Courts Codes And Custom

Author by : Dana Zartner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
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Description : Courts, Codes, and Custom addresses the question of why some states recognize and comply with international human rights and environmental law, while others do not. To address this question, Dana Zartner has developed a novel cultural-institutional theory to explain the manner in which a state's domestic legal tradition shapes policy through the process of internalization. A state's legal tradition - the cultural and institutional factors that shape attitudes about the law, appropriate standards of behavior, and the legal process - is the key mechanism by which international law becomes recognized, accepted, and internalized in the domestic legal framework. Legal tradition shapes not only perceptions about law, but also provides the lens through which policy-makers view state interests, directly and indirectly influencing state policy. The book disaggregates the concept of legal tradition and examines how the individual cultural and institutional characteristics present within a state's domestic legal tradition facilitate or hinder the internalization of international law and, subsequently, shape state policy. In turn it explains both the differences in international law recognition across legal traditions, as well as the variance among states within legal traditions. To test this theory Zartner compares case studies within five of the main legal traditions in the world today: common law (U.S. and Australia), civil law (Germany and Turkey), Islamic law (Egypt and Saudi Arabia), mixed traditions (India and Kenya), and East Asian law (China and Japan). She addresses the differences among legal traditions as well as between states within the same tradition; the important role that legal culture and history play in shaping contemporary attitudes about law; and similarities and differences in state policy towards human rights law versus environmental law.


Courts Codes And Custom

Author by : Dana Zartner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
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Description : This text explores the role of legal tradition in shaping state policy toward international human rights and environmental law. Examining the institutional and cultural characteristics within a state's legal tradition across ten case studies, the book shows the importance of domestic legal factors to understanding state policy toward international law.


Code Custom And Legal Practice In China

Author by : Philip C. Huang
Languange : en
Publisher by : Stanford University Press
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Total Read : 65
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Description : What changes occurred and what remained the same in Chinese civil justice from the Qing to the Republic? Drawing on archival records of actual cases, this study provides a new understanding of late imperial and Republican Chinese law. It also casts a new light on Chinese law by emphasizing rural areas and by comparing the old and the new.


The Legal Regime Of The International Criminal Court

Author by : Jose Doria
Languange : en
Publisher by : BRILL
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
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File Size : 40,7 Mb
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Description : This impressive and unique collection of essays covers important aspects of the legal regime of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The volume begins with an analysis of the historical development of the ICC, the progressive development of international humanitarian and international criminal law by the ad hoc Tribunals and the work of mixed national/international jurisdictions. The legal and institutional basis of the ICC is then dealt with in detail, including the organs of the ICC, war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes of aggression, modes of liability before the ICC and defences before the ICC. Part III focuses on the court at work, including its procedural rules, criminal proceedings at the ICC, penalties and appeal and revision procedures. Part IV deals with the relationship of the ICC with states and international organizations. The contributors are established scholars in the field of international criminal and humanitarian law, many of whom are practitioners in the various tribunals.


The Santillana Codes

Author by : Dan E. Stigall
Languange : en
Publisher by : Lexington Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
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Description : This book provides a comparative legal analysis of the civil codes in force in Tunisia, Morocco, and Mauritania. The book also imparts insight into the work and life of the principal author of the Tunisian code— a Jewish man of Tunisian origin named David Santillana.


