Cytokines and the Brain

Cytokines and the Brain
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2008-06-18
ISBN: 9780080559353
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines and the Brain Book Excerpt:

This book opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology providing substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. The volume is a collection of complex, new data drawn from multiple areas of investigation in the field. The contents summarize current understanding on the presence and function of CNS cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease. The chapters are a collection of complex, new data demonstrating the presence and synthesis of cytokines in brain cells, as well as their receptors on cell membranes in health and disease. The strength of the volume are the descriptions of the authors own investigations, together with those of others in the field pertaining to a large number of cytokines in brain function, as well as mechanisms involved in the development of CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Also included are novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data. The contributors to this volume are internationally known scientists and clinical researchers in their respective fields of investigation and treatment. *Opens a new page of neuro-immunobiology and provides substantive evidence for the promise of this field in the treatment of disease *Summarizes current understanding on the presence and function of central nervous system (CNS) cytokines and their receptors in a variety of CNS cells during health and disease *Includes novel approaches to the treatment of CNS disorders based on new experimental data *Offers new insight into triggers for the development of autoimmune diseases in the brain and the possibilities for treatment

Cytokines in the Brain

Cytokines in the Brain
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 5
Release: 2005
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines in the Brain Book Excerpt:

Cytokines and Pain

Cytokines and Pain
Author: L.R. Watkins,S.F. Maier
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2013-03-08
ISBN: 3034887493
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines and Pain Book Excerpt:

Within the past few years, it has become recognized that the immune system communicates to the brain. Substances released from activated immune cells (cytokines) stimulate peripheral nerves, thereby signaling the brain and spinal cord that infection/inflammation has occurred. Additionally, peripheral infection/inflammation leads to de novo synthesis and release of cytokines within the brain and spinal cord. Thus, cytokines effect neural activation both peripherally and centrally. Through this communication pathway, cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor markedly alter brain function, physiology and behavior. One important but underrecognized aspect of this communication is the dramatic impact that immune activation has on pain modulation. The purpose of this book is to examine, for the first time, immune-to-brain communication from the viewpoint of its effect on pain processing. It is aimed both at the basic scientist and health care providers, in order to clarify the major role that substances released by immune cells play in pain modulation. This book contains chapters contributed by all of the major laboratories focused on understanding how cytokines modulate pain. These chapters provide a unique vantage point from which to examine this question, as the summarized work ranges from evolutionary approaches across diverse species, to the basics of the immune response, to the effect of cytokines on peripheral and central nervous system sites, to therapeutic potential in humans.

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines
Author: Armen A. Galoyan
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 1441988939
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines Book Excerpt:

From the reviews: ""Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines is an excellent book, a veritable goldmine of information, at the cutting edge of neuroscience. It should stimulate ideas for future directions in neuroscience for years to come. This volume should be highly useful for medical libraries, neuroscientists, endocrinologists and graduate students in these fields."" (Arthur S. Brecher, TRENDS in Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 16 (6), 2005)

Cytokines and Mental Health

Cytokines and Mental Health
Author: Ziad Kronfol
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN: 146150323X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines and Mental Health Book Excerpt:

Cytokines and Mental Health explores the relationship between cytokines, neural circuitry and mental health. It is interdisciplinary and "translational", bringing together information that spans the spectrum from the molecular and cellular levels to the patient and the clinic. Content includes chapters that discuss cytokine pathways in the brain, the neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of cytokines, and the behavioral effects of cytokines including sickness behavior. These chapters in basic research are followed by a more clinical section that discusses the role of cytokines in neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The book offers different things to different people. It should be of great interest to neuroscientists and immunologists working in the field of psychoneuroimmunology. It would also greatly benefit mental health professionals including psychiatrists, psychologists and clinicians of diverse background who are interested in mind-body medicine.

