Creating A Memory of Causal Relationships

Creating A Memory of Causal Relationships
Author: Michael J. Pazzani
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2014-02-25
ISBN: 1317783921
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Creating A Memory of Causal Relationships Book Excerpt:

This book presents a theory of learning new causal relationships by making use of perceived regularities in the environment, general knowledge of causality, and existing causal knowledge. Integrating ideas from the psychology of causation and machine learning, the author introduces a new learning procedure called theory-driven learning that uses abstract knowledge of causality to guide the induction process. Known as OCCAM, the system uses theory-driven learning when new experiences conform to common patterns of causal relationships, empirical learning to learn from novel experiences, and explanation-based learning when there is sufficient existing knowledge to explain why a new outcome occurred. Together these learning methods construct a hierarchical organized memory of causal relationships. As such, OCCAM is the first learning system with the ability to acquire, via empirical learning, the background knowledge required for explanation-based learning. Please note: This program runs on common lisp.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning
Author: Ryszard S. Michalski,Ryszard Stanisław Michalski,George Tecuci,Jaime Guillermo Carbonell,Tom Michael Mitchell
Publsiher: Morgan Kaufmann
Total Pages: 782
Release: 1994-02-23
ISBN: 9781558602519
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Machine Learning Book Excerpt:

Multistrategy learning is one of the newest and most promising research directions in the development of machine learning systems. The objectives of research in this area are to study trade-offs between different learning strategies and to develop learning systems that employ multiple types of inference or computational paradigms in a learning process. Multistrategy systems offer significant advantages over monostrategy systems. They are more flexible in the type of input they can learn from and the type of knowledge they can acquire. As a consequence, multistrategy systems have the potential to be applicable to a wide range of practical problems. This volume is the first book in this fast growing field. It contains a selection of contributions by leading researchers specializing in this area. See below for earlier volumes in the series.

Creating a Memory of Casual Relationships

Creating a Memory of Casual Relationships
Author: Michael J. Pazzani
Publsiher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Total Pages: 360
Release: 1990
ISBN: 9781563210402
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Creating a Memory of Casual Relationships Book Excerpt:

This book presents a theory of learning new causal relationships by making use of perceived regularities in the environment, general knowledge of causality, and existing causal knowledge. Integrating ideas from the psychology of causation and machine learning, the author introduces a new learning procedure called theory-driven learning that uses abstract knowledge of causality to guide the induction process. Known as OCCAM, the system uses theory-driven learning when new experiences conform to common patterns of causal relationships, empirical learning to learn from novel experiences, and explanation-based learning when there is sufficient existing knowledge to explain why a new outcome occurred. Together these learning methods construct a hierarchical organized memory of causal relationships. As such, OCCAM is the first learning system with the ability to acquire, via empirical learning, the background knowledge required for explanation-based learning. Please note: This program runs on common lisp.

Memory in the Real World

Memory in the Real World
Author: Gillian Cohen,Martin A. Conway
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2007-12-03
ISBN: 1135419876
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Memory in the Real World Book Excerpt:

This fully revised and updated third edition of the highly acclaimed Memory in the Real World includes recent research in all areas of everyday memory. Distinguished researchers have contributed new and updated material in their own areas of expertise. The controversy about the value of naturalistic research, as opposed to traditional laboratory methods, is outlined, and the two approaches are seen to have converged and become complementary rather than antagonistic. The editors bring together studies on many different topics, such as memory for plans and actions, for names and faces, for routes and maps, life experiences and flashbulb memory, and eyewitness memory. Emphasis is also given to the role of memory in consciousness and metacognition. New topics covered in this edition include life span development of memory, collaborative remembering, deja-vu and memory dysfunction in the real world. Memory in the Real World will be of continuing appeal to students and researchers in the area.

Discourse Comprehension

Discourse Comprehension
Author: Charles A. Weaver, III,Suzanne Mannes,C. Randy Fletcher
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 1136482741
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Discourse Comprehension Book Excerpt:

This volume is derived from presentations given at a conference hosted in Boulder, Colorado in honor of the 60th birthday of Walter Kintsch. Though the contents of the talks, and thus the chapters, varied widely, all had one thing in common -- they were inspired to some degree by the work of Walter Kintsch. When making plans for an edited book centered around this conference, the editors had a primary goal: to acknowledge the wide variety of researchers and research areas Kintsch had influenced. As a consequence, one of the more unusual elements of this volume is the diversity of the contributors. Researchers from six different countries contributed chapters to this book which is loosely organized around three main thrusts of Kintsch's work: * text-based representations that explain how meaning in a text is constructed, * situation models which represent what the text is about rather than what a text literally says, and * the construction-integration model, Kintsch's most recent work in discourse comprehension.