Indian Courts And The Future

Author by : National American Indian Court Judges Association
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 251
File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : In 1976 the National American Indian Court Judges Association was awarded a one year contract to study Indian court systems, identify their main strengths and weaknesses, develop a set of model standards, name four model courts with whom to test the model standards, and propose a five year plan of support for Indian courts. Written materials relating to Indian courts and the advice of people knowledgeable in Indian court problems were utilized. Twenty-three courts varying in geographic location, size, types of problems, kind of court, and jurisdiction were visited: Blackfeet, Coeur d-Alene, Colorado River, Colville, Fort Peck, Gila River, Hopi, Isleta Peublo, Jicarilla Apache, Menominee, Metlakatla, Navajo, Nevada Colonies, Oglala Sioux, Papago, Red Lake Chippewa, San Carlos Apache, San Juan Pueblo, Suquamish, Uintah and Ouray, Warm Springs, Yakima, and Zuni Pueblo. This report discusses the legal and historical basis for Indian courts; describes their present status and problems; identifies several strengths and weaknesses of Indian courts; presents the Model Standards for Indian Judicial Systems which were developed, along with a proposal that they be implemented immediately by four Indian courts serving as model courts; and presents a five year plan of support for Indian courts covering individual court needs assessment, tribal legislation, facilities and equipment, court related services, personnel, community relations and education, the National Indian Judiciary Research Institute, data collection, training, interagency coordination, and Congressional action. (NQ).


Indigenous Peoples Customary Law And Human Rights Why Living Law Matters

Author by : Brendan Tobin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
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Description : This highly original work demonstrates the fundamental role of customary law for the realization of Indigenous peoples’ human rights and for sound national and international legal governance. The book reviews the legal status of customary law and its relationship with positive and natural law from the time of Plato up to the present. It examines its growing recognition in constitutional and international law and its dependence on and at times strained relationship with human rights law. The author analyzes the role of customary law in tribal, national and international governance of Indigenous peoples’ lands, resources and cultural heritage. He explores the challenges and opportunities for its recognition by courts and alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, including issues of proof of law and conflicts between customary practices and human rights. He throws light on the richness inherent in legal diversity and key principles of customary law and their influence in legal practice and on emerging notions of intercultural equity and justice. He concludes that Indigenous peoples’ rights to their customary legal regimes and states’ obligations to respect and recognize customary law, in order to secure their human rights, are principles of international customary law, and as such binding on all states. At a time when the self-determination, land, resources and cultural heritage of Indigenous peoples are increasingly under threat, this accessible book presents the key issues for both legal and non-legal scholars, practitioners, students of human rights and environmental justice, and Indigenous peoples themselves.


Law And Custom In Korea

Author by : Marie Seong-Hak Kim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 258
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Description : This book sets forth the evolution of Korea's law and legal system from the Chosǒn dynasty through the colonial and postcolonial modern periods. This is the first book in English that comprehensively studies Korean legal history in comparison with European legal history, with particular emphasis on customary law. Korea's passage to Romano-German civil law under Japanese rule marked a drastic departure from its indigenous legal tradition. The transplantation of modern civil law in Korea was facilitated by Japanese colonial jurists who created a Korean customary law; this constructed customary law served as an intermediary regime between tradition and the demands of modern law. The transformation of Korean law by the forces of Westernisation points to new interpretations of colonial history and presents an intriguing case for investigating the spread of law on a global level. In-depth discussions of French customary law and Japanese legal history also provide a solid conceptual framework suitable for comparing European and East Asian legal traditions.


American Indian Tribal Law

Author by : Matthew L.M. Fletcher
Languange : en
Publisher by : Aspen Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 996
File Size : 52,8 Mb
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Description : Nearly every American Indian tribe has its own laws and courts. Taken together, these courts decide thousands of cases. Many span the full panoply of law—from criminal, civil, and probate cases, to divorce and environmental disputes. American Indian Tribal Law, now in its Second Edition, surveys the full spectrum of tribal justice systems. With cases, notes, and historical context, this text is ideal for courses on American Indian Law or Tribal Governments—and an essential orientation to legal practice within tribal jurisdictions. New to the Second Edition: A new chapter on professional responsibility and the regulation of lawyers in tribal jurisdictions Enhanced materials on Indian child welfare Additional materials on tribal laws that incorporate Indigenous language and culture Additional examples from tribal justice systems and practice Recent and noteworthy cases from tribal courts Professors and students will benefit from: A broad survey of dispute resolution systems within tribal jurisdictions A review of recent flashpoints in tribal law, such as internal tribal political matters, including intractable citizenship and election disputes enhanced criminal jurisdiction over nonmembers and non-Indians tribal constitutional reform, including a case study on the White Earth Nation Cases and material reflecting a wide range of American Indian tribes and legal issues Excerpts and commentary from a wellspring of current scholarship