Cytokines in the Brain

Cytokines in the Brain
Author: European meeting on glial cell function in health and disease. Satellite symposium
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 119
Release: 1996
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines in the Brain Book Excerpt:

Neurobiology of Cytokines

Neurobiology of Cytokines
Author: Errol B. DeSouza
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 295
Release: 2013-10-22
ISBN: 1483288315
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurobiology of Cytokines Book Excerpt:

Recent data suggest a critical role for cytokines in the regulation of brain and endocrine function under normal physiological conditions. The aim of this volume and its companion Volume 16 is to provide an overview of the effects of cytokines in the brain and in the endocrine system. Methods presented for easy adaptation to new systems Comprehensive protocols included for: The synthesis and release of cytokines; The study of their central nervous system actions; Studying the role of cytokines in human neuropathological conditions

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain
Author: Silvia Alboni,Laura Maggi
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 158
Release: 2016-03-18
ISBN: 2889197689
Category: Electronic book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain Book Excerpt:

It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the “healthy” brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely plastic structure, one of the main neurogenic niches in the adult brain, that exhibits a marked sensibility to environmental stimuli. Indeed exposure of mice to environmental enrichment (EE) modifies learning and memory abilities increasing neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity whether exposure to severe stressful experiences diminishes neurotrophic support, impairs neurogenesis, plasticity and cognition. In the hippocampus cytokines play a key role in mediating both positive as well as negative effects of the environment affecting neuronal plasticity also in stress related pathologies, such as depression. It has been reported that mice lacking type 1 receptor for IL-1 display impaired hippocampal memory and LTP that are restored by EE; moreover negative effects on neuronal plasticity (and thus behavior) induced by stress exposure can be prevented by blocking IL-1 activity. In addition, mice lacking IL-6 have improved cognitive functions whereas the absence of microglia-driven CX3CR1 signaling increases hippocampal plasticity and spatial memory occluding the potentiating effects of EE. However, the factors mediating the effect of environmental stimuli on behavior and plasticity has been only partially identified. Interestingly, it has been suggested that chemokines can play a key role in the flexibility of hippocampal structure and may modulate neuronal signaling during behavior. The question is how cytokines may translate environmental stimuli in plasticity and behavioral changes. This research topic is proposed to explore the role of cytokines, and more in particular chemokines, in the modulation of neuronal activity as a fundamental step for the correct brain wiring, function and susceptibility to environment. We encourage the submission of original research reports, review articles, commentaries, perspectives or short communications, in the following (but not limited to) topics: - Role of cytokines and chemokines in neuronal plasticity - Immune molecules and responsiveness to environment - Role of chemokine in the flexibility of hippocampal structure

Cytokines

Cytokines
Author: Robert E. Faith,Anthony J. Murgo,Robert A. Good,Nicholas P. Plotnikoff
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 405
Release: 2006-10-10
ISBN: 1420003801
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines Book Excerpt:

Cytokine involvement in the immune system's response to stress is now very well documented. Cytokine activity has been implicated in a variety of mental and physical diseases, and has been shown to have a significant role in fueling the vicious circle of depression and illness. The first edition of Cytokines: Stress and Immunity pointed out

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation and Inflammatory Neurodegeneration in Acute Brain Injury

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation and Inflammatory Neurodegeneration in Acute Brain Injury
Author: Arthur Liesz,Christoph Kleinschnitz
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2015-11-13
ISBN: 2889196917
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation and Inflammatory Neurodegeneration in Acute Brain Injury Book Excerpt:

Mechanisms of brain-immune interactions became a cutting-edge topic in systemic neurosciences over the past years. Acute lesions of the brain parenchyma, particularly, induce a profound and highly complex neuroinflammatory reaction with similar mechanistic properties between differing disease paradigms like ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Resident microglial cells sense tissue damage and initiate inflammation, activation of the endothelial brain-immune interface promotes recruitment of systemic immune cells to the brain and systemic humoral immune mediators (e.g. complements and cytokines) enter the brain through the damaged blood-brain barrier. These cellular and humoral constituents of the neuroinflammatory reaction to brain injury contribute substantially to secondary brain damage and neurodegeneration. Diverse inflammatory cascades such as pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of invading leukocytes and direct cell-cell-contact cytotoxicity between lymphocytes and neurons have been demonstrated to mediate the inflammatory ‘collateral damage’ in models of acute brain injury. Besides mediating neuronal cell loss and degeneration, secondary inflammatory mechanisms also contribute to functional modulation of neurons and the impact of post-lesional neuroinflammation can even be detected on the behavioral level. The contribution of several specific immune cell subpopulations to the complex orchestration of secondary neuroinflammation has been revealed just recently. However, the differential vulnerability of specific neuronal cell types and the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory neurodegeneration are still elusive. Furthermore, we are only on the verge of characterizing the control of long-term recovery and neuronal plasticity after brain damage by inflammatory pathways. Yet, a more detailed but also comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted interaction of these two supersystems is of direct translational relevance. Immunotherapeutic strategies currently shift to the center of translational research in acute CNS lesion since all clinical trials investigating direct neuroprotective therapies failed. To advance our knowledge on brain-immune communications after brain damage an interdisciplinary approach covered by cellular neuroscience as well as neuroimmunology, brain imaging and behavioral sciences is crucial to thoroughly depict the intricate mechanisms.

Special Issue Cytokines CRF and the Brain

Special Issue  Cytokines  CRF  and the Brain
Author: F. J. H. Tilders,Seymour Levine
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 114
Release: 1994
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Special Issue Cytokines CRF and the Brain Book Excerpt:

Periodicum Biologorum

Periodicum Biologorum
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2006
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Biology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Periodicum Biologorum Book Excerpt:

Cytokines in the Nervous System

Cytokines in the Nervous System
Author: Nancy J. Rothwell
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 207
Release: 2013-03-09
ISBN: 1461596955
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines in the Nervous System Book Excerpt:

Cytokines and the CNS

Cytokines and the CNS
Author: Richard M. Ransohoff,Etty N. Benveniste
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2005-10-31
ISBN: 1420039849
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines and the CNS Book Excerpt:

Provides Insight into How Cytokine Action Impacts the Physiology and Pathology of the CNS. As with the first edition of Cytokines and the CNS, this completely updated and revised edition introduces neurobiologists to cytokine biology and immunologists to the unique functions of cytokines in CNS physiology. The dramatically accelerating interest in cytokines and cytokine/chemokine signaling over the past several years has encouraged an explosion of literature on cytokines. The similarity between factors involved in inflammation or immunity, and those implicated in neural development, physiology, and repair has become so apparent that familiarity with cytokines must now be considered an essential element in the neurobiologist’s cognitive tool-kit. Conversely, for immunobiologists, the concepts elaborated by neurobiologists to understand developmental patterning and networked organ function continue to evolve in such a way that comprehension of cytokine action in the CNS can only enhance a further understanding of immune system function. Cytokines and the CNS, Second Edition is patterned after the first edition; however, the wealth of knowledge now available adds a tremendous amount of insight and new implications. To guarantee a fresh perspective, the editors made a conscious choice to utilize an entirely new set of contributors, all experts in various aspects of cytokine research. Cytokines and the CNS, Second Edition starts with a chapter on the CNS, focusing on pathological reactions to insult. Next, come three chapters on cytokine biology, followed by four chapters that integrate cytokine biology into basic CNS processes (development; inflammation; immunity; degeneration/repair), after which five chapters apply this body of knowledge to disease or pathology. The book closes with a look at the application of cytokine biology to the treatment of disease, a brand new area of research.