Human Memory

Human Memory
Author: Gabriel A. Radvansky
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 434
Release: 2015-08-20
ISBN: 1317350782
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Memory Book Excerpt:

Provides students with a guide to human memory, its properties, theories about how it works, and how studying it can help us understand who we are and why we do the things that we do. For undergraduate and graduate courses in Human Memory. This book provides a very broad range of topics covering more territory than most books. In addition to some coverage of basic issues of human memory and cognition that are of interest to researchers in the field, the chapters also cover issues that will be relevant to students with a range of interests including those students interested in clinical, social, and developmental psychology, as well as those planning on going on to medical and law schools. The writing is aimed at talking directly to students (as opposed to talking down to them) in a clear and effective manner. Not too dense, but also not too conversational as well. This 2nd edition includes a series of exercises that allow the student to try out the concepts and principles conveyed in the chapters, or to use as the basis for exploring their own ideas.

Modern Approaches in Applied Intelligence

Modern Approaches in Applied Intelligence
Author: Kishan G. Mehrotra,Chilukuri Krishna Mohan,Jae C. Oh,Pramod K. Varshney,Moonis Ali
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 581
Release: 2011-06-17
ISBN: 3642218261
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modern Approaches in Applied Intelligence Book Excerpt:

The two volume set LNAI 6703 and LNAI 6704 constitutes the thoroughly refereed conference proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2011, held in Syracuse, NY, USA, in June/July 2011. The total of 92 papers selected for the proceedings were carefully reviewed and selected from 206 submissions. The papers cover a wide number of topics including feature extraction, discretization, clustering, classification, diagnosis, data refinement, neural networks, genetic algorithms, learning classifier systems, Bayesian and probabilistic methods, image processing, robotics, navigation, optimization, scheduling, routing, game theory and agents, cognition, emotion, and beliefs.

Contributions to a Computer Based Theory of Strategies

Contributions to a Computer Based Theory of Strategies
Author: Nicholas V. Findler
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 3642757367
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Contributions to a Computer Based Theory of Strategies Book Excerpt:

People use the word strategy in a variety of different contexts. The term has connotations ranging from statesmanship to economic planning, and has become pervasive in the social sciences. We also talk about "problem solving strategies" and "corporate strategy" in a large business enterprise. The concept of strategy applies whenever a sequence of goal-oriented actions is based on large-scale and long-range planning. This monograph gives a systematic overview of the theory of strategies, a new area of enquiry developed over the past two decades by the author and his team. The projects described have clearly defined research objectives and are based on realistic assumptions about the environments in which the programming systems will work, and about the constraints and requirements they have to satisfy. Applications of the systems range over various aspects of air traffic control, automatic verification and validation of discrete-event simulation models, econometric model building, distributed planning systems for manufacturing, control of traffic lights, and others. The book is aimed at researchers, teachers and students in computer science, management science and certain areas of engineering. The reader should have some maturity in computer science and mathematics, and familiarity with the basic concepts of artificial intelligence.

Consciousness Transitions

Consciousness Transitions
Author: Hans Liljenström,Peter Århem
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2011-10-13
ISBN: 9780080554631
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Consciousness Transitions Book Excerpt:

It was not long ago when the consciousness was not considered a problem for science. However, this has now changed and the problem of consciousness is considered the greatest challenge to science. In the last decade, a great number of books and articles have been published in the field, but very few have focused on the how consciousness evolves and develops, and what characterizes the transitions between different conscious states, in animals and humans. This book addresses these questions. Renowned researchers from different fields of science (including neurobiology, evolutionary biology, ethology, cognitive science, computational neuroscience and philosophy) contribute with their results and theories in this book, making it a unique collection of the state-of-the-art of this young field of consciousness studies. First book on the topic Focus on different levels of consciousness, including: Evolutionary, developmental, and functional Highly interdisciplinary

The Cambridge Companion to Hume

The Cambridge Companion to Hume
Author: David Fate Norton,Jacqueline Taylor
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2008-12-08
ISBN: 1139827782
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cambridge Companion to Hume Book Excerpt:

