Description : This book explores the basic concept of agency and develops it further in psychology using it to better understand and explain psychological processes and behavior. More importantly, this book seeks to put an emphasis on the role of agency in four distinct settings: history of psychology, neuroscience, psychology of religion, and sociocultural theories of co-agency. In Volume 12 of the Annals of Theoretical Psychology the contributors explore a number of new ways to look at agency in psychology. This volume seeks to develop a systematic theory of axioms for agency. It describes implications for research and practice that are founded on an understanding of the person as an actor in the world. This book also has implications for research and practice across psychology's sub-fields uniting the discipline through an agentic view of the person
Description : This paper focuses on the emergence of the economic agency role of government and its relationship with cooperation and economic management. It distinguishes emergence under war, domination or capitulation, perfect cooperation, and strategic bargaining. Good governance is a consequence of constraints designed by principals with the incentive and ability to do so. The incentives are related inversely to the expected relative frequency of controlling government and directly to the expected relative share of costs of poor agency. The ability is directly related to bargaining power in determining the agency role. There are implications for the evolution of cooperation in the society and for macroeconomic performance.
Description : The central role that bureaucracy plays in the policy process is played by individuals, namely, by subject matter experts and managers we call political executives. The context in which these executives play their roles is defined by three key forces—the organizational environment of bureaucracy itself; our governing philosophy stressing responsiveness, respect for individual rights, and accountability; and the demands of the people and the institutions those people have created to govern themselves. This book provides an in-depth look at each of these forces, with chapters specifically devoted to how bureaucrats interpret their role in the policy process, how the organizational environment influences their ability to play that role, and most of all, to the interactions between bureaucrats and the institutions of what we call the Constitutional government—the President, the Congress, and the Courts.
Description : Based on insights from Filipina experiences of domestic work in Paris and Hong Kong, this volume breaks through the polarized thinking and migration-centric policy action on the protection of migrant women domestic workers from abuse to link migrants' rights and victimization with livelihood, migration and development. The book contextualizes agency and rights in the workers' capability to secure a livelihood in the global political economy and is instrumental in making the problem of migrant women workers' empowerment both a migration and development agenda. The volume is essential reading for social scientists, bureaucrats and non-governmental political activists interested in the protection of the rights and livelihoods of migrants. It will also appeal to migration and feminist scholars who have yet to adopt the contribution of critical development studies in the analysis of low-skilled female labour migration.
Description : The child labour debate, the Child Rights Convention and the target of universal primary education in the Millennium Development Goals have drawn increasing attention to children in developing countries. Alongside, a debate has waged on the need for child participation and the appropriateness of spreading allegedly western norms of childhood. This book aims to uncover the daily life of children in selected areas in Vietnam, India, Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Nicaragua and Bolivia against the background of those debates. Children, Structure and Agency takes a close look at the activities, the aspirations and the deliberations of hundreds of poor children in the age category from 9 to 14, on the basis of a dawn-to-sunset observation over a couple of days. By empowering children to make people listen to them, children can play a more an active role in their community. The book addresses the issue of such child agency and the structural constraints to that agency. This text would be of interest to child-centred development aid organisations and scholars dealing with issues of child participation, child rights, child labour and education.
Description : Agent technology is evolving as a leading field of research connected to diverse areas such as A.I., E-commerce, robotics and information retrieval. Agents systems use reasoning and constraint-based reasoning that has a wide potential for representing multiple types of problems. A fundamental building block within all these areas is the ability to perform search and an inherent part of all agents must therefore relate to distributed and cooperative methods of search. This book presents a comprehensive discussion on the field of distributed constraints, its algorithms and its active research areas. It introduces distributed constraint satisfaction and optimization problems and proceeds to present a complete state-of-the-art in DisCSP & DisCOP research. The presentation assumes no prior knowledge of constraints or distributed constraints. Features and topics: • Introduces in great detail search algorithms for DisCSPs and DisCOPs • Presents a comprehensive study of distributed performance measures for all algorithms, allowing an extensive experimental evaluation to be constructed • Addresses potential problems following current research on DisCSPs and DisCOPs • Discusses the impact of communication quality on distributed search (for example message delays) • Describes the most significant recent research in the field of distributed constraints satisfaction and optimization, including its difficulties This exposition of the many elements of distributed search algorithms for DisCSPs and DisCOPs will be a research asset and an invaluable read for researchers and graduate students who focus on distributed CSPs and COPs. In addition, the book’s comprehensiveness and style make it an ideal tool for a graduate course on distributed search in AI. Professor Amnon Meisels has an active research group who have worked in distributed constraints for a number of years and has published extensively in the field. He is a member of the Department of Computer Science at Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
Description : The Third Edition of this popular text provides students with an overview of the entire media process, with an emphasis on how social forces influence the media and how media potentially affect society.