Corporate And White Collar Crime

Author by : John Minkes
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 159
File Size : 46,8 Mb
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Description : `This timely collection contains contemporary case studies and critical analyses by leading writers in the study of white collar corporate crime. It makes an invaluable contribution to the 'criminology of the corporation'" - Professor Hazel Croall, Glasgow Caledonian University Corporate and White Collar Crime is an essential overview of this diverse subject area and encourages students to develop a broad understanding of the topic. Aimed primarily at undergraduate and postgraduate students in Criminology, Criminal Justice and Business and Management Studies, the book will cross-over into many other disciplines including Law and Social Policy. "This is an innovative and multidisciplinary analysis of corporate and white collar crime that is both theoretically and empirically rich. The text serves as a poignant reminder why research involving the powerful must be a central part of criminological inquiry and why this book is essential reading." Professor Reece Walters, The Open University "Again and again, pension funds are pillaged, investors fleeced, commuters killed, workers maimed, and communities poisoned. Why is it that so few of these acts are defined as crimes, and why is it that, even when they are, prosecution is so rarely effective? Corporate Crime and White Collar Crime addresses these very questions through its rigorous, well-developed analysis and its wide ranging empirical focus - on Europe, North America, Asia and beyond. The book can help all of us to re-examine our understanding of the nature of crime and of criminals, and to reassess the costs as well as the benefits of our current economic, political and social order." Professor Frank Pearce, Queen's University, Canada


The Routledge Handbook Of White Collar And Corporate Crime In Europe

Author by : Judith van Erp
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
Total Download : 975
File Size : 43,5 Mb
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Description : The study of white-collar crime remains a central concern for criminologists around the world and research concentrates on its nature, prevalence, causes and responses. However, most books on white-collar crime tend to focus on Anglo-American examples, which is surprising given the amount of rich data and research taking place in mainland Europe. This new handbook seeks to reset the balance and, for the first time, presents an overview of state-of-the-art research on white-collar crime in Europe. Adding to the existing Anglo-American body of knowledge, the Handbook will discuss specific European topics and typical European features of white-collar crime. The Routledge Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime in Europe consists of more than thirty chapters on topics ranging from the Icelandic Banking Crisis, to the origins of the study of white collar crime, to contemporary topics, such as white-collar crime in countries post-transition from communist regimes; the illegal e-waste trade and white-collar crime in professional football. Furthermore, the book contains extensive case study analyses of landmark European cases of white-collar crime. The editors have gathered together the leading voices in the field and a final section offers commentaries on white-collar crime in Europe from eminent criminologists David Friedrichs and Hazel Croall. This Handbook will thus serve as a work of reference for all scholars and students engaged in the study of corporate and white-collar crime and will also set out directions for new research in the future.


Corporate And White Collar Crime

Author by : Kathleen F. Brickey
Languange : en
Publisher by : Aspen Pub
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 853
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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Description : With an emphasis on substantive law, this extensively revised casebook provides comprehensive coverage of major white-collar crime statutes in the federal criminal code, securities laws, and environmental statutes, as well as sentencing principles


Encyclopedia Of White Collar Corporate Crime

Author by : Lawrence M. Salinger
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 53
Total Download : 129
File Size : 45,5 Mb
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Description : With more than 500 entries (including up-to-date information on such high profile cases as Martha Stewart and Enron), the Encyclopedia of White-Collar & Corporate Crime gathers history, definitions, examples, investigation, prosecution, assessments, challenges, and projections into one definitive reference work on the topic. This two-volume encyclopedia incorporates information about a variety of white-collar crimes, and provides examples of persons, statutes, companies, and convictions. Each entry offers a thorough and thoughtful summary of the topic. Rather than a simple definition, users are given a satisfying and sophisticated synopsis with references for further study.


