Competencies For Science Librarians

Author by : David Stern
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
Total Download : 920
File Size : 44,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This book explores the expectations and resources available to develop a set of important core skills needed for this profession. Leading authorities in the field of librarianship offer their extensive experience and insight to help beginners to understand precisely what actual measurable skills are required to become a successful career science librarian. Librarians currently working in the area will gain the data they need to be able to effectively collaborate with more experienced people. Topics include reviews of key concepts, basic skills, terminology, ACRL instruction competencies, teams, and assessment of services. It also provides the latest knowledge on trends, standards, terminology, professional associations, and a brief literature review, and recommended readings for familiarizing librarians with their job responsibilities. Besides job competencies, the book reviews collection development, reference issues, in-depth research assistance, cataloging and metadata, faculty liaison and outreach, career development concerns, continuing education tracks, and issues in collaboration assistance. This source also provides extensive references and tables and figures to clearly present information. This book is a valuable resource for beginners who wonder what they need to know as they start their careers or are considering this as an area of concentration, and as a refresher and professional development track for current librarians working with more experienced people in the area. This book was published as a special issue of Science & Technology Libraries.


Competencies For Science Librarians

Author by : David Stern
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
Total Download : 992
File Size : 45,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This book explores the expectations and resources available to develop a set of important core skills needed for this profession. Leading authorities in the field of librarianship offer their extensive experience and insight to help beginners to understand precisely what actual measurable skills are required to become a successful career science librarian. Librarians currently working in the area will gain the data they need to be able to effectively collaborate with more experienced people. Topics include reviews of key concepts, basic skills, terminology, ACRL instruction competencies, teams, and assessment of services. It also provides the latest knowledge on trends, standards, terminology, professional associations, and a brief literature review, and recommended readings for familiarizing librarians with their job responsibilities. Besides job competencies, the book reviews collection development, reference issues, in-depth research assistance, cataloging and metadata, faculty liaison and outreach, career development concerns, continuing education tracks, and issues in collaboration assistance. This source also provides extensive references and tables and figures to clearly present information. This book is a valuable resource for beginners who wonder what they need to know as they start their careers or are considering this as an area of concentration, and as a refresher and professional development track for current librarians working with more experienced people in the area. This book was published as a special issue of Science & Technology Libraries.


Developing Librarian Competencies For The Digital Age

Author by : Jeffrey G. Coghill
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 384
File Size : 44,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Librarianship is both an art and a science. Librarians study the science of information and how to work with clients to help them find solutions to their information needs. They also learn quickly that there is an art to working with people, to finding the answers to tough questions using the resources available and knowing which information resources to use to find the information being sought in short order. But, what technical skills do librarians need to be successful in the future? How can library managers best develop their staffs for success? Developing Librarian Competencies for the Digital Age explores questions such as: What is the composition of a modern library collection? Will that collection look different in the future? What are the information sources and how do we manage those? What are the technical skills needed for a 21st century librarian? How will reference services change and adapt to embrace new ways to interact with library patrons or clients? What kinds of library skills are needed for the librarian of today to grow and thrive, now and into the future? How will service models change to existing clients and how will the model change going into the future of librarianship? What kinds of budgeting challenges are there for libraries and the administrators who oversee these libraries? What do the library professional organizations see as the core skills needed for new graduates and those practicing in the profession going into the future? In answering those questions, the book identifies specific digital skills needed for success, ways of developing those skills, and ways of assessing them.


Data Science For Librarians

Author by : Yunfei Du
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 300
File Size : 51,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This unique textbook intersects traditional library science with data science principles that readers will find useful in implementing or improving data services within their libraries. Data Science for Librarians introduces data science to students and practitioners in library services. Writing for academic, public, and school library managers; library science students; and library and information science educators, authors Yunfei Du and Hammad Rauf Khan provide a thorough overview of conceptual and practical tools for data librarian practice. Partially due to how quickly data science evolves, libraries have yet to recognize core competencies and skills required to perform the job duties of a data librarian. As society transitions from the information age into the era of big data, librarians and information professionals require new knowledge and skills to stay current and take on new job roles, such as data librarianship. Skills such as data curation, research data management, statistical analysis, business analytics, visualization, smart city data, and learning analytics are relevant in library services today and will become increasingly so in the near future. This text serves as a tool for library and information science students and educators working on data science curriculum design. Reviews fundamental concepts and principles of data science Offers a practical overview of tools and software Highlights skills and services needed in the 21st-century academic library Covers the entire research data life cycle and the librarian's role at each stage Provides insight into how library science and data science intersect


