Earth Science And Applications From Space

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
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Description : Natural and human-induced changes in Earth's interior, land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans affect all aspects of life. Understanding these changes requires a range of observations acquired from land-, sea-, air-, and space-based platforms. To assist NASA, NOAA, and USGS in developing these tools, the NRC was asked to carry out a "decadal strategy" survey of Earth science and applications from space that would develop the key scientific questions on which to focus Earth and environmental observations in the period 2005-2015 and beyond, and present a prioritized list of space programs, missions, and supporting activities to address these questions. This report presents a vision for the Earth science program; an analysis of the existing Earth Observing System and recommendations to help restore its capabilities; an assessment of and recommendations for new observations and missions for the next decade; an examination of and recommendations for effective application of those observations; and an analysis of how best to sustain that observation and applications system.


Earth Science And Applications From Space

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 75
Total Download : 793
File Size : 46,7 Mb
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Description : The Earth is a dynamic planet whose changes and variations affect our communications, energy, health, food, housing, and transportation infrastructure. Understanding these changes requires a range of observations acquired from a variety of land-, sea-, air-, and space-based platforms. To assist NASA, NOAA, and the USGS develop these tools, the NRC was asked by these agencies to carry out a decadal strategy survey of Earth science and applications from space. In particular, the study is to develop the key scientific questions on which to focus Earth and environmental observations in the period 2005-2015, and a prioritized list of space programs, missions, and supporting activities to address these questions. This interim report outlines a key element of the studyâ€"the rationale for tying Earth observations to societal needâ€"and identifies urgent near-term actions needed to achieve this goal. A final report, due in late 2006, will provide the list of recommended space missions, programs, and supporting.


Earth Science And Applications From Space

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
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Description : Understanding the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment and their implications requires a foundation of integrated observations of land, sea, air and space, on which to build credible information products, forecast models, and other tools for making informed decisions. The 2007 National Research Council report on decadal survey called for a renewal of the national commitment to a program of Earth observations in which attention to securing practical benefits for humankind plays an equal role with the quest to acquire new knowledge about the Earth system. NASA responded favorably and aggressively to this survey, embracing its overall recommendations for Earth observations, missions, technology investments, and priorities for the underlying science. As a result, the science and applications communities have made significant progress over the past 5 years. However, the Committee on Assessment of NASA's Earth Science Program found that the survey vision is being realized at a far slower pace than was recommended, principally because the required budget was not achieved. Exacerbating the budget shortfalls, NASA Earth science programs experienced launch failures and delays and the cost of implementing missions increased substantially as a result of changes in mission scope, increases in launch vehicle costs and/or the lack of availability of a medium-class launch vehicle, under-estimation of costs by the decadal survey, and unfunded programmatic changes that were required by Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. In addition, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has made significant reductions in scope to its future Earth environmental observing satellites as it contends with budget shortfalls. Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey recommends a number of steps to better manage existing programs and to implement future programs that will be recommended by the next decadal survey. The report also highlights the urgent need for the Executive Branch to develop and implement an overarching multiagency national strategy for Earth observations from space, a key recommendation of the 2007 decadal survey that remains unfulfilled.


Earth Science And Applications From Space

Author by : National Academies Press
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
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Description : Presents a vision for the Earth science program. This book also presents an analysis of the Earth Observing System and recommendations to help restore its capabilities; an examination of and recommendations for application of those observations; and an analysis of how to sustain that observation and applications system.


Review Of Goals And Plans For Nasa S Space And Earth Sciences

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
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Description : Both the President’s commission on how to implement the President’s space exploration initiative and Congress asked the NRC undertake an assessment and review of the science proposed to be carried out under the initiative. An initial response to that request was the NRC February 2005 report, Science in NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration. While that report’s preparation, NASA created capabilities and strategy roadmapping efforts which became the object of the next phase of the NRC review. The new NASA administrator modified that NASA activity resulting in changes in the NRC review effort. This report provides a review of six science strategy roadmaps: robotic and human exploration of Mars; solar system exploration; universe exploration; search for earth-like planets; earth science and applications from space; and sun-earth system connection. In addition, an assessment of cross-cutting and integration issues is presented.


Earth Science And Applications From Space

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
Total Download : 415
File Size : 45,5 Mb
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Description : The Earth is a dynamic planet whose changes and variations affect our communications, energy, health, food, housing, and transportation infrastructure. Understanding these changes requires a range of observations acquired from a variety of land-, sea-, air-, and space-based platforms. To assist NASA, NOAA, and the USGS develop these tools, the NRC was asked by these agencies to carry out a decadal strategy survey of Earth science and applications from space. In particular, the study is to develop the key scientific questions on which to focus Earth and environmental observations in the period 2005-2015, and a prioritized list of space programs, missions, and supporting activities to address these questions. This interim report outlines a key element of the studyâ€"the rationale for tying Earth observations to societal needâ€"and identifies urgent near-term actions needed to achieve this goal. A final report, due in late 2006, will provide the list of recommended space missions, programs, and supporting.