The Sanhuri Code And The Emergence Of Modern Arab Civil Law 1932 To 1949

Author by : Guy Bechor
Languange : en
Publisher by : BRILL
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
Total Download : 188
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Description : The book examines the drafting of the Egyptian Civil Code of 1949, exposing its unknown sociological strata, under the leadership of Dr. ‘Abd al-Razz?q al-Sanh?r?, one of the most prominent jurist to emerge to date in the Arab world.


The Oxford Handbook Of Modern African History

Author by : John Parker
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 73
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Description : "This collection of essays ... will allow readers to explore various aspects ... of the continent's history over the last two hundred years."--Book jacket.


Human Rights Commitments Of Islamic States

Author by : Paul McDonough
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
Total Download : 337
File Size : 54,8 Mb
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Description : This book examines the legal nature of Islamic states and the human rights they have committed to uphold. It begins with an overview of the political history of Islam, and of Islamic law, focusing primarily on key developments of the first two centuries of Islam. Building on this foundation, the book presents the first study into Islamic constitutions to map the relationship between Sharia and the state in terms of institutions of governance. It then assesses the place of Islamic law in the national legal order of all of today's Islamic states, before proceeding to a comprehensive analysis of those states' adherences to the UN human rights treaties, and finally, a set of international human rights declarations made jointly by Islamic states. Throughout, the focus remains on human rights. Having examined Islamic law first in isolation, then as it reflects into state structures and national constitutional orders, the book provides the background necessary to understand how an Islamic state's treaty commitments reflect into national law. In this endeavour, the book unites three strands of analysis: the compatibility of Sharia with the human rights enunciated in UN treaties; the patterns of adherence of Islamic states with those treaties; and the compatibility of international Islamic human rights declarations with UN standards. By exploring the international human rights commitments of all Islamic states within a single analytical framework, this book will appeal to international human rights and constitutional scholars with an interest in Islamic law and states. It will also be useful to readers with a general interest in the relationships between Sharia, Islamic states, and internationally recognised human rights.


Comparative International And Global Justice

Author by : Cyndi Banks
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 282
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Description : Comparative, International and Global Justice: Perspectives from Criminology and Criminal Justice presents and critically assesses a wide range of topics relevant to criminology, criminal justice and global justice. The text is divided into three parts: comparative criminal justice, international criminology, and transnational and global criminology. Within each field are located specific topics which the authors regard as contemporary and highly relevant and that will assist students in gaining a fuller appreciation of global justice issues. Authors Cyndi Banks and James Baker address these complex global issues using a scholarly but accessible approach, often using detailed case studies. The discussion of each topic is a comprehensive contextualized account that explains the social context in which law and crime exist and engages with questions of explanation or interpretation. The authors challenge students to gain knowledge of international and comparative criminal justice issues and think about them in a critical manner. It has become difficult to ignore the global and international dimensions of criminal justice and criminology and this text aims to enhance criminal justice education by focusing on some of the issues engaging criminology worldwide, and to prepare students for a future where fields of study like transnational crime are unexceptional.


Rules Of Exchange

Author by : Alessandro Stanziani
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
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Description : The control of competition is designed, at best, to reconcile socioeconomic stability with innovation, and at worst, to keep competitors out of the market. In this respect, the nineteenth century was no more liberal than the eighteenth century. Even during the presumed liberal nineteenth century, legal regulation played a major role in the economy, and the industrial revolution was based on market institutions and organisations formed during the second half of the seventeenth century. If indeed there is a break in the history of capitalism, it should be situated at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with the irruption of mass production, consumption and the welfare state, which introduced new forms of regulation. This book provides a new intellectual, economic and legal history of capitalism from the eighteenth century to the early twentieth century. It analyzes the interaction between economic practices and legal constructions in France and compares the French case with other Western countries during this period, such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany and Italy.