Recruiting Training And Retention Of Science And Technology Librarians

Author by : Patricia A. Kreitz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
Total Download : 874
File Size : 53,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Since the 1950s there has been a persistent shortage of sci-tech librarians, and as more librarians retire or change positions, the prospect looms that the profession will only depopulate further. Tackling this difficult challenge, Recruiting, Training, and Retention of Science and Technology Librarians gathers together into one source the perspectives of top library administrators and managers as well as front-line librarians who present the latest research and practical strategies to find, train, and keep those valuable specialized professionals. This book explores in depth timely issues and presents creative perspectives and innovative solutions to this persistent problem in subject-specialized libraries. As the baby-boom generation of science and technology librarians begins to retire, training and keeping sci-tech librarians will become even more crucial. Recruiting, Training, and Retention of Science and Technology Librarians discusses the “replacement gap” problem in libraries, including who should be recruited, how they should be trained, and how to retain them once hired. Several authors address the field’s long-standing specialist vs. generalist debate, bringing new data and experience-driven perspectives to this challenging issue. Topics in Recruiting, Training, and Retention of Science and Technology Librarians include: updating the cultural image of librarians to make the profession more appealing a comprehensive literature review how to cultivate candidates who are dedicated to service and love research and learning practical approaches to improve the visibility and attractiveness of science librarianship the skills and support needed to become a successful science librarian an innovative program to recruit undergraduates an in-depth survey of practicing science and technology librarians the challenges of science librarianship in Africa library and information science educators as recruiters for sci-tech librarians creative strategies to recruit and retain librarians adapting aspects of first-year student retention programs as a model for library retention programs how professional competencies can be used for recruitment, training, and retention and more Recruiting, Training, and Retention of Science and Technology Librarians is a timely, important resource for college and university administrators, and public, special, academic, and government librarians.


Introduction To Health Sciences Librarianship

Author by : M. Sandra Wood
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 50
Total Download : 775
File Size : 44,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Get the foundational knowledge about health sciences librarianship. The general term “health sciences libraries” covers a wide range of areas beyond medical libraries, such as biomedical, nursing, allied health, pharmacy, and others. Introduction to Health Sciences Librarianship provides a sound foundation to all aspects of these types of libraries to students and librarians new to the field. This helpful guide provides a helpful overview of the health care environment, technical services, public services, management issues, academic health sciences, hospital libraries, health informatics, evidence-based practice, and more. This text provides crucial information every beginning and practicing health sciences librarian needs—all in one volume. Introduction to Health Sciences Librarianship presents some of the most respected librarians and educators in the field, each discussing important aspects of librarianship, including technical services, public services, administration, special services, and special collections. This comprehensive volume provides all types of librarians with helpful general, practical, and theoretical knowledge about this profession. The book’s unique "A Day in the Life of . . . " feature describes typical days of health sciences librarians working in special areas such as reference or consumer health, and offers anyone new to the field a revealing look at what a regular workday is like. The text is packed with useful figures, screen captures, tables, and references. Topics discussed in Introduction to Health Sciences Librarianship include: overview of health sciences libraries health environment collection development of journals, books, and electronic resources organization of health information access services information services and information retrieval information literacy health informatics management of academic health sciences libraries management and issues in hospital libraries library space planning specialized services Introduction to Health Sciences Librarianship provides essential information for health sciences librarians, medical librarians, beginning and intermediate level health sciences/medical librarians, and any health sciences librarian wishing to review the field. This crucial volume belongs in every academic health sciences library, hospital library, specialized health library, biomedical library, and academic library.


Core Technology Competencies For Librarians And Library Staff

Author by : Susan M. Thompson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Neal Schuman Pub
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
Total Download : 237
File Size : 48,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Ideal for public and academic libraries, Core Technology Competencies for Libraries provides an excellent starting point for you to define and evaluate the right inventory of technical skills and management attributes for yourself and your staff. Lita experts share their experience on technical competencies expected of all libraries and library staff; technical competencies needed by specialists like technology managers, or systems and IT librarians, and success stories about meeting performance standards that will show you how major libraries have demonstrated best practices in technology competency. Employing the skill enhancement tools in this book will help staff that work hard to also ¿work smart¿, and take advantage of technology to improve collections and service.


