Description : China is home to half of the world's large dams and adds dozens more each year. The benefits are considerable: dams deliver hydropower, provide reliable irrigation water, protect people and farmland against flooding, and produce hydroelectricity in a nation with a seeimingly insatiable appetite for energy. As hydropower responds to a larger share of energy demand, dams may also help to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, welcome news in a country where air and water pollution have become dire and greenhouse gas emissions are the highest in the world. Yet the advantages of dams come at a high cost for river ecosystems and for the social and economic well-being of local people, who face displacement and farmland loss. This book examines the array of water-management decisions faced by Chinese leaders and their consequences for local communities. Focusing on the southwestern province of Yunnan—a major hub for hydropower development in China—which encompasses one of the world's most biodiverse temperate ecosystems and one of China's most ethnically and culturally rich regions, Bryan Tilt takes the reader from the halls of decision-making power in Beijing to Yunnan's rural villages. In the process, he examines the contrasting values of government agencies, hydropower corporations, NGOs, and local communities and explores how these values are linked to longstanding cultural norms about what is right, proper, and just. He also considers the various strategies these groups use to influence water-resource policy, including advocacy, petitioning, and public protest. Drawing on a decade of research, he offers his insights on whether the world's most populous nation will adopt greater transparency, increased scientific collaboration, and broader public participation as it continues to grow economically.
Author by : United Nations Environment Programme. Division of Environmental Policy Implementation. Dams and Development Project
Languange : en
Publisher by : UNEP/Earthprint
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : This is a compilation of relevant practices of dealing with environmental and social issues during the planning, design and management of dams. The Compendium covers 9 topics selected by the multistakeholder Dams and Development Forum. It discusses the state of the art regarding dealing with the topics around the world. It shows how they are captured by regulatory frameworks and provides a number of examples illustrating how they have been implemented on the ground.--Publisher's description.
Description : By the year 2000, the world had built more than 45,000 large dams to irrigate crops, generate power, control floods in wet times and store water in dry times. Yet, in the last century, large dams also disrupted the ecology of half the world's rivers, displaced tens of millions of people from their homes and left nations burdened with debt. Their impacts have inevitably generated growing controversy and conflicts. Resolving their role in meeting water and energy needs is vital for the future and illustrates the complex development challenges that face our societies. The Report of the World Commission on Dams: - is the product of an unprecedented global public policy effort to bring governments, the private sector and civil society together in one process - provides the first comprehensive global and independent review of the performance and impacts of dams - presents a new framework for water and energy resources development - develops an agenda of seven strategic priorities with corresponding criteria and guidelines for future decision-making. Challenging our assumptions, the Commission sets before us the hard, rigorous and clear-eyed evidence of exactly why nations decide to build dams and how dams can affect human, plant and animal life, for better or for worse. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making is vital reading on the future of dams as well as the changing development context where new voices, choices and options leave little room for a business-as-usual scenario.
Description : Big dams built for irrigation, power, water supply, and other purposes were among the most potent symbols of economic development for much of the twentieth century. Of late they have become a lightning rod for challenges to this vision of development as something planned by elites with scant regard for environmental and social consequences?especially for the populations that are displaced as their homelands are flooded. In this book, Sanjeev Khagram traces changes in our ideas of what constitutes appropriate development through the shifting transnational dynamics of big dam construction. Khagram tells the story of a growing, but contentious, world society that features novel and increasingly efficacious norms of appropriate behavior in such areas as human rights and environmental protection. The transnational coalitions and networks led by nongovernmental groups that espouse such norms may seem weak in comparison with states, corporations, and such international agencies as the World Bank. Yet they became progressively more effective at altering the policies and practices of these historically more powerful actors and organizations from the 1970s on. Khagram develops these claims in a detailed ethnographic account of the transnational struggles around the Narmada River Valley Dam Projects in central India, a huge complex of thirty large and more than three thousand small dams. He offers further substantiation through a comparative historical analysis of the political economy of big dam projects in India, Brazil, South Africa, and China as well as by examining the changing behavior of international agencies and global companies. The author concludes with a discussion of the World Commission on Dams, an innovative attempt in the late 1990s to generate new norms among conflicting stakeholders.
