Cq Weekly

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
Total Download : 427
File Size : 50,8 Mb
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Routledge Library Editions The Economics And Politics Of Oil

Author by : Various Authors
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 18
Total Download : 789
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : The books in this set, originally published between 1927 and 1996 discuss the oil industry and its impact on the world economy in the twentieth century. The issues of trade, tax and energy policies as well as national security are all relevant to the economics politics of oil and the volumes analyse and discuss: The extent to which American dominance in world affairs is based on the control of oil resources and the changes which will inevitably take place with the end of the oil era. Discernible trends in such crucial areas as global petroleum supply and pricing, and the international economic and political implications of both. The role of wealth maximisation, and wealth satisficing The impact of North Sea oil and gas on the British economy. Relations between oil exporters and importers, and between the USA, Europe and the Arab world The most important strategic issues facing both the producers and consumers of oil and gas.


Organizational Wrongdoing

Author by : Donald Palmer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 145
File Size : 45,6 Mb
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Description : A comprehensive overview of the causes, processes and consequences of wrongdoing and misconduct across all levels of an organization.


The Economics And Politics Of The United States Oil Industry 1920 1990

Author by : Steve Isser
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
Total Download : 222
File Size : 53,8 Mb
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Description : This book, originally published in 1996, traces the development of US government policy toward the oil industry during the 1920s and 1930s when the domestic syustem of production control was established. It then charts the deveopment and collapse of oil import controls, and the wild scramble for economic rents generated by Government regulation. It discusses the two oil crises and the ‘phantom’ Gulf War crisis, and the importance of public opinion in shaping the policy agenda. It also provides an in-depth study of Congressional oil votes from the 1950s to the 1980s and the formation of oil policy, beginning with theories of economic regulation, the role of interest groups in developing the policy agenda and the role of money in politics.


Guide To Congress

Author by : CQ Press,
Languange : en
Publisher by : CQ Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 38
Total Download : 741
File Size : 49,6 Mb
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Description : The new edition of this comprehensive, two-volume reference has been thoroughly revised and expanded by expert CQ Press writers—with years of experience covering Congress—to offer a complete institutional history of Congress along with updated insight and analysis on the 2008 and 2010 shifts in power of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.


Outsiders And Openness In The Presidential Nominating System

Author by : Andrew Busch
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Pittsburgh Pre
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
Total Download : 777
File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : In this timely and insightful book, Andrew Busch examines the relationship of outsiders to the presidential nominating system since the late nineteenth century. Through a series of carefully selected case studies, Busch exposes the nominating apparatus, its changes over time, and its effects on American elections. He pays particular attention to the nominating "reforms" enacted in the early 1970s, and he studies in depth the campaigns of Estes Kefauver, Barry Goldwater, George Wallace, Eugene McCarthy, George McGovern, Jimmy Carter, Gary Hart, Paul Tsongas, Jerry Brown, David Duke, Pat Buchanan, Jesse Jackson, and Ross Perot.


The Limits Of Party

Author by : James M. Curry
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 575
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Description : To many observers, Congress has become a deeply partisan institution where ideologically-distinct political parties do little more than engage in legislative trench warfare. A zero-sum, winner-take-all approach to congressional politics has replaced the bipartisan comity of past eras. If the parties cannot get everything they want in national policymaking, then they prefer gridlock and stalemate to compromise. Or, at least, that is the conventional wisdom. In The Limits of Party, James M. Curry and Frances E. Lee challenge this conventional wisdom. By constructing legislative histories of congressional majority parties’ attempts to enact their policy agendas in every congress since the 1980s and by drawing on interviews with Washington insiders, the authors analyze the successes and failures of congressional parties to enact their legislative agendas. ​ Their conclusions will surprise many congressional observers: Even in our time of intense party polarization, bipartisanship remains the key to legislative success on Capitol Hill. Congressional majority parties today are neither more nor less successful at enacting their partisan agendas. They are not more likely to ram though partisan laws or become mired in stalemate. Rather, the parties continue to build bipartisan coalitions for their legislative priorities and typically compromise on their original visions for legislation in order to achieve legislative success.


The Polarized Congress

Author by : Charles Tiefer
Languange : en
Publisher by : UPA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
Total Download : 786
File Size : 42,5 Mb
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Description : The Polarized Congress: The Post-Traditional Procedure of Its Current Struggles argues that the rise of the polarized Congress means a totally different Congressional procedure, especially after 2007, compared to the accustomed "traditional" one. Polarized Congress explores a host of lesser-known, even sometimes below the radar, aspects of the post-traditional or polarized model. These range from "ping-ponging" of major measures between chambers (without conferencing), to the Senate Majority Leader's new "toolkit". They go from the now-crucial "Hastert Rule" in the House, to the astonishment of legislating the Affordable Care Act by singular procedures including budget reconciliation. The book challenges the easy assumption, especially by the non-specialist press, that Congressional procedure is descending into nothing more than chaotic brutishness or eternal stalemate. Instead, it explains the transformation of the traditional model about "how a bill becomes a law" before 2000, into the new current model in which Congress acts very differently.


Cq Weekly Report

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
Total Download : 604
File Size : 48,5 Mb
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American Environmental Policy Updated And Expanded Edition

Author by : Christopher Mcgrory Klyza
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 242
File Size : 54,5 Mb
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Description : An updated investigation of alternate pathways for American environmental policymaking made necessary by legislative gridlock. The “golden era” of American environmental lawmaking in the 1960s and 1970s saw twenty-two pieces of major environmental legislation (including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Endangered Species Act) passed by bipartisan majorities in Congress and signed into law by presidents of both parties. But since then partisanship, the dramatic movement of Republicans to the right, and political brinksmanship have led to legislative gridlock on environmental issues. In this book, Christopher Klyza and David Sousa argue that the longstanding legislative stalemate at the national level has forced environmental policymaking onto other pathways. Klyza and Sousa identify and analyze five alternative policy paths, which they illustrate with case studies from 1990 to the present: “appropriations politics” in Congress; executive authority; the role of the courts; “next-generation” collaborative experiments; and policymaking at the state and local levels. This updated edition features a new chapter discussing environmental policy developments from 2006 to 2012, including intensifying partisanship on the environment, the failure of Congress to pass climate legislation, the ramifications of Massachusetts v. EPA, and other Obama administration executive actions (some of which have reversed Bush administration executive actions). Yet, they argue, despite legislative gridlock, the legacy of 1960s and 1970s policies has created an enduring “green state” rooted in statutes, bureaucratic routines, and public expectations.


Party Discipline In The U S House Of Representatives

Author by : Kathryn Pearson
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Michigan Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 997
File Size : 53,7 Mb
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Description : A breakthrough study that looks at the disciplinary measures which party leaders employ to command loyalty from members


Public Policymaking

Author by : James E. Anderson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cengage Learning
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
Total Download : 675
File Size : 47,5 Mb
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Description : To explain the fundamentals of public policy, this best-selling text focuses on the process behind the crafting of legislation. By examining the individual steps-from identifying a problem, to agenda setting, to evaluation, revision, or termination of a policy-students are able to see how different factors influence the creation of policy. Each chapter features at least one case study that illustrates how general ideas are applied to specific policy issues. This new Eighth Edition provides thoughtful updates based on the 2012 election and completely revised case studies. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.


Debt And Taxes

Author by : John H. Makin
Languange : en
Publisher by : American Enterprise Institute
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
Total Download : 137
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : A political expert and an economic expert analyze America's current economic, tax, and budget woes in the context of ideology and philosophy in America's long political history. 10,000 first printing.


Congressional Ambivalence

Author by : Jasmine Farrier
Languange : en
Publisher by : University Press of Kentucky
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 12
Total Download : 434
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : Is the United States Congress dead, alive, or trapped in a moribund cycle? When confronted with controversial policy issues, members of Congress struggle to satisfy conflicting legislative, representative, and oversight duties. These competing goals, along with the pressure to satisfy local constituents, cause members of Congress to routinely cede power on a variety of policies, express regret over their loss of control, and later return to the habit of delegating their power. This pattern of institutional ambivalence undermines conventional wisdom about congressional party resurgence, the power of oversight, and the return of the so-called imperial presidency. In Congressional Ambivalence, Jasmine Farrier examines Congress's frequent delegation of power by analyzing primary source materials such as bills, committee reports, and the Congressional Record. Farrier demonstrates that Congress is caught between abdication and ambition and that this ambivalence affects numerous facets of the legislative process. Explaining specific instances of post-delegation disorder, including Congress's use of new bills, obstruction, public criticism, and oversight to salvage its lost power, Farrier exposes the tensions surrounding Congress's roles in recent hot-button issues such as base-closing commissions, presidential trade promotion authority, and responses to the attacks of September 11. She also examines shifting public rhetoric used by members of Congress as they emphasize, in institutionally self-conscious terms, the difficulties of balancing their multiple roles. With a deep understanding of the inner workings of the federal government, Farrier illuminates a developing trend in the practice of democracy.


The U S Senate

Author by : Burdett Loomis
Languange : en
Publisher by : CQ Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 571
File Size : 46,9 Mb
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Description : With an avalanche of scholarship on the House, it can be tough to balance out coverage in a typical Congress course with appropriate readings on the "slow institution." Offering top-notch research geared to an undergraduate audience, Loomis' new edited volume represents a broad picture of the contemporary Senate and how it came to be. While addressing issues of delay, obstruction, and polarization in a variety of ways, the scholars in this collection are not proposing a reform agenda, but instead, explore the historical and political contexts for how difficult it can be to change a non-majoritarian, highly individualistic institution. Students will come away from these chapters with a much greater appreciation of the Senate's unique combination of tradition, precedent, and constitutional mandate.


The Public Congress

Author by : Gary Lee Malecha
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 53
Total Download : 838
File Size : 45,6 Mb
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Description : Contemporary members of Congress routinely use the media to advance their professional goals. Today, virtually every aspect of their professional legislative life unfolds in front of cameras and microphones and, increasingly, online. The Public Congress explores how the media moved from being a peripheral to a central force in U.S. congressional politics. The authors show that understanding why this happened allows us to see the constellation of forces that combined over the last fifty years to transform the American political order. Malecha and Reagan’s keen analysis links the new "public" Congress and the forces that are shaping political parties, the Presidency, interest groups, and the media. They conclude by asking whether the kind of discourse that this "new media" environment fosters encourages Congress to make its distinctive deliberative contribution to the American polity. This text brings historical depth as well as coverage of the most current cutting edge trends in new media environment and provides an exhaustive treatment of how the U.S. Congress uses the media in the governing process today.


The Struggle To Limit Government

Author by : John Curtis Samples
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cato Institute
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
Total Download : 553
File Size : 44,7 Mb
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Description : Chronicles a 30-year effort to limit government, which began strong with Ronald Reagan's two terms in office and continued through the early Clinton years, only to deteriorate with the Republican-controlled Congress of the late 90s, George W. Bush's presidency and finally, what the author argues was the death knell of the effort, the election of Barack Obama.


Congress And The Politics Of Problem Solving

Author by : E. Scott Adler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 43
Total Download : 842
File Size : 40,9 Mb
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Description : How do issues end up on the agenda? Why do lawmakers routinely invest in program oversight and broad policy development? What considerations drive legislative policy change? For many, Congress is an institution consumed by partisan bickering and gridlock. Yet the institution's long history of addressing significant societal problems - even in recent years - seems to contradict this view. Congress and the Politics of Problem Solving argues that the willingness of many voters to hold elected officials accountable for societal conditions is central to appreciating why Congress responds to problems despite the many reasons mustered for why it cannot. The authors show that, across decades of policy making, problem-solving motivations explain why bipartisanship is a common pattern of congressional behavior and offer the best explanation for legislative issue attention and policy change.


Confrontation And Compromise

Author by : Jason D. Mycoff
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 365
File Size : 55,9 Mb
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Description : "Classroom tested in the authors' teaching of courses on Congress and the presidency, the case studies in Confrontation and Compromise offer students an engaging and informative look at the critical role that leadership plays in achieving legislative success."--BOOK JACKET.


Guns And Contemporary Society The Past Present And Future Of Firearms And Firearm Policy 3 Volumes

Author by : Glenn H. Utter
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
Total Download : 410
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description : This three-volume set examines various approaches to firearms, including constitutional and legal issues, public health and criminal justice concerns, and perspectives on personal safety and self-defense. • Considers a wide variety of policy recommendations, from advocating greater firearm ownership and carrying among private citizens to suggestions for further limitations on gun acquisition and ownership • Features historical background on the development of the present role that firearms play in American society • Examines recent trends in the ownership of various types of firearms • Challenges the adequacy of background checks and granting of firearm access • Compares gun-related accidents and firearm policy among the states


The Committee

Author by : Bryan William Marshall
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Michigan Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 446
File Size : 50,5 Mb
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Description : A deftly crafted insider account of how congressional committees really work, updated for 2021


Keeping The Republic

Author by : Christine Barbour
Languange : en
Publisher by : CQ Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 622
File Size : 52,9 Mb
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Description : Keeping the Republic gives students the power to examine the narrative of what′s going on in American politics, distinguish fact from fiction and balance from bias, and influence the message through informed citizenship. Keeping the Republic draws students into the study of American politics, showing them how to think critically about "who gets what, and how" while exploring the twin themes of power and citizenship. Students are pushed to consider how and why institutions and rules determine who wins and who loses in American politics, and to be savvy consumers of political information. The thoroughly updated Eighth Edition considers how a major component of power is who controls the information, how it is assembled into narratives, and whether we come to recognize fact from fiction. Citizens now have unprecedented access to power – the ability to create and share their own narratives – while simultaneously being even more vulnerable to those trying to shape their views. The political landscape of today gives us new ways to keep the republic, and some high-tech ways to lose it. Throughout the text and its features, authors Christine Barbour and Gerald Wright show students how to effectively apply the critical thinking skills they develop to the political information they encounter every day. Students are challenged to deconstruct prevailing narratives and effectively harness the political power of the information age for themselves. Up-to-date with 2018 election results and analysis, as well as the impact of recent Supreme Court rulings, shifting demographics, and emerging and continuing social movements, Keeping the Republic, Eighth Edition is a much-needed resource to help students make sense of politics in America today. Carefully condensed from the full version by authors Christine Barbour and Gerald Wright, Keeping the Republic, Brief Edition gives your students all the continuity and crucial content, in a more concise, value-oriented package. A Complete Teaching & Learning Package SAGE Vantage Digital Option Engage, Learn, Soar with SAGE Vantage, an intuitive digital platform that delivers Keeping the Republic, Eighth Brief Edition textbook content in a learning experience carefully designed to ignite student engagement and drive critical thinking. Built with you and your students in mind, it offers easy course set-up and enables students to better prepare for class. Learn more. Assignable Video Assignable Video (available on the SAGE Vantage platform) is tied to learning objectives and curated exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life and appeal to different learning styles. Watch a sample video now. SAGE Coursepacks FREE! Easily import our quality instructor and student resource content into your school’s learning management system (LMS) and save time. Learn more. SAGE Edge FREE online resources for students that make learning easier. See how your students benefit. SAGE course outcomes: Measure Results, Track Success Outlined in your text and mapped to chapter learning objectives, SAGE course outcomes are crafted with specific course outcomes in mind and vetted by advisors in the field. See how SAGE course outcomes tie in with this book’s chapter-level objectives at edge.sagepub.com/barbourbrief8e CQ Press Lecture Spark: Designed to save you time and ignite student engagement, these free weekly lecture launchers focus on current event topics tied to key concepts in American government. Access this week’s topic. Contact your rep to learn more.


Environmental Policy

Author by : Norman J. Vig
Languange : en
Publisher by : CQ Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 43
Total Download : 185
File Size : 44,7 Mb
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Description : Authoritative and trusted, Environmental Policy once again brings together top scholars to evaluate the changes and continuities in American environmental policy since the late 1960s and their implications for the twenty-first century. You will learn to decipher the underlying trends, institutional constraints, and policy dilemmas that shape today’s environmental politics. The Tenth Edition examines how policy has changed within federal institutions and state and local governments, as well as how environmental governance affects private sector policies and practices. The book provides in-depth examinations of public policy dilemmas including fracking, food production, urban sustainability, and the viability of using market solutions to address policy challenges. Students will also develop a deeper understanding of global issues such as climate change governance, the implications of the Paris Agreement, and the role of environmental policy in the developing world. Students walk away with a measured yet hopeful evaluation of the future challenges policymakers will confront as the American environmental movement continues to affect the political process.


Environmental Policy New Directions For The Twenty First Century 8th Edition

Author by : Norman J Vig
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 35
Total Download : 416
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description : Available this summer in its Eighth Edition, RosenbaumÆs classic, comprehensive text once more provides definitive coverage of environmental politics and policy, lively case material, and a balanced assessment of current environmental issues. Notable revisions include: - A completely revamped energy chapter covering conventional energy policy as well as a comparative examination of alternatives to current energy production. ò Expanded discussion of current U.S. climate change policy with attention to the role of the states, the impact of global environmental politics, and emerging technologies on policy alternatives. ò Analysis of the Obama administrationÆs energy agenda and its profound differences from Bush administration policies and the practical difficulties of creating an effective political coalition in support of the new policy agenda. ò Greater emphasis on executive-congressional relations in the policy-making cycle. ò Examination of changes in the environmental movement, with particular attention to newly emerging cleavages over energy and climate issues. ò A thorough updating of all policy chapters, including an examination of such topics as ômountain top removal,ö the emergence of Bisphenol A as an endocrine disruptor issue, and the ônew NIMBYism.ö New and revised tables, figures, and other data illustrate key environmental information while a new, detailed timeline frames the initial chapterÆs historical narrative of evolving environmental policy.


Visions Of Poverty

Author by : Robert Asen
Languange : en
Publisher by : MSU Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 87
Total Download : 950
File Size : 54,7 Mb
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Description : Images of poverty shape the debate surrounding it. In 1996, then President Bill Clinton signed welfare reform legislation repealing the principal federal program providing monetary assistance to poor families, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). With the president's signature this originally non-controversial program became the only title of the 1935 Social Security Act to be repealed. The legislation culminated a retrenchment era in welfare policy beginning in the early 1980s. To understand completely the welfare policy debates of the last half of the 20th Century, the various images of poor people that were present must be considered. Visions of Poverty explores these images and the policy debates of the retrenchment era, recounting the ways in which images of the poor appeared in these debates, relaying shifts in images that took place over time, and revealing how images functioned in policy debates to advantage some positions and disadvantage others. Looking to the future, Visions of Poverty demonstrates that any future policy agenda must first come to terms with the vivid, disabling images of the poor that continue to circulate. In debating future reforms, participants-whose ranks should include potential recipients-ought to imagine poor people anew. This ground breaking study in policymaking and cultural imagination will be of particular interest to scholars in rhetorical studies, political science, history, and public policy.


The Rhetorical Presidency Of George H W Bush

Author by : Martin J. Medhurst
Languange : en
Publisher by : Texas A&M University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 13
Total Download : 192
File Size : 46,9 Mb
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Description : For George H. W. Bush, the distinction between campaigning (“politics”) and governing (“principles”) was crucial. Once in office, he abandoned his campaign mode and with it the rhetorical strategies that brought electoral success. Not recognizing the crucial importance of rhetoric to policy formation and implementation, Bush forfeited the resources of the bully pulpit and paid the price of electoral defeat. In this first-ever analysis of Bush’s rhetoric to draw on the archives of the Bush Presidential Library, scholars explore eight major events or topics associated with his presidency: the first Gulf War, the fall of the Berlin wall, the “New World Order,” Bush’s “education presidency,” his environmental stance, the “vision thing,” and the influence of the Religious Right. The volume concludes with a cogent of the 1992 re-election campaign and Bush’s last-gasp use of economic rhetoric.Drawing on the resources of the Bush Presidential Library and interviews with many of Bush’s White House aides, the scholars included in this tightly organized volume ask, How well did President Bush and his administration respond to events, issues, and situations? In the process, they also suggest how a more perceptive embrace of the art of rhetoric might have allowed them to respond more successfully.The Rhetorical Presidency of George H. W. Bush breaks important ground for our understanding of the forty-first president’s time in office and the reasons it ended so quickly.


Building Coalitions Making Policy

Author by : Martin A. Levin
Languange : en
Publisher by : JHU Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 22
Total Download : 926
File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : This collection of essays examines the efforts of policymakers from three presidential administrations to produce lasting policy changes.


Aging Public Policy

Author by : Theodore H. Hoff
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 477
File Size : 53,7 Mb
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Description : "Aging Public Policy: Bonding the Generations" is presented in three parts. Part One describes the policy process as a response to human needs through the laws of our country. Part Two explores the national policy development on behalf of older persons. Part Three describes the major public policies on behalf of the elderly that include Social Security, Medicare, The Older Americans Act, institutional care, employment and retirement policies. The final chapter discusses the advocacy process in the field of aging.


The Delegated Welfare State

Author by : Kimberly J. Morgan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
Total Download : 509
File Size : 46,9 Mb
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Description : Why are so many American social programs delegated to private actors? And what are the consequences for efficiency, accountability, and the well-being of beneficiaries? The Delegated Welfare State examines the development of the American welfare state through the lens of delegation: how policymakers have avoided direct governmental provision of benefits and services, turning to non-state actors for the governance of social programs. Utilizing case studies of Medicare and the 2009-10 health care reform, Morgan and Campbell argue that the prevalence of delegated governance reflects the powerful role of interest groups in American politics, the dominance of Congress in social policymaking, and deep contradictions in American public opinion. Americans want both social programs and small government, leaving policy makers in a bind. Contracting out public programs to non-state actors masks the role of the state and enlists private allies who push for passage. Although delegated governance has been politically expedient, enabling the growth of government programs in an anti-government political climate, it raises questions about fraud, abuse, administrative effectiveness, and accountability. In probing both the causes and consequences of delegated governance, The Delegated Welfare State offers a novel interpretation of both American social welfare politics and the nature of the American state.