Innovations In Science And Technology Libraries

Author by : Rita Pellen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
Total Download : 649
File Size : 52,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Catch up with the many innovations now affecting sci/tech libraries! The twenty-four chapters in Innovations in Science and Technology Libraries discuss the creation of digital collections, e-repositories, personalized Web environments, and discipline-specific Web sites for students and researchers. The book also explores the use of new technologies to improve document delivery and service provision as well as demonstrations of leadership by science librarians who are willing to take risks, adapt to change, control costs, and collaborate with colleagues. Here is just a fraction of the fascinating cases and important concepts highlighted in Innovations in Science and Technology Libraries: the Drexel University Library’s transition from print to an electronic-only journal collection the benefits of adopting a just-in-time (purchase on demand) rather than a just-in-case acquisitions policy IntelliDoc—how it has raised the standard for document delivery worldwide and increased international recognition of CISTI how California State University, Sacramento, merged its science library into its central reference department—an examination of the two-year merging process the creation of branch libraries focused on electronic information—an engineering library at Kansas State University and an agriculture library at the University of Manitoba the impact of electronic information upon undergraduate science education literacy competencies in the sciences—and their implications for library instruction how the MIT libraries created and developed the Reference Vision system that now guides all of their new reference services the impact of learning communities upon library services recent additions that enhance the usefulness of the IEEE Xplore online delivery system Innovations in Science and Technology Libraries will bring you up-to-date on the latest developments, sharpen your awareness of new concepts and techniques in sci/tech librarianship, and help your library stay abreast of important changes in this ever-evolving field. Make it a part of your professional reference collection today!


Professional Competencies Technology And The Librarian

Author by : Linda C. Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Illinois Graduate School of
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
Total Download : 256
File Size : 42,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The 10 papers included in this volume consider how professional roles and responsibilities have been and are being affected by technological change and what competencies are important in filling these roles. In addition, approaches to training and education to develop competencies--which are defined as knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes--are explored. The keynote address, "Competency Requirements for Library and Information Science Professionals," by Jose-Marie Griffiths, provides a framework from within which to consider the papers which follow. The remaining papers are: K. Henderson, "The New Technology and Competencies for 'The Most Typical of the Activities of Libraries': Technical Services"; D. Nitecki, "Competencies Required of Public Services Librarians to Use New Technologies"; R. Sweeney, "The Public Librarian of the Last Years of the Twentieth Century"; C. Gray, "Technology and the Academic Library Staff or the Resurgence of the Luddites"; H. Griffin, "Special Librarians Face the New Technology"; L. Baskin and M. Spencer, "Training Staff to Use Computers"; E. Daniel, "Education Matters"; J. Virgo, "The Role of the Association in Developing Professional Competence"; and J. Segal, "Competencies for Library Networking and Cooperation." Biographical information on the authors and an index are included. (DMC)


New Directions In Library And Information Science Education

Author by : José-Marie Griffiths
Languange : en
Publisher by : White Plains, N.Y. : Published by Knowledge Industry Publications for the American Society for Information Science
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 33
Total Download : 385
File Size : 52,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : To determine the current and future competencies required by librarians and information professionals, a project was undertaken to meet the following objectives: set forth an idealized framework to be used by the librarian and information professional community; determine a first set of competencies which are validated in the workplace to some extent; establish initial education and training requirements; initiate a process for communication among the principal librarians and information professional participants which can be continued after project completion; and describe steps that can be taken in the future to ensure continuation of the competency achievement cycle. To meet these objectives, substantial input was obtained from a large number of organizations, educators, employers, professional societies, and individual professionals. The study results are presented in a six-chapter report and five appendices. Report chapters comprise: Overview of the Project; A Framework for Describing Librarian and Information Professional Competencies; Methods; Information Workers and Librarians and Information Professionals; Librarian and Information Professional Competencies; and Educational Requirements and Implications. Appendices include a literature review; secondary analyses (including analyses of information professional and librarian vacancy announcements); an example of the relationships between competencies, performance, effectiveness, and value in three special libraries; a bibliography; and an annotated bibliography. Twelve supplementary volumes provide detailed descriptions of competencies for the following positions: (1) Academic Librarian; (2) Public Librarian; (3) School Librarian; (4) Special Librarian; (5) Database Producer; (6) Database Distributor/Service; (7) Information Center/Clearinghouse; (8) Records and Information Manager; (9) Archivist/Museum; (10) Information Analysis Center; (11) Information Service Company; and (12) Library System Supplier. (THC)


Innovations In Science And Technology Libraries

Author by : Rita Pellen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 72
Total Download : 928
File Size : 44,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Catch up with the many innovations now affecting sci/tech libraries! The twenty-four chapters in Innovations in Science and Technology Libraries discuss the creation of digital collections, e-repositories, personalized Web environments, and discipline-specific Web sites for students and researchers. The book also explores the use of new technologies to improve document delivery and service provision as well as demonstrations of leadership by science librarians who are willing to take risks, adapt to change, control costs, and collaborate with colleagues. Here is just a fraction of the fascinating cases and important concepts highlighted in Innovations in Science and Technology Libraries: the Drexel University Library’s transition from print to an electronic-only journal collection the benefits of adopting a just-in-time (purchase on demand) rather than a just-in-case acquisitions policy IntelliDoc—how it has raised the standard for document delivery worldwide and increased international recognition of CISTI how California State University, Sacramento, merged its science library into its central reference department—an examination of the two-year merging process the creation of branch libraries focused on electronic information—an engineering library at Kansas State University and an agriculture library at the University of Manitoba the impact of electronic information upon undergraduate science education literacy competencies in the sciences—and their implications for library instruction how the MIT libraries created and developed the Reference Vision system that now guides all of their new reference services the impact of learning communities upon library services recent additions that enhance the usefulness of the IEEE Xplore online delivery system Innovations in Science and Technology Libraries will bring you up-to-date on the latest developments, sharpen your awareness of new concepts and techniques in sci/tech librarianship, and help your library stay abreast of important changes in this ever-evolving field. Make it a part of your professional reference collection today!


Exploring Education For Digital Librarians

Author by : Sue Myburgh
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 71
Total Download : 425
File Size : 41,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Exploring Education for Digital Librarians provides a refreshing perspective on the discipline and profession of Library and Information Science (LIS), with a focus on preparing students for careers as librarians who can deal with present and future digital information environments. A re-examination of the knowledge base of the field, combined with a proposed theoretical structure for LIS, provide the basis for this work, which also examines competencies for practice as well as some of the international changes in the nature of higher education. The authors finally suggest a model that could be used internationally to educate librarians for their new roles and social responsibilities in a digitised, networked world. The twelve chapters of this book cover key issues in education for digital librarians, including: the necessity of regenerating the profession; current contexts; previous research on education for digital librarians; understanding the dimensions of the discipline and profession of librarianship, and the distinctions between them; the social purpose of librarianship as a profession and the theoretical framework which supports the practice of the profession; a brief analysis of curriculum design, pedagogies and teaching methods, and a glimpse of the proactive and important future role of librarianship in society. Considers the ubiquitous misunderstanding that technology can replace libraries and librarians Provides a theoretical view of the field which can contribute awareness of dimensions of the dilemmas which the discipline/profession currently faces Presents a broad international perspective which provides a basis for a new model for LIS education


Skills To Make A Librarian

Author by : Dawn Lowe-Wincentsen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Chandos Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 97
Total Download : 864
File Size : 47,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The library and information profession builds skills and expertise that cover a wide spectrum. These skills are often desirable in other fields and industries. Likewise, the skills we build before entering the library and information professions can help us as professionals. Skills to Make a Librarian looks at both sides of this equation through a collection of essays by current and former librarians and information professionals who make use of this wide range of cross disciplinary skills. Chapters written by authors at various points in their careers detailing what skills they have developed outside of librarianship Chapter authors discuss skills that have benefited their practice and careers, and how the skills of librarianship fit into life outside libraries Authors open up about personal experiences while keeping it professional


Career Paths And Career Development Of Business Librarians

Author by : Diane Zabel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 745
File Size : 47,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Contributors provide insights about business librarianship in various types of institutions, explore traditional and non-traditional career paths in business librarianship, and discuss numerous strategies for professional growth (from earning an MBA degree to working abroad). Among the topics covered are the following: recruitment of business librarians (including recent data on the supply and demand of business librarians); the special concerns of early career and mid-career business librarians; the importance of mentoring; leadership development; and business librarians on the job in academic, public, and corporate libraries. This book will appeal to a wide audience: practitioners; directors of public, academic, and special libraries serving the business community; library and information science educators; and those considering business librarianship as a career, including students, generalist librarians, and individuals seeking a career change. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship.


Embedded Librarians

Author by : Cassandra Kvenild
Languange : en
Publisher by : Assoc of Cllge & Rsrch Libr
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
Total Download : 418
File Size : 53,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Showcases strategies for successfully embedding librarians and library services across higher education. Chapters feature case studies and reports on projects from a wide variety of colleges and universities. --from publisher description.


