Digital Audio Editing

Author by : Simon Langford
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 878
File Size : 41,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Whether you’re comping a vocal track, restoring an old recording, working with dialogue or sound effects for film, or imposing your own vision with mash-ups or remixes, audio editing is a key skill to successful sound production. Digital Audio Editing gives you the techniques, from the simplest corrective editing like cutting, copying, and pasting to more complex creative editing, such as beat mapping and time-stretching. You’ll be able to avoid unnatural-sounding pitch correction and understand the potential pitfalls you face when restoring classic tracks. Author Simon Langford invites you to see editing with his wide-angle view, putting this skill into a broad context that will inform your choices even as you more skillfully manipulate sound. Focusing on techniques applicable to any digital audio workstation, it includes break-outs giving specific keystrokes and instruction in Avid’s Pro Tools, Apple’s Logic Pro, Steinberg’s Cubase, and PreSonus’s Studio One. The companion websites includes tutorials in all four software packages to help you immediately apply the broad skills from the book.


Digital Audio Editing Fundamentals

Author by : Wallace Jackson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Apress
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
Total Download : 110
File Size : 55,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This concise book builds upon the foundational concepts of MIDI, synthesis, and sampled waveforms. It also covers key factors regarding the data footprint optimization work process, streaming versus captive digital audio new media assets, digital audio programming and publishing platforms, and why data footprint optimization is important for modern day new media content development and distribution. Digital Audio Editing Fundamentals is a new media mini-book covering concepts central to digital audio editing using the Audacity open source software package which also apply to all of the professional audio editing packages. The book gets more advanced as chapters progress, and covers key concepts for new media producers such as how to maximize audio quality and which digital audio new media formats are best for use with Kindle, Android Studio, Java, JavaFX, iOS, Blackberry, Tizen, Firefox OS, Chrome OS, Opera OS, Ubuntu Touch and HTML5. You will learn: Industry terminology involved in digital audio editing, synthesis, sampling, analysis and processing The work process which comprises a fundamental digital audio editing, analysis, and effects pipeline The foundational audio waveform sampling concepts that are behind modern digital audio publishing How to install, and utilize, the professional, open source Audacity digital audio editing software Concepts behind digital audio sample resolution and sampling frequency and how to select settings How to select the best digital audio data codec and format for your digital audio content application How to go about data footprint optimization, to ascertain which audio formats give the best results Using digital audio assets in computer programming languages and content publishing platforms


Digital Audio Editing

Author by : D. G. Kirby
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 648
File Size : 51,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Digital Audio Editing A Complete Guide 2020 Edition

Author by : Gerardus Blokdyk
Languange : en
Publisher by : 5starcooks
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 97
Total Download : 352
File Size : 45,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Who defines (or who defined) the rules and roles? How can you reduce the costs of obtaining inputs? Who else should you help? Who is the main stakeholder, with ultimate responsibility for driving Digital audio editing forward? Who will be responsible for documenting the Digital audio editing requirements in detail? Defining, designing, creating, and implementing a process to solve a challenge or meet an objective is the most valuable role... In EVERY group, company, organization and department. Unless you are talking a one-time, single-use project, there should be a process. Whether that process is managed and implemented by humans, AI, or a combination of the two, it needs to be designed by someone with a complex enough perspective to ask the right questions. Someone capable of asking the right questions and step back and say, 'What are we really trying to accomplish here? And is there a different way to look at it?' This Self-Assessment empowers people to do just that - whether their title is entrepreneur, manager, consultant, (Vice-)President, CxO etc... - they are the people who rule the future. They are the person who asks the right questions to make Digital Audio Editing investments work better. This Digital Audio Editing All-Inclusive Self-Assessment enables You to be that person. All the tools you need to an in-depth Digital Audio Editing Self-Assessment. Featuring 953 new and updated case-based questions, organized into seven core areas of process design, this Self-Assessment will help you identify areas in which Digital Audio Editing improvements can be made. In using the questions you will be better able to: - diagnose Digital Audio Editing projects, initiatives, organizations, businesses and processes using accepted diagnostic standards and practices - implement evidence-based best practice strategies aligned with overall goals - integrate recent advances in Digital Audio Editing and process design strategies into practice according to best practice guidelines Using a Self-Assessment tool known as the Digital Audio Editing Scorecard, you will develop a clear picture of which Digital Audio Editing areas need attention. Your purchase includes access details to the Digital Audio Editing self-assessment dashboard download which gives you your dynamically prioritized projects-ready tool and shows your organization exactly what to do next. You will receive the following contents with New and Updated specific criteria: - The latest quick edition of the book in PDF - The latest complete edition of the book in PDF, which criteria correspond to the criteria in... - The Self-Assessment Excel Dashboard - Example pre-filled Self-Assessment Excel Dashboard to get familiar with results generation - In-depth and specific Digital Audio Editing Checklists - Project management checklists and templates to assist with implementation INCLUDES LIFETIME SELF ASSESSMENT UPDATES Every self assessment comes with Lifetime Updates and Lifetime Free Updated Books. Lifetime Updates is an industry-first feature which allows you to receive verified self assessment updates, ensuring you always have the most accurate information at your fingertips.