Description : Past studies on the Chinese state point towards the inherent adaptability, effectiveness and overall stability of authoritarian rule in China. The key question addressed here is how this adaptive capacity plays out at the local level in China, clarifying the extent to which local state actors are able to shape local processes of policy implementation. This book studies the evolution of dam-induced resettlement policy in China, based on extensive fieldwork conducted in Yunnan province. It shows that local governments at the lowest administrative levels are caught in a double bind, facing strong top-down pressures in the important policy field of hydropower development, while simultaneously having to handle growing social pressure from local communities affected by resettlement policies. In doing so, the book questions the widespread assumption that the observed longevity and resilience of China’s authoritarian regime is to a large extent due to the high degree of flexibility that has been granted to local governments in the course of the reform period. The research extends beyond previous analyses of policy implementation by focusing on the state, on society and the ways in which they interact, as well as by examining what happens when policy implementation is interrupted. Analysing the application of resettlement policies in contemporary China, with a focus on the multiple constraints that Chinese local states face, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of Political Science, Chinese Studies and Sociology.
Description : Foreword / by Michael Cernea -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction / Florence Padovani -- Development project-induced migration : a state mission -- Migration and development strategies in post-1949 China / Kam Wing Chan -- A gaze without a gaze : state, development, and the internally displaced persons in contemporary India / Samir Kumar Das -- The organization of the political and administrative structures dealing with migrants -- An analysis of policies on the migration of rural labor / Hongyuan Song and Guangming Liu -- Internal migration in India : dealing with the political and administrative organization / S. Irudaya Rajan, Vijay Korra, and Rikil Chyrmang -- Mumbay and Shanghai : two cities developing at high speed: analysis of the social impact -- "Shanghai speed" : the development system and urban dwellers' experiences / Yingfang Chen -- Shanghaiing Mumbai : resettlement programs and social cost of urban development policies / Marie-Caroline Saglio-Yatzimirsky -- The gosikhurd and three gorges dams : the social cost of energy -- State science and resettlement knowledge : the Gosikhurd dam in Vidarbha / Joël Cabalion -- Analysis of the social implications of the three gorges dam project / Florence Padovani -- In China : analysis of the interest expression mechanisms amongst Chinese dam resettlees : an account of the first case linked to the three gorges resettlement / Xing Ying -- About the contributors
Description : Written by leading authorities from Australasia, Europe and North America, this book examines the dynamic conflicts and synergies between nature conservation and human development in contemporary Cambodia. After suffering conflict and stagnation in the late twentieth century, Cambodia has experienced an economic transformation in the last decade, with growth averaging almost ten per cent per year, partly through investment from China. However this rush for development has been coupled with tremendous social and environmental change which, although positive in some aspects, has led to rising inequality and profound shifts in the condition, ownership and management of natural resources. High deforestation rates, declining fish stocks, biodiversity loss, and alienation of indigenous and rural people from their land and traditional livelihoods are now matters of increasing local and international concern. The book explores the social and political dimensions of these environmental changes in Cambodia, and of efforts to intervene in and ‘improve’ current trajectories for conservation and development. It provides a compelling analysis of the connections between nature, state and society, pointing to the key role of grassroots and non-state actors in shaping Cambodia’s frontiers of change. These insights will be of great interest to scholars of Southeast Asia and environment-development issues in general.
Description : The development of water resources is a key element in the socio-economic development of many regions in the world. Water availability and rainfall are unequally distributed both in space and time, so dams play a vital role, there being few viable alternatives for storing water. Dams hold a prime place in satisfying the ever-increasing demand for power, irrigation and drinking water, for protection of man, property and environment from catastrophic floods, and for regulating the flow of rivers. Dams have contributed to the development of civilization for over 2,000 years. Worldwide there are some 45,000 large dams listed by ICOLD, which have a height over 15 meters. Today, in western countries, where most of the water resources have been developed, the safety of the existing dams and measures for extending their economical life are of prime concern. In developing countries the focus is on the construction of new dams. The proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Dam Engineering includes contributions from 18 countries, and provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in hydropower development, new type dams, new materials and new technologies, dam and environment. Traditional areas, such as concrete dams and embankment dams, methods of analysis and design of dams, dam foundation, seismic analysis, design and safety, stability of dam and slope, dam safety monitoring and instrumentation, dam maintenance, and rehabilitation and heightening are also considered. The book is of special interest to scientists, researchers, engineers, and students working in dam engineering, dam design, hydropower development, environmental engineering, and structural hydraulics.