Thriving On Our Changing Planet

Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
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Description : We live on a dynamic Earth shaped by both natural processes and the impacts of humans on their environment. It is in our collective interest to observe and understand our planet, and to predict future behavior to the extent possible, in order to effectively manage resources, successfully respond to threats from natural and human-induced environmental change, and capitalize on the opportunities â€" social, economic, security, and more â€" that such knowledge can bring. By continuously monitoring and exploring Earth, developing a deep understanding of its evolving behavior, and characterizing the processes that shape and reshape the environment in which we live, we not only advance knowledge and basic discovery about our planet, but we further develop the foundation upon which benefits to society are built. Thriving on Our Changing Planet presents prioritized science, applications, and observations, along with related strategic and programmatic guidance, to support the U.S. civil space Earth observation program over the coming decade.


Nasa S Earth Science And Applications Programs

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 55
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The State Of Earth Science From Space

Author by : G. Asrar
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Total Read : 87
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Description : Market: Researchers in solid earth geophysics and planetary geophysics. This book is a record of the one-day symposium organized by the Space Policy Institute of the George Washington University's Elliot School of International Affairs, in cooperation with NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth. The meeting provided an authoritative overview of the progress that had been made to date in the study of Earth from space and identified the steps being taken to ensure that future space-based Earth observation missions make as great a scientific contribution as possible in support of the Earth system science concept.


Assessment Of Impediments To Interagency Collaboration On Space And Earth Science Missions

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
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Total Read : 45
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Description : Through an examination of case studies, agency briefings, and existing reports, and drawing on personal knowledge and direct experience, the Committee on Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions found that candidate projects for multiagency collaboration in the development and implementation of Earth-observing or space science missions are often intrinsically complex and, therefore costly, and that a multiagency approach to developing these missions typically results in additional complexity and cost. Advocates of collaboration have sometimes underestimated the difficulties and associated costs and risks of dividing responsibility and accountability between two or more partners; they also discount the possibility that collaboration will increase the risk in meeting performance objectives. This committee's principal recommendation is that agencies should conduct Earth and space science projects independently unless: It is judged that cooperation will result in significant added scientific value to the project over what could be achieved by a single agency alone; or Unique capabilities reside within one agency that are necessary for the mission success of a project managed by another agency; or The project is intended to transfer from research to operations necessitating a change in responsibility from one agency to another during the project; or There are other compelling reasons to pursue collaboration, for example, a desire to build capacity at one of the cooperating agencies. Even when the total project cost may increase, parties may still find collaboration attractive if their share of a mission is more affordable than funding it alone. In these cases, alternatives to interdependent reliance on another government agency should be considered. For example, agencies may find that buying services from another agency or pursuing interagency coordination of spaceflight data collection is preferable to fully interdependent cooperation.


Satellite Observations To Benefit Science And Society

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
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Description : Satellite Observations to Benefit Science and Society: Recommended Missions for the Next Decade brings the next ten years into focus for the Earth and environmental science community with a prioritized agenda of space programs, missions, and supporting activities that will best serve scientists in the next decade. These missions will address a broad range of societal needs, such as more reliable weather forecasts, early earthquake warnings, and improved pollution management, benefiting both scientific discovery and the health and well-being of society. Based on the 2007 book, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, this book explores each of the seventeen recommended missions in detail, identifying launch dates, responsible agencies, estimated cost, scientific and public benefits, and more. Printed entirely in color, the book features rich photographs and illustrations, tables, and graphs that will keep the attention of scientists and non-scientists alike.


Nasa Earth Science And Applications Division

Author by : United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Earth Science and Applications Division
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 16
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Information Systems For Space And Earth Science

Author by : United States. Office of Space Science and Applications. Information Systems Office
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 25
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File Size : 41,5 Mb
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Continuity Of Nasa Earth Observations From Space

Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
Total Download : 331
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Description : NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts a wide range of satellite and suborbital missions to observe Earth's land surface and interior, biosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans as part of a program to improve understanding of Earth as an integrated system. Earth observations provide the foundation for critical scientific advances and environmental data products derived from these observations are used in resource management and for an extraordinary range of societal applications including weather forecasts, climate projections, sea level change, water management, disease early warning, agricultural production, and the response to natural disasters. As the complexity of societal infrastructure and its vulnerability to environmental disruption increases, the demands for deeper scientific insights and more actionable information continue to rise. To serve these demands, NASA's ESD is challenged with optimizing the partitioning of its finite resources among measurements intended for exploring new science frontiers, carefully characterizing long-term changes in the Earth system, and supporting ongoing societal applications. This challenge is most acute in the decisions the Division makes between supporting measurement continuity of data streams that are critical components of Earth science research programs and the development of new measurement capabilities. This report seeks to establish a more quantitative understanding of the need for measurement continuity and the consequences of measurement gaps. Continuity of NASA's Earth's Observations presents a framework to assist NASA's ESD in their determinations of when a measurement or dataset should be collected for durations longer than the typical lifetimes of single satellite missions.