Digital Audio Editing

Author by : G. W. McNally
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
Total Download : 424
File Size : 40,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Pc Audio Editing

Author by : Roger Derry
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 515
File Size : 54,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : PC Audio Editing is an essential guide for anyone wishing to make audio production for issue as recordings, or for broadcast, using a Windows PC and material acquired both in the studio and via portable equipment. Even those who are experienced with editing and mixing using quarter inch tape can find the change to editing audio visually on a PC daunting. The author explains all the basic principles of this new technology and the skills you need to use it successfully, without assuming prior knowledge of the system, in a practical and straightforward manner. The accompanying free CD-ROM is supplied by Syntrillium Software Corporation. It contains a demo and tutorials of Cool Edit Pro, the leading PC audio editing program.


Digital Audio Editing

Author by : Simon Langford
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
Total Download : 798
File Size : 41,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Whether you’re comping a vocal track, restoring an old recording, working with dialogue or sound effects for film, or imposing your own vision with mash-ups or remixes, audio editing is a key skill to successful sound production. Digital Audio Editing gives you the techniques, from the simplest corrective editing like cutting, copying, and pasting to more complex creative editing, such as beat mapping and time-stretching. You’ll be able to avoid unnatural-sounding pitch correction and understand the potential pitfalls you face when restoring classic tracks. Author Simon Langford invites you to see editing with his wide-angle view, putting this skill into a broad context that will inform your choices even as you more skillfully manipulate sound. Focusing on techniques applicable to any digital audio workstation, it includes break-outs giving specific keystrokes and instruction in Avid’s Pro Tools, Apple’s Logic Pro, Steinberg’s Cubase, and PreSonus’s Studio One. The companion websites includes tutorials in all four software packages to help you immediately apply the broad skills from the book.


Digital Audio Essentials

Author by : Bruce Fries
Languange : en
Publisher by : "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
Total Download : 956
File Size : 42,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : A guide to digital audio covers such topics as downloading and sharing music, Internet radio services, MP3 players, MPEG audio, ripping, digitizing records and tapes, and burning CDs.


Sound Forge 4 5

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 999
File Size : 46,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Pc Audio Editing

Author by : Roger Derry
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 494
File Size : 49,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : PC Audio Editing is an essential guide for anyone wishing to make audio productions for use as recordings, or for broadcast, using a Windows PC and material acquired both in the studio and via portable equipment. Even those experienced with editing and mixing using quarter inch tape can find the change to editing audio visually on a PC daunting. The author explains all the basic principles of this new technology and the skills you need to use it successfully, without assuming prior knowledge of the system, in a practical and straightforward manner. This second edition introduces the reader to the new advances in the latest version of Cool Edit Pro, 2.0. The programme has been packed full of features from CD burning to MP3 streaming, all of which are covered in this juicy reference. The accompanying free CD-ROM is supplied by Syntrillium Software Corporation. It contains demos and tutorials of the latest version showing off all the new features and the new flashy software design.