The International Criminal Court And Africa

Author by : Charles Chernor Jalloh
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 83
Total Download : 691
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Description : Africa has been at the forefront of contemporary global efforts towards ensuring greater accountability for international crimes. But the continent's early embrace of international criminal justice seems to be taking a new turn with the recent resistance from some African states claiming that the emerging system of international criminal law represents a new form of imperialism masquerading as international rule of law. This book analyses the relationship and tensions between the International Criminal Court (ICC) and Africa. It traces the origins of the confrontation between African governments, both acting individually and within the framework of the African Union, and the permanent Hague-based ICC. Leading commentators offer valuable insights on the core legal and political issues that have confused the relationship between the two sides and expose the uneasy interaction between international law and international politics. They offer suggestions on how best to continue the fight against impunity, using national, ICC, and regional justice mechanisms, while taking into principled account the views and interests of African States.


Legal Method And Writing I

Author by : Charles R. Calleros
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wolters Kluwer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 35
Total Download : 576
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Description : Focusing on predictive analysis, Legal Method and Writing I: Predictive Writing, Eighth Edition equips students to begin thinking and writing like a lawyer. Clear and comprehensive, the text utilizes numerous illustrations and exercises that immerse students in legal analysis, our system of precedent, use of authority, and predictive writing. Various formats of office memoranda are covered, with separate chapters on organization and writing style. Multicultural themes—seamlessly woven throughout the book—enrich class discussion with context and perspective. Key Features: An overview of the writing process and case method Examination of lawmaking in the form of legislation and common law development An Introduction to court systems, including tribal courts Discussion of the nature of precedent and stare decisis, including excerpted opinions from Citizens United Thorough exploration of legal analysis – the IRAC paradigm and inductive reasoning – and the limitations of these approaches Comprehensive presentation of office memoranda, including prewriting, research strategy and presentation formats Appendices that include more assignments, as well as a comprehensive student guide to briefing cases for class discussion


The Judgment Of Culture

Author by : Lawrence Rosen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
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Description : Legal systems do not operate in isolation but in complex cultural contexts. This original and thought-provoking volume considers how cultural assumptions are built into American legal decision-making, drawing on a series of case studies to demonstrate the range of ways courts express their understanding of human nature, social relationships, and the sense of orderliness that cultural schemes purport to offer. Unpacking issues such as native heritage, male circumcision, and natural law, Rosen provides fresh insight into socio-legal studies, drawing on his extensive experience as both an anthropologist and a law professional to provide a unique perspective on the important issue of law and cultural practice. The Judgement of Culture will make informative reading for students and scholars of anthropology, law, and related subjects across the social sciences.


Muslim Family Law In Sub Saharan Africa

Author by : Shamil Jeppie
Languange : en
Publisher by : Amsterdam University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 49
Total Download : 369
File Size : 52,8 Mb
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Description : Offers comparative historical, anthropological and legal perspectives on the ways in which French and British colonial administrations interacted with the diversity of Islamic legal schools, scholars, and practices in Africa.


Comparative Legal History

Author by : Olivier Moréteau
Languange : en
Publisher by : Edward Elgar Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 31
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Description : The specially commissioned papers in this book lay a solid theoretical foundation for comparative legal history as a distinct academic discipline. While facilitating a much needed dialogue between comparatists and legal historians, this research handbook examines methodologies in this emerging field and reconsiders legal concepts and institutions like custom, civil procedure, and codification from a comparative legal history perspective.