The Immune System and the Developing Brain

The Immune System and the Developing Brain
Author: Jaclyn M. Schwarz,Staci D. Bilbo
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Total Pages: 118
Release: 2011-10
ISBN: 1615043519
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Immune System and the Developing Brain Book Excerpt:

The developing brain is exquisitely sensitive to both endogenous and exogenous signals which direct or significantly alter the developmental trajectory of cells, neural circuits, and associated behavioral outcomes for the life of the individual. Contrary to initial dogma that the brain is one of the few organs within the body that is immune-privileged, evidence indicates that the immune system has a critical role in brain function during development as well as during sickness and health in adulthood. Microglia are the primary immune cells within the brain, and they are in constant communication with the peripheral immune system and surrounding cell types within the brain. We describe the important role of the immune system, including microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition. Growing evidence indicates that there is a strong link between many neuropsychiatric disorders and immune dysfunction, with a distinct etiology in neurodevelopment. Thus, understanding the role of the immune system and immune activation during the critical period of brain development is a necessary step toward understanding the potential origins of these devastating disorders. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Immune Response / Brain-Immune Communication / Microglia Are Immune Cells of the Brain / The Functional Role of Microglia and Immune Molecules in Neurodevelopment / Early-Life Programming of Brain and Behavior: A Critical Role for the Immune System / Commonly Used Models of Early Life Immune Activation in the Rodent / Early Life Immune Activation and Cognitive Impairment in Adulthood / Mechanisms Underlying the Enduring Changes in Neuroimmune Function Caused by Early Life Infection / Toll-Like Receptors and Immune Activation During Early Brain Development / Environmental Triggers of TLR Activation: Long-Term Programming of Brain and Behavior / Future Directions to Understanding Immune Function and Brain Development / References

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines
Author: Armen A Galoyan
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2004-04-30
ISBN: 9781441988942
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines Book Excerpt:

The Regulation of Brain Pro inflammatory Cytokines

The Regulation of Brain Pro inflammatory Cytokines
Author: David French Barnard
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 173
Release: 2020
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Cytokines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Regulation of Brain Pro inflammatory Cytokines Book Excerpt:

The dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a result of stress exposure has become widely implicated in the complex etiology of depression. Patients with depression have been shown to have elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines both in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid. During times of stress pro-inflammatory cytokines are primarily regulated by glucocorticoids and catecholamines that work in opposition to one another to inhibit (glucocorticoid receptor) or stimulate (beta-adrenergic receptor) pro-inflammatory cytokine production. While chronic stress can lead to heightened levels of both glucocorticoids and catecholamines, it is not known how the dysregulation of these systems affect the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This dissertation focused its work through three aims. Aim 1 explored norepinephrine's regulation of microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines. Aim 2 examined sex differences in the regulation of brain IL-1 beta by glucocorticoids and catecholamines following chronic stress. Finally, aim 3 sought to uncover glucocorticoids effect on norepinephrine turnover. Together, these aims help to better understand how chronic stress alters the regulation of brain pro-inflammatory cytokines with implications for depression.

Neurobiology of Cytokines

Neurobiology of Cytokines
Author: Errol B. De Souza
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 376
Release: 1993
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Cytokines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurobiology of Cytokines Book Excerpt:

Cytokines Stress and Depression

Cytokines  Stress  and Depression
Author: Robert Dantzer,Emmanuelle E. Wollmann,Raz Yirmiya
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2007-11-23
ISBN: 058537970X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cytokines Stress and Depression Book Excerpt:

Cytokines had been characterized in the early eighties as communication mole cules between immune cells, and between immunocytes and other peripheral cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. They play a key role in the regulation of the immune response and the coordination of the host response to infection. Based on these biological properties, nobody would have predicted that one decade later cytokines would burst upon neurosciences and permeate into several avenues of current research. In neurology, the connection between cytokines and inflammation, and the demonstration of a pivotal role of some of these molecules in cell death by apoptosis, prompted the investigation of their involvement in several neurological diseases involving an inflammatory component, including multiple sclerosis, brain trauma, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. This movement started in the late eighties, and the corresponding field of research, known as neuroimmunology, is presently booming. In psychiatry, however, the relationship between cytokines and mental disorders was much less evident and took longer to materialize. The first indication that cytokines might be involved in psychopathology came from cancerology and internal medicine.

FIV induced Cytokine Changes in Brain and Thymus

FIV induced Cytokine Changes in Brain and Thymus
Author: Ying-hua Liang
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 204
Release: 1998
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Cytokines
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

FIV induced Cytokine Changes in Brain and Thymus Book Excerpt: