom. Toxicoepigenetics: Core Principles and Applications is an essential book for researchers and academics using epigenetics in toxicology research and study. Introduces the fundamental principles and practices for understanding the role of the epigenome in toxicology Presents the foundation of epigenetics for toxicologists with a broad range of backgrounds Discusses the incorporation of epigenetics and epigenomics into current toxicological studies and interpretation of epigenetic data in toxicological applications

Pocket Companion to Robbins Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease E Book

Pocket Companion to Robbins   Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease E Book
Author: Richard Mitchell,Vinay Kumar,Nelson Fausto,Abul K. Abbas,Jon C. Aster
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 1042
Release: 2022-11-19
ISBN: 032382563X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pocket Companion to Robbins Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease E Book Book Excerpt:

Offering rapid, portable access to key concepts and principles of pathology from Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 10th Edition, this up-to-date Pocket Companion makes it easy to locate essential information on the go. The condensed, at-a-glance format, organized to parallel the parent text, is ideal for quick review—anytime, anywhere. Features cutting-edge information on important topics such as novel therapies for hepatitis C, personalized medicine, the role of microbiome and metabolome in non-communicable disease, and much more. Includes new gross and microscopic figures for clarity of morphology and new artwork depicting the latest advances in molecular pathogenesis of cancers. Reflects updated page references and content changes found in to Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 10th Edition. Contains all the key data and principles needed for the USMLE Step 1, in-course exams, and rotations.

Genetic and Epigenetic Insights Into the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

Genetic and Epigenetic Insights Into the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Author: Tesfaye B. Mersha,Fasil Tekola-Ayele,Daniel Enquobahrie
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 83
Release: 2022-04-21
ISBN: 2889747476
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic and Epigenetic Insights Into the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Post Translational Modifications in Health and Disease

Post Translational Modifications in Health and Disease
Author: Cecilio J. Vidal
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2010-10-13
ISBN: 1441963820
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Post Translational Modifications in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Post-translational modifications serve many different purposes in several cellular processes such as gene expression, protein folding and transport to appropriate cell compartment, protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions, enzyme regulation, signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation, protein stability, recycling and degradation. Although several-hundred different modifications are known, the significance of many of them remains unknown. The enormous versatility of the modifications which frequently alter the physico-chemical properties of the respective proteins represents an extraordinary challenge in understanding their physiological role. Since essential cellular functions are regulated by protein modifications, an improvement of current understanding of their meaning might allow new avenues to prevent and/or alleviate human and animal diseases.

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation How Science Works

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation  How Science Works
Author: Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 149
Release: 2020-10-29
ISBN: 3030523217
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation How Science Works Book Excerpt:

This textbook aims to describe the fascinating area of eukaryotic gene regulation for graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences. Gene expression is essential in shaping the various phenotypes of cells and tissues and as such, regulation of gene expression is a fundamental aspect of nearly all processes in physiology, both in healthy and in diseased states. Th is pivotal role for the regulation of gene expression makes this textbook essential reading for students of all the biomedical sciences, in order to be better prepared for their specialized disciplines. A complete understanding of transcription factors and the processes that alter their activity is a major goal of modern life science research. The availability of the whole human genome sequence (and that of other eukaryotic genomes) and the consequent development of next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly changed nearly all areas of the biological sciences. For example, the genome-wide location of histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites, such as provided by the ENCODE consortium, has greatly improved our understanding of gene regulation. Therefore, the focus of this book is the description of the post-genome understanding of gene regulation.

Chromatin Spatial Configuration and Function in Metazoans

Chromatin Spatial Configuration and Function in Metazoans
Author: Mayra Furlan-Magaril,Katarzyna Oktaba,Paul Delgado-Olguin
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2021-09-30
ISBN: 2889714314
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chromatin Spatial Configuration and Function in Metazoans Book Excerpt:

Nuclear Receptors in Human Health and Disease

Nuclear Receptors in Human Health and Disease
Author: Moray J. Campbell,Charlotte L. Bevan
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2022-10-17
ISBN: 3031118367
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nuclear Receptors in Human Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

This book addresses and dissects the roles and crosstalk mechanisms for the 48 human nuclear receptors (NR) in human health and disease. After a State-of-the-Art introduction by an undisputed and celebrated field leader to provide an overview of the field and its significance, chapters are organized into six sections. The first three sections discuss NR roles in Reproduction & Development, Metabolism and Central Systems. These present to the reader our current understanding of NR signaling in the development and functioning of the reproductive system; the roles in the regulation of energy metabolism; and how NR signaling is more widely integrated into systemic functions from calcium flux to circadian rhythm. The subsequent three sections dissect how aberrant NR functions drive Cancer; how new insights into Genomic Interaction are helping to reveal how NR disruption drives disease; and finally, how Translational Efforts are exploiting this understanding from developing novel NR ligands to establishing how underlying genetic variation impacts NR function. Within these sections the chapters also illustrate emerging understanding of how the epigenome and non-coding genome combine to regulate NR function and impact dysfunction. Increasingly these insights cross-fertilize over cell and disease boundaries and it is unsurprising that NR are being explored in novel and new arenas such as the context of neurological disorders and depression. Thus, there is wide scope for re-purposing of licensed drugs and development of new NR-targeting therapies for a host of conditions and diseases. This unique book brings together many of the leading figures in NR research from across the globe, to discuss emerging roles and their implications for human health and disease. It summarizes the state of the art and shows signposts for future research to further shape this influential field.

Epigenetic Drug Discovery

Epigenetic Drug Discovery
Author: Wolfgang Sippl,Manfred Jung
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2019-03-25
ISBN: 3527343148
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epigenetic Drug Discovery Book Excerpt:

This broad view of epigenetic approaches in drug discovery combines methods and strategies with individual targets, including new and largely unexplored ones such as sirtuins and methyl-lysine reader proteins. Presented in three parts - Introduction to Epigenetics, General Aspects and Methodologies, and Epigenetic Target Classes - it covers everything any drug researcher would need in order to know about targeting epigenetic mechanisms of disease. Epigenetic Drug Discovery is an important resource for medicinal chemists, pharmaceutical researchers, biochemists, molecular biologists, and molecular geneticists.

Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease

Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease
Author: Yoshinori Mine,Kazuo Miyashita,Fereidoon Shahidi
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 413
Release: 2009-04-13
ISBN: 9780813807171
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Part of the Functional Food Science and Technology book series (Series Editor: Fereidoon Shahidi), this book compiles the current science based upon nutrigenomics and proteomics in food and health. Coverage includes many important nutraceuticals (food factors) and their impact on gene interaction and health. Authored by a stellar international team of multidisciplinary researchers, this book acquaints food and nutrition professionals with these new fields of nutrition research and conveys the state of the science to date.

Nucleoproteins Advances in Research and Application 2013 Edition

Nucleoproteins   Advances in Research and Application  2013 Edition
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: ScholarlyEditions
Total Pages: 495
Release: 2013-06-21
ISBN: 1481678280
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nucleoproteins Advances in Research and Application 2013 Edition Book Excerpt:

Nucleoproteins—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Histones. The editors have built Nucleoproteins—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Histones in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Nucleoproteins—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.