Digital Audio Essentials

Author by : Bruce Fries
Languange : en
Publisher by : "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 398
File Size : 44,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Join the digital audio revolution! Tens of millions of users are embracing digital music, and with Digital Audio Essentials, you can, too. Nearly every personal computer built in the last few years contains a CD-burning drive; MP3 and other portable player sales dominate the consumer electronics industry; and new networkable stereo equipment lets you use your digital music collection to power your home entertainment system.Whether it's downloading music, ripping CDs, organizing, finding, and creating higher quality music files, buying music players and accessories, or constructing a home stereo system, Digital Audio Essentials helps you do get it done.An indispensable reference for music enthusiasts, digital archivists, amateur musicians, and anyone who likes a good groove, Digital Audio Essentials helps you avoid time-consuming, costly trial and error in downloading audio files, burning CDs, converting analog music to digital form, publishing music to and streaming from the Web, setting up home stereo configurations, and creating your own MP3 and other audio files. The book--for both Mac and PC users--includes reliable hardware and software recommendations, tutorials, resources, and file sharing, and it even explains the basics of the DMCA and intellectual property law.You may (or may not) already know the basics of ripping CDs or downloading music, but Fries will show you so much more--including advice on the multitude of MP3 players on the market, stereo options, file formats, quality determinations, and the legalities of it all. Both a timely, entertaining guide and an enduring reference, this is the digital audio handbook you need to make the most of your expanding digital music collection.


Sound Forge Xp 4 5

Author by : Sonic Foundry (Firm)
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
Total Download : 402
File Size : 48,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Pc Audio Editing With Adobe Audition 2 0

Author by : Roger Derry
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 533
File Size : 44,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Get up to speed quickly and gain the working knowledge you need with this clear, practical guide to Adobe®'s AuditionT 2.0. With Roger Derry's expert advice, you'll master Audition's basic tools and tricks as well as discovering it's more advanced editing, multitrack and processing tools. The accompanying CD-ROM contains a demo of AuditionT and a variety of audio clips (both speech and music) for you to practice your editing skills. Roger Derry is an audio consultant who also teaches courses on radio production, music technology and sound recording. He formerly worked as a technical operator, studio manager and producer for the BBC. Contents: Visual editing; Some technical bits; Transfer; Editing; Quarrying material; Structuring material; Multitrack; Post-production; Audio design; Reviewing material; Mastering; CD burning; Making programs: acquiring material and production; Archiving; Tweaks; Using the CD-ROM; Hardware and software requirements; Appendices (Clicks and clocks, MIDI, Time code; Adding RIAA to FFT filter);Glossary


Digital Audio Editing

Author by : G. W. McNally
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 857
File Size : 41,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Digital Audio Editing Book

Author by : Cliff Botten
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
Total Download : 974
File Size : 51,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The book shows you how to make powerful EDM music. The author shares with you: - Discover 12 of the most common blending bugs. - Learn to avoid making these mistakes and use them as effective blending strategies. - Learn how to apply blending strategies and get these enormous benefits.


Art Of Digital Audio

Author by : John Watkinson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
Total Download : 590
File Size : 55,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Described as "the most comprehensive book on digital audio to date", it is widely acclaimed as an industry "bible". Covering the very latest developments in digital audio technology, it provides an thorough introduction to the theory as well as acting as an authoritative and comprehensive professional reference source. Everything you need is here from the fundamental principles to the latest applications, written in an award-winning style with clear explanations from first principles. New material covered includes internet audio, PC audio technology, DVD, MPEG audio compression, digital audio broadcasting and audio networks. Whether you are in the field of audio engineering, sound recording, music technology, broadcasting and communications media or audio design and installation, this book has it all. Written by a leading international audio specialist, who conducts professional seminars and workshops around the world, the book has been road tested for many years by professional seminar attendees and students to ensure their needs are taken into account, and all the right information is covered. This new edition now includes: Internet audio PC Audio technology DVD MPEG Audio compression Digital Audio Broadcasting Audio networks Digital audio professionals will find everything they need here, from the fundamental principles to the latest applications, written in an award-winning style with clear explanations from first principles. John Watkinson is an international consultant in audio, video and data recording. He is a Fellow of the AES, a member of the British Computer Society and a chartered information systems practitioner. He presents lectures, seminars, conference papers and training courses worldwide. He is the author of many other Focal Press books, including: the Kraszna-Krausz award winning MPEG-2; The Art of Digital Audio; An Introduction to Digital Video; The Art of Sound Reproduction; An Introduction to Digital Audio; TV Fundamentals and Audio for Television. He is also co-author, with Francis Rumsey, of The Digital Interface Handbook, and contributor to the Loudspeaker and Headphone Handbook, 3rd edition.