Criminal Courts

Author by : Craig Hemmens
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 49
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File Size : 44,5 Mb
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Description : Written by three nationally recognized experts in the field, Criminal Courts: A Contemporary Perspective explores all the fundamental topics (court structure, courtroom actors, and the trial and appeals process) as well as other ground-breaking topics, such as specialty courts and comparative court systems. This bestseller provides students with a foundation for understanding key concepts by reviewing the judicial function, the role and purpose of law, sources of law, the various types of law, and the American court system’s structure and operations. Students build on this foundation by learning about participants in the system and the pretrial, trial, and post-trial processes. Packed with contemporary examples and new pedagogical tools, the Fourth Edition has been thoroughly revised with the most up-to-date content and resources to give students a more comprehensive understanding of the criminal courts system. Give your students the SAGE edge! SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of free tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. Learn more at edge.sagepub.com/hemmens4e.


Colonialism Maasina Rule And The Origins Of Malaitan Kastom

Author by : David W. Akin
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Hawaii Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
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Description : This book is a political history of the island of Malaita in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate from 1927, when the last violent resistance to colonial rule was crushed, to 1953 and the inauguration of the island’s first representative political body, the Malaita Council. At the book’s heart is a political movement known as Maasina Rule, which dominated political affairs in the southeastern Solomons for many years after World War II. The movement’s ideology, kastom, was grounded in the determination that only Malaitans themselves could properly chart their future through application of Malaitan sensibilities and methods, free from British interference. Kastom promoted a radical transformation of Malaitan lives by sweeping social engineering projects and alternative governing and legal structures. When the government tried to suppress Maasina Rule through force, its followers brought colonial administration on the island to a halt for several years through a labor strike and massive civil resistance actions that overflowed government prison camps. David Akin draws on extensive archival and field research to present a practice-based analysis of colonial officers’ interactions with Malaitans in the years leading up to and during Maasina Rule. A primary focus is the place of knowledge in the colonial administration. Many scholars have explored how various regimes deployed “colonial knowledge” of subject populations in Asia and Africa to reorder and rule them. The British imported to the Solomons models for “native administration” based on such an approach, particularly schemes of indirect rule developed in Africa. The concept of “custom” was basic to these schemes and to European understandings of Melanesians, and it was made the lynchpin of government policies that granted limited political roles to local ideas and practices. Officers knew very little about Malaitan cultures, however, and Malaitans seized the opportunity to transform custom into kastom, as the foundation for a new society. The book’s overarching topic is the dangerous road that colonial ignorance paved for policy makers, from young cadets in the field to high officials in distant Fiji and London. Today kastom remains a powerful concept on Malaita, but continued confusion regarding its origins, history, and meanings hampers understandings of contemporary Malaitan politics and of Malaitan people’s ongoing, problematic relations with the state.


Islamic Law In Modern Courts

Author by : Haider Ala Hamoudi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wolters Kluwer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 372
File Size : 53,7 Mb
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Description : Islamic Law in Modern Courts provides an easily accessible introduction to Islamic law written specifically for law students and legal professionals, and designed to be taught not only by Islamic law specialists, but also by those working in related fields such as law and religion or comparative legal systems. Framed as a casebook, the text uses translations of judicial decisions involving real-world legal disputes to present a picture of Islamic law as it is actually applied in the contemporary world. The casebook draws on material from a variety of countries but focuses primarily on two jurisdictions. Cases from Indonesia exemplify the law of the majority Sunni branch of Islam, while cases from Iraq reflect the influence of both Sunni and Shi’a law. The casebook begins with a brief introduction to the religion of Islam and the sources, methods, and historical development of Islamic law. Four substantive law chapters cover the main subjects over which Islamic law continues to exert significant influence. These include inheritance law, the law of marriage and divorce, Islamic finance and charitable foundations, and Islamic criminal law. A final chapter examines constitutional adjudication of issues related to Islamic law. Key Features: Examines Islamic law as state law that is enforced by national courts but with roots in and ongoing connections with the rich classical tradition. Designed for use by both experts in Islamic law as well as faculty who have an interest in Islamic law but lack extensive background in the subject. Cases are accompanied by commentary that explains and situates the doctrine applied in the decision and suggests questions for classroom discussion. The five substantive law chapters are self-contained units that permit instructors to design a course that focuses on subject areas of particular interest.


Reservation Courts Of Indian Offenses

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Indian Affairs
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 80
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File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description :


Intellectual Property Law For Engineers Scientists And Entrepreneurs

Author by : Howard B. Rockman
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 904
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : Fully revised new edition that completely covers intellectual property law—and many related issues—for engineers, scientists, and entrepreneurs This book informs engineering and science students, technology professionals, and entrepreneurs about the intellectual property laws that are important in their careers. It covers all of the major areas of intellectual property development and protection in non-legalistic terms that are understandable to technology and science professionals. New material includes a comprehensive discussion on the American Invents Act (AIA), coverage of many new high-profile topics, such as patent protection the mobile communications industry, and a new chapter on "The Future of Technology, Engineering, and Intellectual Property." Now in its second edition, Intellectual Property Law for Engineers, Scientists, and Entrepreneurs enables inventors and creators to efficiently interface with an intellectual property attorney in order to obtain the maximum protection for their invention or creation, and to take steps to ensure that that invention or creation does not infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others. It includes patent, trade secret, mask work, and cybersquatting legal and procedural principles. The book also shows readers how to properly use new vehicles of intellectual property protection for novel software, biotech, and business method inventions. Additionally, it examines trademark protection for domain names, and other ancillary matters that fall within the genre of intellectual property protection. This informative text: Covers all of the major areas of intellectual property development and protection in clear, layman’s terms so as to be easily understood by technology and science professionals Provides detailed outlines of patent, trademark, copyright, and unfair competition laws Offers essays on famous and noteworthy inventors and their inventions—and features a copy of the first page of patents resulting from these inventors’ efforts Covers many new high-profile cases covering patent protection within the mobile communications industry Intellectual Property Law for Engineers, Scientists, and Entrepreneurs, Second Edition is an excellent text for graduate and undergraduate engineering students, as well as professionals and those starting a new technology business who need to know all the laws concerning their inventions and creations.


Insurance Law And The Financial Ombudsman Service

Author by : Judith Summer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 229
File Size : 44,6 Mb
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Description : Insurance Law and the Financial Ombudsman Service is an in depth look at the workings and insurance decisions of the Financial Ombudsman Service. The book analyses how the Ombudsman Service decides insurance cases and compares its approach to that of a court. This book sets out the rules, procedure and approach of the Ombudsman Service, succinctly summarises the relevant insurance law and compares and analyses it against a comprehensive review of material about insurance complaints gathered since the formation of the Ombudsman Service in 2001.


International Maritime Law From The Russian Perspective

Author by : Vasiliy Gutsulyak
Languange : en
Publisher by : Universal-Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 58
Total Download : 975
File Size : 48,8 Mb
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Description : This book is one of the most comprehensive guides to international maritime law from the Russian perspective. It consists of three relatively independent sections: Russian Maritime Law, International Public Maritime Law, and International Private Maritime Law. First section discusses the development of the maritime law as a branch of the Russian law. It examines concepts and sources of the Russian federal laws, secondary legislation and customs, including the influences guiding the future of Russian law of the sea. . The second section examines International Public Maritime Law including the principles, sources, subjects, as well legal status of the vessel, including the vessel's state flag, her name, state registration, the problem of "flags of convenience", vessel's documents, the crew, and the master. This section further details the current international legal regime of maritime spaces, provisions concerning legal protection of marine environments, ensuring navigation safety, international legal regulation of the work of seamen, international inter-governmental marine organizations, and settlement of international public marine disputes. The third section is devoted to International Private Maritime Law and discusses its principles and sources, conflict-of-law rules, structure and types, and the main choice-of-law principles used today in international private maritime law. This section also discusses the following institutions and sub-branches within international private maritime law including: carriage of cargoes and passengers by sea, general average, salvage, collisions of vessels, marine insurance, limitation of liability, inter