Although best known for his contributions to the theory of knowledge, metaphysics, and philosophy of religion, Hume also influenced developments in the philosophy of mind, psychology, ethics, political and economic theory, political and social history, and aesthetic theory. The fifteen essays in this volume address all aspects of Hume's thought. The picture of him that emerges is that of a thinker who, though often critical to the point of scepticism, was nonetheless able to build on that scepticism a constructive, viable, and profoundly important view of the world. Also included in this volume are Hume's two brief autobiographies and a bibliography suited to those beginning their study of Hume. This second edition of one our most popular Companions includes six new essays and a new introduction, and the remaining essays have all been updated or revised.

Cache and Memory Hierarchy Design

Cache and Memory Hierarchy Design
Author: Steven A. Przybylski
Publsiher: Morgan Kaufmann
Total Pages: 223
Release: 1990
ISBN: 1558601368
Category: Computers
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cache and Memory Hierarchy Design Book Excerpt:

A widely read and authoritative book for hardware and software designers. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single- and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution time.

The Ethics of Killing

The Ethics of Killing
Author: Jeff McMahan
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2002-01-03
ISBN: 0198024150
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Ethics of Killing Book Excerpt:

This magisterial work is the first comprehensive study of the ethics of killing, where the moral status of the individual killed is uncertain. Drawing on philosophical notions of personal identity and the immorality of killing, McMahan looks carefully at a host of practical issues, including abortion, infanticide, the killing of animals, assisted suicide, and euthanasia.

Beyond Memory

Beyond Memory
Author: G. Uehling
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 294
Release: 2004-11-26
ISBN: 1403981272
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Beyond Memory Book Excerpt:

In the early morning hours of May 18, 1944 the Russian army, under orders from Stalin, deported the entire Crimean Tatar population from their historical homeland. Given only fifteen minutes to gather their belongings, they were herded into cattle cars bound for Soviet Central Asia. Although the official Soviet record was cleansed of this affair and the name of their ethnic group was erased from all records and official documents, Crimean Tatars did not assimilate with other groups or disappear. This is an ethnographic study of the negotiation of social memory and the role this had in the growth of a national repatriation movement among the Crimean Tatars. It examines the recollections of the Crimean Tatars, the techniques by which they are produced and transmitted and the formation of a remarkably uniform social memory in light of their dispersion throughout Central Asia. Through the lens of social memory, the book covers not only the deportation and life in the diaspora but the process by which the children and grandchildren of the deportees 'returned' and anchored themselves in the Crimean Penininsula, a place they had never visited.

Memory in Play

Memory in Play
Author: A. Favorini
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 323
Release: 2008-12-08
ISBN: 0230617166
Category: Performing Arts
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Memory in Play Book Excerpt:

This innovative study examines the role of memory in the history of theatre and drama. Favorini analyzes issues of memory in self-construction, collective memory, the clash of memory and history and even explores what the work of cognitive scientists can teach us about brain function and our response to drama.

Causal Elaborative Inferences in Text Comprehension

Causal Elaborative Inferences in Text Comprehension
Author: Elizabeth Anne Hartmann
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 186
Release: 1992
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Causal Elaborative Inferences in Text Comprehension Book Excerpt:

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science
Author: Henri Cohen,Claire Lefebvre
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1276
Release: 2017-06-03
ISBN: 0128097663
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science Book Excerpt:

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, Second Edition presents the study of categories and the process of categorization as viewed through the lens of the founding disciplines of the cognitive sciences, and how the study of categorization has long been at the core of each of these disciplines. The literature on categorization reveals there is a plethora of definitions, theories, models and methods to apprehend this central object of study. The contributions in this handbook reflect this diversity. For example, the notion of category is not uniform across these contributions, and there are multiple definitions of the notion of concept. Furthermore, the study of category and categorization is approached differently within each discipline. For some authors, the categories themselves constitute the object of study, whereas for others, it is the process of categorization, and for others still, it is the technical manipulation of large chunks of information. Finally, yet another contrast has to do with the biological versus artificial nature of agents or categorizers. Defines notions of category and categorization Discusses the nature of categories: discrete, vague, or other Explores the modality effects on categories Bridges the category divide - calling attention to the bridges that have already been built, and avenues for further cross-fertilization between disciplines

Beginning to Remember

Beginning to Remember
Author: Mary S. Zurbuchen
Publsiher: University of Washington Press
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2015-09-14
ISBN: 0295998768
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Beginning to Remember Book Excerpt:

Beginning to Remember charts Indonesia's turbulent decades of cultural repression and renewal amid the rise and fall of Suharto's New Order regime. These cross-disciplinary pieces illuminate Indonesia�s current efforts to reexamine and understand its past in order to shape new civic and cultural arrangements. In 1998, "reformasi" brought a wave of relief and euphoria. But Suharto's removal did not dispel persistent corruption, official secrecy and denial, religious and ethnic violence, and security policies leading to tragedy in East Timor, Aceh, and other regions. But the reformasi did open up new possibilities for seeing the past. What followed was a surge of discourse that challenged officially codified national history in mass media and publishing, in public policy debate, in the arts, and in popular mobilization and politics. This volume is an exploration of some of the expressions, narratives, and interpretations of the past found in Indonesia today. The authors illustrate ways in which the dissolution of the Indonesian state's monopoly on history is now permitting new national, local, and individual accounts and representations of the past to emerge. The book covers fields from performing arts and literature to anthropology, history, and transitional justice. The book opens with Goenawan Mohamad's dramatic poem Kali, the first publication of this important work by one of Indonesia�s leading intellectuals, which has become the libretto for an international opera production. Another chapter is a personal memoir by one of Java�s famous shadow-play masters, Tristuti Rachmadi, for years imprisoned under the New Order. Leading historian Anthony Reid commemorates the national struggle at the regional level, while South African lawyer Paul van Zyl compares efforts in transitional justice in Indonesia, East Timor, and South Africa.

Memory

Memory
Author: Sven Bernecker
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2010
ISBN: 0199577560
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Memory Book Excerpt:

Sven Bernecker presents a new causal theory of memory, examining a number of metaphysical and epistemological issues crucial to the understanding of propositional or factual memory. This book provides sophisticated and comprehensive coverage of a much neglected area of philosophy, and will also appeal to cognitive scientists and psychologists.

The Understanding of Causation and the Production of Action

The Understanding of Causation and the Production of Action
Author: Peter Anthony White
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 332
Release: 2018-10-24
ISBN: 1317734904
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Understanding of Causation and the Production of Action Book Excerpt:

This text is an attempt to trace out a line of development in the understanding of how things happen, from origins in infancy to mature forms in adulthood. There are two distinct but related ways in which people understand things as happening, denoted by the terms "causation" and "action". This book is concerned with both.; The central claim and organizing principle of the book is that, by the end of the second year of life, children have differentiated two core theories of how things happen. These theories deal with causation and action. The two theories have a common point of origin in the infant's experience of producing actions, but thereafter diverge, both in content and in realm of application. Once established, the core theories of causation and action never change, but form a permanent metaphysical underpinning on which subsequent developments in the understanding of how things happen are erected. The story of development is therefore largely the story of how further concepts become attached to integrated with the core theories. Although the developmental and adult literatures on causal understanding appear at first glance to have little in common, in fact this appearance is illusory, and the idea of two theories helps to bring the two literatures in contact with each other.; The book begins with a survey of the main philosophical ideas about causation and action. Following this, the possible origins of understanding in infancy are reviewed, and separate chapters then deal with the development of understanding of action and causation through childhood. This is then linked to the adult understanding of action and causation, and the literature on adult causal attribution and causal judgement is reviewed from this perspective.

How Science Works

How Science Works
Author: Stephen H. Jenkins
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2004-04-01
ISBN: 9780198036043
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

How Science Works Book Excerpt:

One week, red wine is good for the heart. The next week, new reports say it's bad for the health. So which is true? Anyone who's ever read science news with fascination, or who's ever been confounded by conflicting stories will appreciate this book. Taking a look at some true to life contemporary news stories, the author assesses recent studies on topics ranging from vitamin C and caffeine to pollution and cancer. With straight talk and a passion for the whole project of science, he demysifies the cult of the expert and sheds light on the nitty-gritty details of scientific processes. Any scientist loves a challenge, but the biggest challenge of all, observes Jenkins, is shared by scientists and nonscientitsts alike: how to make practical decisions in light of ambiguous evidence. Promising no simple answers, this book does offer excellent food for thought for people pondering that next glass of wine.