Emerging Practices In Science And Technology Librarianship

Author by : Amy Besnoy
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 73
Total Download : 431
File Size : 45,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This book investigates the emerging practices of science and technology librarians specific to maintaining collections, providing access to resources, and ensuring that informed decisions are made regarding limited financial resources. Issues discussed include librarians becoming embedded in curriculum design and delivery, the continuum of librarian involvement, science literacy and the intersection with lifelong learning, integration of information literacy into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curriculum, development of course-related instruction programs. In addition, chapters include the differentiation between locating and accessing content and the economics of access, data driven collection and retention decisions, social networking and the scientific community, the trend to merge IT with libraries, institutional repositories, and managing productivity. Each chapter considers the change that is occurring in and around the profession and together these chapters present a notable set of reflections on the changes that are necessary for science and technology librarians to thrive in the shifting information landscape. This book is recommended for scholars and professional librarians. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of Library Administration.


Administration And Management In Health Sciences Libraries

Author by : Rick B. Forsman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Scarecrow Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
Total Download : 214
File Size : 52,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Managing a medical library in a climate of rapidly changing technology requires the astute manager to anticipate and then manage change. Written by medical library professionals carefully selected for their specific knowledge and experience, these essays cover fiscal management, human resources, marketing library services, technology, facilities, and strategic planning. Appendixes offer a list of skills recommended for the career health sciences professional and an annotated bibliography on space planning.


Changing The Scope Of Library Instruction In The Digital Age

Author by : Bhattacharyya, Swati
Languange : en
Publisher by : IGI Global
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 946
File Size : 49,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The current digital age is impacting the contents and delivery of instructional service in many ways. Instructional sessions not only describe various features of a resource, but these sessions also bring issues like the ethical use of information, copyrights, and the value of open knowledge to light. Librarians are required to help users to learn use these tools. Changing the Scope of Library Instruction in the Digital Age provides emerging information on data visualization tools, creating effective instructions, and instructional design in library sciences. While highlighting the challenges of effectively training new and seasoned librarians in these various aspects of data technology and teaching methods, readers will learn the importance of giving librarians the tools they need to complete their new responsibilities. This book is an important resource for entry level and seasoned librarians, researchers, and instructional design specialists seeking current research on up to date library instruction in the modern technology age.


Strategic Collaborations In Health Sciences Libraries

Author by : Jean P. Shipman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Chandos Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
Total Download : 410
File Size : 43,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Health sciences librarians need to optimize collaborating with others in their institutions and beyond. An understanding of what leads to successful collaborations is beneficial and empowering. By using case studies of varieties of collaborations, Strategic Collaborations in Health Sciences Libraries provides a framework and evidence about key factors to consider when thinking about building and sustaining successful collaborations. Readers of this book are encouraged to contact the chapter authors to obtain more details than those provided in the book. This connection between experts with collaboration experience and those seeking to understand successful collaborations is the key impact of this book. Focusing on the positive aspect of collaboration in health sciences libraries, this book encourages others to form collaborations mutually beneficial to the library and the collaboration partner. Through case studies, readers are exposed to new ideas and ways to enhance existing collaborations. By contacting individual authors and learning more about their experiences, readers share ideas and connect with a network of librarians with collaboration expertise.


The Emerald Handbook Of Modern Information Management

Author by : James M. Matarazzo
Languange : en
Publisher by : Emerald Group Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 815
File Size : 47,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This handbook aims to be an integral text for students of library and information science and a ready-reference for information professional practitioners. The chapters provide a construct through which any information professional may learn abut the major challenges facing them in the early part of the 21st century.


Teaching Information Literacy Skills To Social Sciences Students And Practitioners

Author by : Douglas Cook
Languange : en
Publisher by : Assoc of Cllge & Rsrch Libr
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 782
File Size : 47,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Teaching Information Literacy to Social Sciences Students & Practitioners is a second discipline-based casebook from ACRL. This volume is based on the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards and presents cases on learning situations and how they can be analyzed and addressed. Also included are descriptions of instruction sessions for each case, notes, and teaching resources. Each case explicitly reflects one or more of the ACRL Information Literacy Standards.This practical collection of cases and applications brings a new set of resources to librarians doing instruction in the social sciences. Contributors cover such topics as data literacy, visual literacy, and developmental research skills training. Information on teaching undergraduate, graduate, and international students, and how to incorporate information literacy into various social science curricula are also presented.


Monthly Catalog Of United States Government Publications

Author by : United States. Superintendent of Documents
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 893
File Size : 44,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : February issue includes Appendix entitled Directory of United States Government periodicals and subscription publications; September issue includes List of depository libraries; June and December issues include semiannual index