Fundamentals Of Digital Audio New Edition

Author by : Alan P. Kefauver
Languange : en
Publisher by : A-R Editions, Inc.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 805
File Size : 53,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : In Fundamentals of Digital Audio, Alan P.Kafauver and David Patschke present a systematic overview of the elements for digital recording and reproducing sound. With Ideas grounded in the principles of acoustics, the authors exptore the essential issues involved in preserving, transferring, and modifying sound recordings in the digital domain. In addition to references on historic methods of sound reproduction, this book includes detailed information about the latest digital audio technology. Of special interest is the coverage of storage media and compression technologies. The authors detail a comprehensive introduction and evolution of data storage and media standards, including CD/DVD/Blu-ray/HD DVD, as well as fully (but plainly) detailing associated digital audio compression algorithms. They catalog in detail the processes involved in digitally editing recorded sound, presenting a step-by-step editing and mastering session. Fundamentals of Digital Audio is an essential textbook for anyone who wants to better understand or work with recorded sound using today's digital equipment. The book contains many diagrams and illustrations through which the authors share their expertise with the reader, Among the few books that treats this subject both comprehensively and understandably, the new edition of Fundamentals of Digital Audio should continue to be an indispensable text in this area.


Pc Audio Editing

Author by : Roger Derry
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 559
File Size : 41,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Derry provides details of PC audio editing to give readers a complete understanding of what is involved in audio productions. This edition features new advances in Cool Edit Pro, including MP3 and audio for the Web, real-time effects and CD burning.


Audio Production Worktext

Author by : Samuel J. Sauls
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 831
File Size : 49,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This is an excellent introduction to the modern radio production studio, the equipment found in that studio, and the basic techniques needed to accomplish radio production work. The new edition is updated throughout and features new sections on mobile technology, audio editing apps and software, and digital editing, as well as updated graphics and expanded content on portable digital audio players. Features a worktext/website format tailored for both students and teachers, offering a solid foundation for anyone who wishes to know more about radio/audio equipment and production techniques.


Instant Digital Audio

Author by : Douglas Spotted Eagle
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 161
File Size : 42,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The rapid drop in costs of digital audio recording and production tools has led to widespread adoption by "non-audio" people. Multimedia producers, including videographers and graphic designers producing for the Web and other media, need to learn the many details of producing digital audio. Hot topics include selecting and using recording hardware including microphones, headphones, and monitors; how to use postproduction-editing software; and how to deliver the finished audio in an array of media/formats. Instant Digital Audio presents digital audio principals and techniques for the non-audio specialist. Videographers and multimedia producers who are new to audio learn how to select the hardware and software that they need and how to use it. Straightforward explanations supplemented with ample screenshots and technical data address recording and production topics including microphones and relevant applications, best practices in recording audio, and how to feed audio into the computer for editing. Postproduction topics include setting up a studio, acquisition and editing techniques, filtering, and restoration.


Learn Use Digital Audio Podcasting In Your Classroom

Author by : Cindy Carson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Teacher Created Materials
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 292
File Size : 51,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Integrate technology into four content areas (language arts, science, social studies, and math) by using Digital Audio & Podcasting in your classroom. This resource is correlated to the Common Core State Standards and supports core concepts of STEM instruction.


Multimedia And Virtual Reality Engineering

Author by : Richard Brice
Languange : en
Publisher by : Butterworth-Heinemann
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
Total Download : 227
File Size : 54,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This is the complete practical introduction to virtual reality and multimedia for those wishing to build systems. It covers the foundations and engineering needed to design and construct projects incorporating video, audio and textural elements and including the use of the latest hardware, to create an artificial world for education, information or entertainment. Production and authoring platforms are described, computer animation and hypertext are covered, but those looking for pages of software listings and computerspeak will be disappointed. This book is about the nuts and bolts: sound and video cards, head mounted displays, CrystalEyes glasses, other 3D glasses for entertainment, audio and video production, and realistic auditory and visual stimulation including stereoscopy. The creation of Cyberspace, and strategies to achieve a complete Cyberatmosphere are presented. Three-dimensional sound generation and video techniques that have never previously been published are revealed. This is the handbook for anyone working in the industry, or hoping to enter it. It also provides a guide for those hoping to 'cross-fertilise' the industry, coming from audio, video, computing or engineering backgrounds. A complete technical guide to MM and VR Includes a Hypertext edition of the book with added audio and graphics on CD Hardware, software, video and never before published 3D audio techniques covered