White Collar And Corporate Crime

Author by : Laura Pinto Hansen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wolters Kluwer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 378
File Size : 41,8 Mb
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Description : This timely and engaging text introduces the key topics in White Collar Crime, while providing an overview of both organizational and criminological theory. Throughout the text, Law in the Real World examples and in-depth Case Studies offer the opportunity to apply the theoretical to actual situations. Throughout the text, experienced author Laura Pinto Hansen discusses the cultural and structural reasons for why white collar crime happens, even in the most regulated of industries, including financial markets and medicine. White Collar and Corporate Crime: A Case Study Approach provides the perfect introduction to the world of white collar crime. Professors and students will benefit from: Law in the Real World feature explores both well-known and lesser known examples of white collar crime, providing exposure to a wide variety of crimes in an understandable context. Discussion questions encourage students to analyze these examples in more depth. Case Studies provide an opportunity to dive deeper into a single white collar crime case related to the specific chapter. Broad coverage of a wide range of topics in a readable and engaging style. Chapters include chapter objectives, a glossary of key terms, and chapter summaries to help students understand new concepts. An introductory chapter that familiarizes students with how organizations are supposed to work, in theory, if they plan on functioning within legal boundaries. Coverage of the role of social networks in white collar crime, including its theory and terminology and use in criminal investigations in Chapter 3 Examination of the intersection of cybercrime and white collar crime in Chapter 7 Timely coverage, including the recent impeachment proceedings and effects of COVID-19


International Handbook Of White Collar And Corporate Crime

Author by : Henry N. Pontell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 781
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : Insider trading. Savings and loan scandals. Enron. Corporate crimes were once thought of as victimless offenses, but now—with billions of dollars and an increasingly global economy at stake—this is understood to be far from the truth. The International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime explores the complex interplay of factors involved when corporate cultures normalize lawbreaking, and when organizational behavior is pushed to unethical (and sometimes inhumane) limits. Featuring original contributions from a panel of experts representing North America, Asia, Europe, and Australia, this timely volume presents multidisciplinary views on recent corporate wrongdoing affecting economic and social conditions worldwide. Criminal liability and intent Stock market and financial crime Bribery and extortion Computer and identity fraud Health care fraud Crime in the professions Industrial pollution Political corruption War crimes and genocide Contributors offer case studies, historical and sociopolitical analyses, theoretical and legal perspectives, and comparative studies, featuring examples as varied as NASA, Parmalat, the Italian government, and Watergate. Criminal justice responses to these phenomena, the role of the media in exposing or minimizing them, prevention, regulation, and self- policing strategies, and larger global issues emerging from economic crime are also featured. Richly diverse in its coverage, The International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime is stimulating reading for students, academics, and professionals in a wide range of fields, from criminology and criminal justice to business and economics, psychology to social policy to ethics. This powerful information is certain to change many of our deeply held views on criminal behavior.


Corporate And White Collar Crime

Author by : Kathleen F. Brickey
Languange : en
Publisher by : Aspen Casebook
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 246
File Size : 48,7 Mb
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Description : With its focus on substantive law, this book provides systematic and comprehensive consideration of major white-collar crime statutes in the federal criminal code, securities laws, and environmental statutes. The Sixth Edition of Corporate and White Collar Crime includes landmark decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court and federal appellate courts through 2016. New judicial decisions include: United States v. Newman (Insider Trading) Yates v. United States (Sarbanes Oxley) McDonnell v. United States (Bribery of Public Officials) RJR v. European Commission (RICO / extraterritorial application)


Corporate And White Collar Crime In Ireland

Author by : Joe McGrath
Languange : en
Publisher by : Manchester University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 40
Total Download : 376
File Size : 49,6 Mb
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Description : This book explores the emergence of a new architecture of corporate enforcement in Ireland. It is demonstrated that the State has transitioned from one contradictory model of corporate enforcement to another. Traditionally, the State invoked its most powerful weapon of state censure, the criminal law, but was remarkably lenient in practice because the law was not enforced. The contemporary model is much more reliant on cooperative measures and civil orders, but also contains remarkably punitive and instrumental measures to surmount the difficulties of proving guilt in criminal cases. Though corporate and financial regulation has become an area of significant interest for academics, researchers and those with an interest in corporate affairs, this sudden surge of interest lacks a tradition of scholarship or any deep empirical and contextual analysis in Ireland. This book provides that foundation. It is likely to stimulate an extensive conversation on corporate regulation and governance in Ireland. It is also likely to provide a platform for researchers further afield with an interest in comparative study with Ireland.


Controversies In White Collar Crime

Author by : Gary Potter
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
Total Download : 704
File Size : 49,5 Mb
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Description : Original writings explore the issue of white-collar crime and the controversies that surround it, focusing on the vastness of state-corporate and white-collar crime, the victimization that results, and the ways these crimes affect society environmentally, politically, economically and personally.


White Collar Crime

Author by : Edwin H. Sutherland
Languange : en
Publisher by : Yale University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
Total Download : 191
File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : This text presents evidence to support a thesis that there is much crime in the upper socio-economic classes and only the administrative procedures, used to deal with it, separate it from other animal behavior.


Corporate Crime

Author by : Richard D. Hartley
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
Total Download : 861
File Size : 52,7 Mb
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Description : Presents an overview of corporate crime, covering such topics as the definition of corporate wrongdoing, the limits of corporate responsibility, and the relationship between corporate crime and political corruption.


White Collar Crime

Author by : Petter Gottschalk
Languange : en
Publisher by : Universal-Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
Total Download : 597
File Size : 41,7 Mb
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Description : White-Collar Crime describes white-collar crime and criminals. It discusses executive knowledge of white-collar crime, and white-collar crime theories are presented. Executive positions involved in crime, white-collar crime analysis, response to crime suspicion, corporate social responsibility, and corporate reputation damage and repair are some of the core topics of this book. Knowledge strategy, intelligence strategy, and systems strategy are also presented from a strategic management perspective.


Introduction To Corporate And White Collar Crime

Author by : Frank J. DiMarino
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 196
File Size : 47,9 Mb
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Description : White-collar crime costs the United States more than $300 billion each year. It is surprisingly common, with one in every three Americans eventually becoming a victim. The criminals often dismiss these crimes as victimless, but those unfortunate enough to fall prey would disagree. An Introduction to Corporate and White-Collar Crime provides readers with an understanding of what white-collar crime is, how it works, and the extent to which it exists in our society. The broad-based coverage in this text analyzes the opportunity structures for committing white-collar crime and explores new ways of thinking about how to control it. Topics include: Theories behind white-collar crime, including social and psychological theories Routine activity, crime pattern, and situational crime prevention theories Laws that govern the securities industries, including the Securities Exchange Act and Sarbanes–Oxley Bank fraud, money laundering, racketeering, and organized crime Crimes involving public officials and obstruction of justice Control and prevention of white-collar crimes and sanctions for white-collar criminals The material is organized and presented in a logical fashion, with each chapter building from the previous content. Every chapter begins with objectives to help readers focus on the topic and concludes with review questions to test assimilation of the material and promote debate. Several chapters conclude with a practicum to facilitate real-world understanding of the material.


European White Collar Crime

Author by : Lord, Nicholas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Policy Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 986
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : From corporate corruption and the facilitation of money laundering, to food fraud and labour exploitation, European citizens continue to be confronted by serious corporate and white-collar crimes. Presenting an original series of provocative essays, this book offers a European framing of white-collar crime. Experts from different countries foreground what is unique, innovative or different about white-collar and corporate crimes that are so strongly connected to Europe, including the tensions that exist within and between the nation-states of Europe, and within the institutions of the European region. This European voice provides an original contribution to discourses surrounding a form of crime which is underrepresented in current criminological literature.


Reflecting On White Collar And Corporate Crime

Author by : David Shichor
Languange : en
Publisher by : Waveland PressInc
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 913
File Size : 46,6 Mb
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Description : "White-collar crime has a long history, impacts nearly everyone, and costs American citizens far more than street crime. Yet until recent large-scale debacles like the collapse of Enron, subprime mortgage crisis, and fraudulent manipulations of Wall Street, much white-collar criminality received scant public attention. Perpetrators often are faceless corporations, and definitions of violations, violators, and victims are often opaque. In cases like price fixing, hidden fees, and the manipulation of stock prices, the public may be unaware of its victimization. The twenty-one original and reprinted articles in this impressive overview provide the clarity that facilitates a better understanding of white-collar crime and its true impact on society. Written by leading scholars in the field, the authoritative selections define and contextualize white-collar crime in general as well as examine specific categories of wrongdoing like corporate crime, Wall Street crime, Internet crime, environmental crime, and political corruption. This comprehensive, up-to-date volume also examines society's response to white-collar crime, noting the competing interests of regulatory agencies, lawmakers, and corporate lobbyists. The breadth of this affordable collection makes it an invaluable resource for readers who seek a more complete understanding of white-collar crime and its ramifications." -- Publisher's website.


White Collar Crime

Author by : Ronald J. Berger
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lynne Rienner Pub
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 855
File Size : 53,8 Mb
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Description : When does cutting corners in pursuit of corporate profit become a crime? When should the misdeeds of government officials warrant a prison sentence? This lucid introduction to the notoriously complex problem of white-collar crime provides students with a set of tools for exploring the abuse of corporate and government power.


White Collar Crime

Author by : John E. Ferguson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Infobase Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 684
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : Discusses whether white collar crimes are appropriately characterized in the United States, whether penalties are harsh enough, and whether the criminal justice system is effective in controlling white collar crime.


White Collar Crime

Author by : David Mills
Languange : en
Publisher by : Aspen Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 818
File Size : 50,9 Mb
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Description : This book serves as a comprehensive treatment of the main financial and public malfeasance crimes associated with the subject of white-collar crime. In student-friendly form, it teaches the operations of the major federal statutes in this area while unifying them according to the dominant cross-cutting themes of the nature of corruption and the types of harms to society, government, the legal system, and the market that justify the severity of these laws. It draws on case material not just from the Supreme Court but also from the lower federal courts where the hard work of implementing confessional mandates occurs. In such areas as Securities Fraud, it also covers the agency regulations that play an implementing role. Thus, it offers students rich exercises in statutory interpretation as well as case analysis. Highlights of the First Edition: Materials on perjury, false statements and obstruction of justice that are extremely timely in light of political controversies that reach back to the Nixon and Clinton administrations and are still relevant today Careful elaboration of the different crimes of bribery, including bribery of federal officials under 18 U.S.C. section 201, bribery of state and local officials under the Mail and Wire Fraud laws and federal program bribery law, and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Concise treatment of criminal Securities Fraud and Insider trading for students who have not otherwise studied Securities Regulation Extended treatment of the major mens rea issues in white-collar crime, as an advanced version of the subject of mens rea in the standard first-year Criminal Law course, with emphasis on such important doctrines as “deliberate ignorance” and the mental state of ”corruptly.” Professors and students will benefit from: Concisely edited case excerpts in very readable form. Handy Appendix with texts of all major statutes covered in the book. Short provocative notes raising questions of jurisprudence and social philosophy around problems of overcriminalization and the meaning of the concept of “corruption.” Concise non-technical material on cybercrime to show how modem technology raises themes of corruption similar to those of more conditional crimes.


The Criminology Of White Collar Crime

Author by : Sally S. Simpson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 603
File Size : 47,5 Mb
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Description : The book will synthesize and integrate better what are often disparate ideas, themes, and methods across substantive areas of white-collar crime and criminology and criminal justice. The book also puts together critical and emerging topics within criminology and criminal justice that have important implications for the study of white-collar crime and criminology/criminal justice more generally.


Corporate And White Collar Crime

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
Total Download : 162
File Size : 44,5 Mb
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Description : Crime and unethical behaviour in business corporations and public bodies is a growing area for study which is forming part of many criminology courses. This book from key scholars in criminology and management studies provides an overview of debates on corporate and white collar crime.


White Collar And Corporate Crime

Author by : Professor Emeritus of Criminology Law and & Society Gilbert Geis
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 634
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : In this brief, accessible text, Gilbert Geis provides a thorough overview of white-collar crime. Geis opens with a summary of the field's development and the recognition of white-collar crime as an area worthy of study. He then discusses the fascinating history of white-collar crime, examines the phenomenon of corporate crime, and explores the definitions of these crimes and the theories used to explain them. About the Series Keynotes in Criminology and Criminal Justice, edited by Henry N. Pontell, provides essential knowledge on important contemporary matters of crime, law, and justice to a broad audience of readers. Each volume is written by a leading scholar in that area. Concise, accessible, and affordable, these texts are designed to serve either as primers around which courses can be built or as supplemental books for a variety of courses.


White Collar Crime Reconsidered

Author by : Kip Schlegel
Languange : en
Publisher by : UPNE
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 881
File Size : 45,7 Mb
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Description : An exploration of the inner workings of the individuals, corporations, and government agencies implicated in the self-interested abuse of their economic and societal privilege.


Corporate And White Collar Crime

Author by : Kathleen F. Brickey
Languange : en
Publisher by : Aspen Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 14
Total Download : 240
File Size : 45,6 Mb
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Description :


Understanding White Collar Crime

Author by : Hazell Croall
Languange : en
Publisher by : McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 701
File Size : 55,7 Mb
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Description : This book introduces the concept of white collar crime, which is popularly associated with high status and powerful offenders and takes place within working environments. It includes the study of corporate crime. It looks at a variety of forms of white collar crime, such as fraud, corruption, employment, consumer, safety and environmental crime.


White Collar Crime

Author by : Brian K. Payne
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 767
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : The thoroughly updated Second Edition of White Collar Crime: The Essentials continues to be a comprehensive, yet concise, resource addressing the most important topics students need to know about white-collar crime. Author Brian K. Payne provides a theoretical framework and context for students that explores such timely topics as crimes by workers, sales-oriented systems, crimes in the health care system, crimes by criminal justice professionals and politicians, crimes in the educational system, crimes in economic and technological systems, corporate crime, environmental crime, and more. This easy to read teaching tool is a valuable resource for any course that covers white-collar crime.


Why They Do It

Author by : Eugene Soltes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hachette UK
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
Total Download : 791
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : What drives wealthy and powerful people to white-collar crime? Why They Do It is a breakthrough look at the dark side of the business world. From the financial fraudsters of Enron, to the embezzlers at Tyco, to the insider traders at McKinsey, to the Ponzi schemer Bernie Madoff, the failings of corporate titans are regular fixtures in the news. In Why They Do It, Harvard Business School professor Eugene Soltes draws from extensive personal interaction and correspondence with nearly fifty former executives as well as the latest research in psychology, criminology, and economics to investigate how once-celebrated executives become white-collar criminals. White-collar criminals are not merely driven by excessive greed or hubris, nor do they usually carefully calculate costs and benefits before breaking the law. Instead, Soltes shows that most of the executives who committed crimes made decisions the way we all do-on the basis of their intuitions and gut feelings. The trouble is that these gut feelings are often poorly suited for the modern business world where leaders are increasingly distanced from the consequences of their decisions and the individuals they impact. The extraordinary costs of corporate misconduct are clear to its victims. Yet, never before have we been able to peer so deeply into the minds of the many prominent perpetrators of white-collar crime. With the increasing globalization of business threatening us with even more devastating corporate misconduct, the lessons Soltes draws in Why They Do It are needed more urgently than ever.


Encyclopedia Of White Collar And Corporate Crime

Author by : Lawrence M. Salinger
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 61
Total Download : 444
File Size : 55,7 Mb
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Description : Since the first edition of the Encyclopedia of White Collar and Corporate Crime was produced in 2004, the number and severity of these crimes have risen to the level of calamity, so much so that many experts attribute the near-Depression of 2008 to white-collar malfeasance, namely crimes of greed and excess by bankers and financial institutions. Whether the perpetrators were prosecuted or not, white-collar and corporate crime came near to collapsing the U.S. economy. In the 7 years since the first edition was produced we have also seen the largest Ponzi scheme in history (Maddoff), an ecological disaster caused by British Petroleum and its subcontractors (Gulf Oil Spill), and U.S. Defense Department contractors operating like vigilantes in Iraq (Blackwater). White-collar criminals have been busy, and the Second Edition of this encyclopedia captures what has been going on in the news and behind the scenes with new articles and updates to past articles.


Research Misconduct As White Collar Crime

Author by : Rita Faria
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 585
File Size : 46,5 Mb
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Description : This book explores the subject of research misconduct: its definition, what behaviours should fall under its label, and the types of preventive and repressive procedures that should be put to practice to combat it. Adopting a criminological perspective, Faria views research misconduct as a locus of analysis for corporate and white-collar crime. Based upon an empirical study involving in-depth interviews and documentary analysis, this original research offers an interesting approach to an age-old problem which is growing ever more important. The commodification of research – together with perceived risks of research misconduct – is opening the way to ambiguous and ineffective forms of social control over scholars, affecting their commitment to research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. Despite this, however, little consensus around the phenomenon exists. Seeking to counter this, Faria opens up the discussion on the potential social harms arising from the current state of affairs, and argues that that criminology should task itself with understanding and researching the pressing topic of research misconduct, including fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism, as well as questionable research practices.


Corporate Crime

Author by : Peter Yeager
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
Total Download : 478
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : Corporate Crime, originally published in 1980, is the first and still the only comprehensive study of corporate law violations by our largest corporations. The book laid the groundwork for analyses of important aspects of corporate behavior. It defined corporate crime and found ways of locating corporate violations from various sources. It even drew up measures of the seriousness of crimes. Much of this book still applies today to the corporate world and its illegal behavior.A new introduction, "Corporate Crime: Yesterday and Today--A Comparison," prepared for this edition by coauthor Marshall B. Clinard, discusses the development of a criminological interest in corporate crime, explains the nature of corporate crime, and analyzes a number of issues involved in its study. Among the issues tackled are whether today's corporate crime is greater, more serious, and more complex; accounting fraud and its crucial role in hiding corporate crime; the pharmaceuticals, the industry with the most corporate violations; explanations of corporate crime in terms of economic factors, corporate culture, and the role of top executives; and new laws to control corporate crime and alternative approaches.