Description : The growth of international law in the post-World War II era stemmed partly from the belief that universal norms would make life for the entire world's population safer, more equitable, and more conducive to each person's acquisition of basic material needs. Starting in the sixties and seventies, some scholars and activists challenged this assumption and established the school of "cultural relativism," a model that pays deference to local cultural traditions and favors them over international human rights norms. Scholars tried to create and practice a middle-ground approach between universalism and relativism, whereby the most egregious violations would be prevented through assimilating only jus cogens norms into indigenous groups' existing cultural traditions. Such efforts at combining a few select international norms with local cultural traditions largely failed. Culture in Law and Development presents a provocative new solution to the seemingly intractable problem of combining international norms with local cultural traditions by changing culture through law and development. In this book, Lan Cao demonstrates how the gradual expansion of customary international law (CIL) provides a model for changing culture in ways that protect and advance local populations. The book adopts a holistic view of development and argues that cultural norms that impede the human capabilities of the poor, women, and other marginal groups should be changed. The book reveals how a more conscious, coordinated effort on such change can succeed while non-violative local traditions are otherwise honored and preserved. Cao proposes that cultural change does not have to constitute cultural disrespect, and that local societies only benefit by a careful combination of externally wrought change and internally fostered tradition.
Description : During the 1980s and 1990s Asian 'developmental states' attracted much attention in political science and economics literature, but the role of law in the economic development was neglected. It was only after the Asian crisis of 1997 that many analysts began to focus on a lack of regulation and transparency as a major factor triggering the crisis. The crucial questions now are how successful the current reforms will be, and which features of the Asian approach to commercial law will be resistant to reform pressures. This book examines the prospects for commercial law reform in Asia, giving particular attention to Japan and Singapore, as frequently cited role models for Asian developmentalism, and also examining development related business laws in countries such as China, Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and the Philippines.
Description : Rule of Law Reform and Development stands out as an important contribution. Michael Trebilcock and Ronald Daniels have produced an ambitious, comprehensive, and persuasive book that will be of interest to both rule of law practitioners and academics. . . the book s overall strengths as a near-encyclopaedic appraisal of law and development will ensure its standing as a key resource for this still rapidly evolving field. Irina Ceric, Canadian Journal of Law and Society This book offers a sophisticated yet pragmatic account of the proper purposes of rule of law reform, the obstacles to achieving it, and the role that the international community can play. The procedural conception of the rule of law offers an appealing alternative to both one-size-fits-all universalism on the one hand and unconstrained relativism on the other. Kevin Davis, New York University School of Law, US This is the book that I have been waiting for. Even though rule of law has become the new mantra in development, its meaning remains elusive and its operational content unclear. This book helps us think systematically about it. Grounded in a procedural conceptualization of the rule of law, and supported by detailed case studies, Trebilcock and Daniels analysis lays out a theoretically sophisticated, yet practical agenda for making progress with rule-of-law reforms. Dani Rodrik, Harvard University, US This is a book on the role of legal institutions in economic development that is rich in institutional analysis and nuanced in terms of sensitivity to social, historical and political-economy issues that arise in the implementation of the rule of law. I particularly value its major focus on the need for balance between independence and accountability that afflict any rule of law reform: a balance which is missing in more one-sided accounts in the literature. I believe the book will be widely read and appreciated. Pranab Bardhan, University of California, Berkeley, US Within the law and development literature it is the most knowledgeable and comprehensive book on legal reform. I think that it will find a grateful readership among people working in development agencies, in humanitarian organizations and among scholars and students of development studies. Hans-Bernd Schäfer, University of Hamburg, Germany By identifying the key politico-economic reasons why rule-of-law reforms in developing countries have faltered and drawing out the implications for future strategy, this book is of immense importance and should be widely read. Anthony Ogus, CBE, FBA, University of Manchester, UK This important book addresses a number of key issues regarding the relationship between the rule of law and development. It presents a deep and insightful inquiry into the current orthodoxy that the rule of law is the panacea for the world s problems. The authors chart the precarious progress of law reforms both in overall terms and in specific policy areas such as the judiciary, the police, tax administration and access to justice, among others. They accept that the rule of law is necessarily tied to the success of development, although they propose a set of procedural values to enlighten this institutional approach. The authors also recognize that states face difficulties in implementing this institutional structures and identify the probable impediments, before proposing a rethink of law reform strategies and offering some conclusions about the role of the international community in the rule of law reform. Reviewing the progress in the rule of law reform in developing countries, specifically four regions Latin America, Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and Asia this book makes a significant contribution to the literature. It will be of great interest to scholars and advanced students, as well as practitioners in the field, including international and bilateral aid agencies working on rule of law reform projects, and international and regional non-governmental organiza
Description : Drawing on philosophers from Plato to Foucault and cultural anthropologists and historians such as Clifford Geertz and Perry Miller, Kahn outlines the conceptual tools necessary for such an inquiry. He analyzes the concepts of time, space, citizen, judge, sovereignty, and theory within the culture of law's rule and goes on to consider the methodological problems entailed in stripping the study of law of its reformist ambitions.