Pc Audio Editing With Adobe Audition 2 0

Author by : Roger Derry
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
Total Download : 961
File Size : 52,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Get up to speed quickly and gain the working knowledge you need with this clear, practical guide to Adobe®'s AuditionT 2.0. With Roger Derry's expert advice, you'll master Audition's basic tools and tricks as well as discovering it's more advanced editing, multitrack and processing tools. The accompanying CD-ROM contains a demo of AuditionT and a variety of audio clips (both speech and music) for you to practice your editing skills. Roger Derry is an audio consultant who also teaches courses on radio production, music technology and sound recording. He formerly worked as a technical operator, studio manager and producer for the BBC. Contents: Visual editing; Some technical bits; Transfer; Editing; Quarrying material; Structuring material; Multitrack; Post-production; Audio design; Reviewing material; Mastering; CD burning; Making programs: acquiring material and production; Archiving; Tweaks; Using the CD-ROM; Hardware and software requirements; Appendices (Clicks and clocks, MIDI, Time code; Adding RIAA to FFT filter);Glossary


Computers Simplified

Author by : Paul McFedries
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
Total Download : 315
File Size : 53,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : An introduction to personal computers covers hardware, input, output, processing, storage, multimedia, portable computers, operating systems, application software, and networks.


Audio Production Worktext

Author by : David E. Reese
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
Total Download : 418
File Size : 44,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This classic in the field has been revised with a focus on the impact that media convergence has had on the radio production process and industry. Includes a CD with project material, quizzes, and demonstrations of key audio techniques and concepts.


Audio Production And Critical Listening

Author by : Jason Corey
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 613
File Size : 41,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Audio Production and Critical Listening: Technical Ear Training, Second Edition develops your critical and expert listening skills, enabling you to listen to audio like an award-winning engineer. Featuring an accessible writing style, this new edition includes information on objective measurements of sound, technical descriptions of signal processing, and their relationships to subjective impressions of sound. It also includes information on hearing conservation, ear plugs, and listening levels, as well as bias in the listening process. The interactive web browser-based "ear training" software practice modules provide experience identifying various types of signal processes and manipulations. Working alongside the clear and detailed explanations in the book, this software completes the learning package that will help you train you ears to listen and really "hear" your recordings. This all-new edition has been updated to include: Audio and psychoacoustic theories to inform and expand your critical listening practice. Access to integrated software that promotes listening skills development through audio examples found in actual recording and production work, listening exercises, and tests. Cutting-edge interactive practice modules created to increase your experience. More examples of sound recordings analysis. New outline for progressing through the EQ ear training software module with listening exercises and tips.


The Everything Guide To Digital Home Recording

Author by : Marc Schonbrun
Languange : en
Publisher by : Simon and Schuster
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 19
Total Download : 551
File Size : 41,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Leona Lewis, Lily Allen, and Colbie Caillat all became famous after their self-produced music was posted on the Internet. And now anyone who’s ever practiced in front of the mirror for hours wants to try it too. This guide shows aspiring musicians how to turn their computers into a music studio. Professional musician Marc Schonbrun leads you step-by-step through the basics of home recording, including: Tips on how to make—and stick to—a recording budget The best digital recording software Microphones, mixers, and electronic hardware Recording for individual instruments and virtual instruments Mixing, mastering, and advanced recording techniques For a fraction of the cost of recording, you can become their own engineers. You’ll learn to create tracks complete with digital effects, virtual instruments, and sound quality that rival professional studios. In no time, you’ll be ready for your time in the spotlight!


Radio Production Worktext

Author by : David E. Reese
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 534
File Size : 48,9 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Radio Production Worktext, 5ED is designed to provide an introduction ot the modern radio production studio, the equipment found in that studio, and basic techniques to accomplish radio production work. The text also emphasizes digital equipment but also includes information on the older analog equipment still used in radio. The worktext format combines information, Q&As, and projects, providing a complete resource for teaching and learning, either in a formal classroom setting or as a self-study guide for the individual. The companion CD-ROM provides project material and demonstrations of key concepts. Radio Production Worktext's clear and simple approach makes it a useful reference for the entry-level broadcaster. The new edition focuses on digital technologies but also covers the revelant analog technologies and their role, while continuing to reflect all tools and methods commonly in use. Some chapters have been reordered to strengthen the text, in recognition of the importance of digital technologies to the whole of the production process - and wil bein the front of the book.