A Survey Of Geographical Information Systems Applications For The Earth Science And Applications Division Space Sciences Laboratory Marshall Space Flight Center

Author by : National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Languange : en
Publisher by : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
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Total Read : 95
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Description : The purpose of this document is to introduce Geographical Information System (GIS) terminology and summarize interviews conducted with scientists in the Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD). There is a growing need in ESAD for GIS technology. With many different data sources available to the scientists comes the need to be able to process and view these data in an efficient manner. Since most of these data are stored in vastly different formats, specialized software and hardware are needed. Several ESAD scientists have been using a GIS, specifically the Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (MCIDAS). MCIDAS can solve many of the research problems that arise, but there are areas of research that need more powerful tools; one such example is the multispectral image analysis which is described in this document. Given the strong need for GIS in ESAD, we recommend that a requirements analysis and implementation plan be developed using this document as a basis for further investigation. Rickman, D. and Butler, K. A. and Laymon, C. A. Marshall Space Flight Center ...


Earth Science Satellite Applications

Author by : Faisal Hossain
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
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File Size : 51,5 Mb
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Description : The combined observational power of the multiple earth observing satellites is currently not being harnessed holistically to produce more durable societal benefits. We are not able to take complete advantage of the prolific amount of scientific output and remote sensing data that are emerging rapidly from satellite missions and convert them quickly into decision-making products for users. The current application framework we have appears to be an analog one lacking the absorption bandwidth required to handle scientific research and the voluminous (petabyte-scale) satellite data. This book will tackle this question: "How do we change this course and take full advantage of satellite observational capability for a more sustainable, happier and safer future in the coming decades?"


Space Science

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology. Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 96
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Toward New Partnerships In Remote Sensing

Author by : National Research Council
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
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Total Read : 57
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Description : The technical, scientific, policy, and institutional environment for conducting Earth science research has been changing rapidly over the past few decades. Changes in the technical environment are due both to the advent of new types and sources of remote sensing data, which have higher spatial and spectral resolution, and to the development of vastly expanded capabilities in data access, visualization, spatial data integration, and data management. The scientific environment is changing because of the strong emphasis on global change research, both nationally and internationally, and the evolving data requirements for that research. And the policy and institutional environment for the production of Earth observation data is changing with the diversification of both remote sensing data and the institutions that produce the data. In this report, the Space Studies Board's Steering Committee on Space Applications and Commercialization explores the implications of this changing environment, examining the opportunities and challenges it presents.


Earth Observing System

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 47
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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2017

Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
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Total Read : 97
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Description : The original charter of the Space Science Board was established in June 1958, three months before the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) opened its doors. The Space Science Board and its successor, the Space Studies Board (SSB), have provided expert external and independent scientific and programmatic advice to NASA on a continuous basis from NASA's inception until the present. The SSB has also provided such advice to other executive branch agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Department of Defense, as well as to Congress. Space Studies Board Annual Report 2017 covers a message from the chair of the SSB, David N. Spergel. This report also explains the origins of the Space Science Board, how the Space Studies Board functions today, the SSB's collaboration with other National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine units, assures the quality of the SSB reports, acknowledges the audience and sponsors, and expresses the necessity to enhance the outreach and improve dissemination of SSB reports. This report will be relevant to a full range of government audiences in civilian space research - including NASA, NSF, NOAA, USGS, and the Department of Energy, as well members of the SSB, policy makers, and researchers.


U S European Collaboration In Space Science

Author by : European Science Foundation
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
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Description : U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science reviews the past 30 years of space-based research across the Atlantic. The book, which was prepared jointly with the European Space Science Committee (under the aegis of the European Science Foundation) begins with a broad survey of the historical and political context of U.S.-European cooperation and collaboration in space. The focus of the book is a set of 13 U.S.-European missions in astrophysics, space physics, planetary sciences, earth sciences, and life and microgravity research that illustrate "lessons learned" on the evolution of the cooperation, mission planning and scheduling, international agreements, cost-sharing, management, and scientific output. These lessons form the basis of the joint committee's findings and recommendations, which serve to improve the future conduct and enhance the scientific output of U.S.-European cooperation and collaboration in space science.


Nasa S Science Mission Directorate

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 51
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Description :