Description : In 1960, there were 101 middle-income countries. By 2008, only thirteen of these had become high-income countries. Why do so many middle-income countries fail to develop after a promising start, becoming mired in the so-called middle-income trap? This interdisciplinary volume addresses the special challenges that middle-income countries confront from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. It is the first volume that addresses law and development issues in middle-income countries from the perspective of political, administrative and legal institutions and policies. The goal is to provide international development agencies and domestic policy makers with feasible recommendations to address the wide range of technically, politically and socially complex issues that middle-income countries face.
Description : A myth exists that Jews can embrace the cultural components of Judaism without appreciating the legal aspects of the Jewish tradition. This myth suggests that law and culture are independent of one another. In reality, however, much of Jewish culture has a basis in Jewish law. Similarly, Jewish law produces Jewish culture. A cultural analysis paradigm provides a useful way of understanding the Jewish tradition as the product of both legal precepts and cultural elements. This paradigm sees law and culture as inextricably intertwined and historically specific. This perspective also emphasizes the human element of law's composition and the role of existing power dynamics in shaping Jewish law. In light of this inevitable intersection between culture and law, The Myth of the Cultural Jew: Culture and Law in Jewish Tradition argues that Jewish culture is shallow unless it is grounded in Jewish law. Roberta Rosenthal Kwall develops and applies a cultural analysis paradigm to the Jewish tradition that departs from the understanding of Jewish law solely as the embodiment of Divine command. Her paradigm explains why both law and culture must matter to those interested in forging meaningful Jewish identity and transmitting the tradition.
Description : As development policy moves away from considering the state as the primary driver of economic growth it is necessary to consider the institutional foundations of the market economy. It has been argued that without legal systems that allow for innovation and enterprise, all other attempts to improve economic growth are destined to fail.Law and Development offers an unparalleled assessment of the role of legal systems in development by extending the analytical framework of New Institutional Economics (NIE). Using empirical tests to critique Legal Origin Theory, and assess the role of culture in the formation of the legal environment, this book proposes that cultural factors are much more significant than allowed for by previous frameworks.This book will be invaluable for students of law and development, as well as academics researching the role of institutions. It provides a sound framework for considering legal reform and offers nuanced insights for policymakers interested in economic development.
Description : This book presents a distinctive approach to the study of law in society, focusing on the sociological interpretation of legal ideas. It surveys the development of connections between legal studies and social theory and locates its approach in relation to sociolegal studies on the one hand and legal philosophy on the other. It is suggested that the concept of law must be re-considered. Law has to be seen today not just as the law of the nation state, or international law that links nation states, but also as transnational law in many forms. A legal pluralist approach is not just a matter of redefining law in legal theory; it also recognizes that law's authority comes from a plurality of diverse, sometimes conflicting, social sources. The book suggests that the social environment in which law operates must also be rethought, with many implications for comparative legal studies. The nature and boundaries of culture become important problems, while the concept of multiculturalism points to the cultural diversity of populations and to problems of fragmentation, or perhaps to new kinds of unity of the social. Theories of globalization raise a host of issues about the integrity of societies and about the need to understand social networks and forces that extend beyond the political societies of nation states. Through a range of specific studies, closely interrelated and building on each other, the book seeks to integrate the sociology of law with other kinds of legal analysis and engages directly with current juristic debates in legal theory and comparative law.
Description : This book explores recent developments in the concept of hybridity through a multi-disciplinary perspective, bringing ideas about legal plurality together with the fields of peace, development and cultural studies. Analysing the concepts of hybridity and hybridization, their history, their application in law and legal studies, and their implications for thinking and rethinking legal plurality, the book shows how the concept of hybridity can contribute to an understanding of the processes that occur when different normative or legal orders or frameworks confront each other.