Ecological Approaches To Cognition

Author by : Eugene Winograd
Languange : en
Publisher by : Psychology Press
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Description : In the context of an Emory Symposium on Cognition honoring the enormous contributions to cognitive psychology of Ulric Neisser, this book brings together ecological approaches to various aspects of cognition and its development. Well-known former students and colleagues of Neisser articulate their views on perception, memory, and culture. There is a strong developmental component, with chapters on infant perception, infant problem solving, and the cognitive profile of Williams Syndrome, as well as two chapters that consider philosophical issues related to cognitive psychology.


Event Cognition

Author by : Viki McCabe
Languange : en
Publisher by : Psychology Press
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Total Read : 65
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Description : First published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Induction Catastrophe Theory

Author by : William S. Dockens
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Approaches To Cognition

Author by : Terry J. Knapp
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 67
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Description : To the vast majority of academic psychologists in the 1980s, the study of cognition referred to that area of psychology known as ‘cognitive psychology’. The major basis of this area had been the computer metaphor with its accompanying notion of the individual as an information-processing system. Yet within the field the study of cognition is much broader and has a history that reaches into antiquity, whereas ‘cognitive psychology’ as information-processing psychology had only recently become the standard bearer of cognitive studies. One of the purposes of this volume, originally published in 1986, was to articulate some of the fundamental distinctions between and concordances among different orientations concerning the study of cognition. The collection includes chapters on information processing, ecological, Gestalt, physiological, and operant psychology.


An Ecological Approach To Perceptual Learning And Development

Author by : Eleanor J. Gibson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : The essential nature of learning is primarily thought of as a verbal process or function, but this notion conveys that pre-linguistic infants do not learn. Far from being "blank slates" that passively absorb environmental stimuli, infants are active learners who perceptually engage their environments and extract information from them before language is available. The ecological approach to perceiving-defined as "a theory about perceiving by active creatures who look and listen and move around"-was spearheaded by Eleanor and James Gibson in the 1950s and culminated in James Gibson's last book in 1979. Until now, no comprehensive theoretical statement of ecological development has been published since Eleanor Gibson's Principles of Perceptual Learning and Development (1969). In An Ecological Approach to Perceptual Learning and Development, distinguished experimental psychologists Eleanor J. Gibson and Anne D. Pick provide a unique theoretical framework for the ecological approach to understanding perceptual learning and development. Perception, in accordance with James Gibson's views, entails a reciprocal relationship between a person and his or her environment: The environment provides resources and opportunities for the person, and the person gets information from and acts on the environment. The concept of affordance is central to this idea; the person acts on what the environment affords, as it is appropriate. This extraordinary volume covers the development of perception in detail from birth through toddlerhood, beginning with the development of communication, going on to perceiving and acting on objects, and then to locomotion. It is more than a presentation of facts about perception as it develops. It outlines the ecological approach and shows how it underlies "higher" cognitive processes, such as concept formation, as well as discovery of the basic affordances of the environment. This impressive work should serve as the capstone for Eleanor J. Gibson's distinguished career as a developmental and experimental psychologist.


Event Cognition

Author by : Viki McCabe
Languange : en
Publisher by : Psychology Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
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File Size : 41,8 Mb
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Description : First published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Ecological Psychology In Context

Author by : Harry Heft
Languange : en
Publisher by : Psychology Press
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Total Read : 80
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Description : In this book Harry Heft examines the historical and theoretical foundations of James J. Gibson's ecological psychology in 20th century thought, and in turn, integrates ecological psychology and analyses of sociocultural processes. A thesis of the book is that knowing is rooted in the direct experience of meaningful environmental objects and events present in individual-environment processes and at the level of collective, social settings. Ecological Psychology in Context: *traces the primary lineage of Gibson's ecological approach to William James's philosophy of radical empiricism; *illuminates how the work of James's student and Gibson's mentor, E.B. Holt, served as a catalyst for the development of Gibson's framework and as a bridge to James's work; *reveals how ecological psychology reciprocally can advance Jamesian studies by resolving some of the theoretical difficulties that kept James from fully realizing a realist philosophy; *broadens the scope of Gibson's framework by proposing a synthesis between it and the ecological program of Roger Barker, who discovered complex systems operating at the level of collective, social processes; *demonstrates ways in which the psychological domain can be extended to properties of the environment rendering its features meaningful, publicly accessible, and distributed across person-environment processes; and *shows how Gibson's work points the way toward overcoming the gap between experimental psychology and the humanities. Intended for scholars and students in the areas of ecological and environmental psychology, theoretical and historical psychology, cognitive science, developmental psychology, anthropology, and philosophy.


The Construction Of Cognitive Maps

Author by : Juval Portugali
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Total Read : 85
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Description : and processes which are exclusive to humans in their encoding, storing, decoding and retrieving spatial knowledge for various tasks. The authors present and discuss connectionist models of cognitive maps which are based on local representation, versus models which are based on distributed representation, as well as connectionist models concerning language and spatial relations. As is well known, Gibson's (1979) ecological approach suggests a view on cognition which is diametrically different from the classical main stream view: perception (and thus cognition) is direct, immediate and needs no internal information processing, and is thus essentially an external process of interaction between an organism and its external environment. The chapter by Harry Heft introduces J. J. Gibson's ecological approach and its implication to the construction of cognitive maps in general and to the issue of wayfinding in particular. According to Heft, main stream cognitive sciences are essentially Cartesian in nature and have not as yet internalized the implications of Darwin's theory of evolution. Gibson, in his ecological approach, has tried to do exactly this. The author introduces the basic terminology of the ecological approach and relates its various notions, in particular optic flow, nested hierarchy and affordances, to navigation and the way routes and places in the environment are learned.


A Meaning Processing Approach To Cognition

Author by : John Flach
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 96
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Description : A cognitive psychologist and an industrial design engineer draw on their own experiences of cognition in the context of everyday life and work to explore how people attempt to find practical solutions for complex situations. The book approaches these issues by considering higher-order relations between humans and their ecologies such as satisfying, specifying, and affording. This approach is consistent with recent shifts in the worlds of technology and product design from the creation of physical objects to the creation of experiences. Featuring a wealth of bespoke illustrations throughout, A Meaning Processing Approach to Cognition bridges the gap between controlled laboratory experiments and real-world experience, by questioning the metaphysical foundations of cognitive science and suggesting alternative directions to provide better insights for design and engineering. An essential read for all students of Ecological Psychology or Cognitive Systems Design, this book takes the reader on a journey beyond the conventional dichotomy of mind and matter to explore what really matters.


Minds Online

Author by : Paul Smart
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 29
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Description : Alongside existing research into the social, political and economic impacts of the Web, there is a need to study the Web from a cognitive and epistemic perspective. This is particularly so as new and emerging technologies alter the nature of our interactive engagements with the Web, transforming the extent to which our thoughts and actions are shaped by the online environment. Situated and ecological approaches to cognition are relevant to understanding the cognitive significance of the Web because of the emphasis they place on forces and factors that reside at the level of agent-world interactions. In particular, by adopting a situated or ecological approach to cognition, we are able to assess the significance of the Web from the perspective of research into embodied, extended, embedded, social and collective cognition. The results of this analysis help to reshape the interdisciplinary configuration of Web Science, expanding its theoretical and empirical remit to include the disciplines of both cognitive science and the philosophy of mind.


Encountering The World

Author by : Edward S. Reed
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 63
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Description : Encountering the World reorients modern psychology by finding a viable middle ground between the study of nerve cells and cultural analysis. The emerging field of ecological psychology focuses on the "human niche" and our uniquely evolved modes of action and interaction. Rejecting both mechanistic cognitive science and reductionistic neuroscience, the author offers a new psychology that combines ecological and experimental methods to help us better understand the ways in which people and animals make their way through the world. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of ecological psychology and a unique synthesis of the work of Darwin, neural Darwinism, and modern ecologists with James Gibson's approach to perception. The author presents detailed discussions on communication, sociality, cognition, and language--topics often overlooked by ecological psychologists. Other issues covered include ecological approaches to animal behavior, neural mechanisms, perception, action, and interaction. Provocative and controversial, Encountering the World makes a significant contribution to the debate over the nature of psychology.


Understanding Drinking Behaviour

Author by : Kimberley Michele Hill
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 45
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The Evolution Of Cognition

Author by : Cecilia M. Heyes
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
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Total Read : 27
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Description : In the last decade, "evolutionary psychology" has come to refer exclusively to research on human mentality and behavior, motivated by a nativist interpretation of how evolution operates. This book encompasses the behavior and mentality of nonhuman as well as human animals and a full range of evolutionary approaches. Rather than a collection by and for the like-minded, it is a debate about how evolutionary processes have shaped cognition. The debate is divided into five sections: Orientations, on the phylogenetic, ecological, and psychological/comparative approaches to the evolution of cognition; Categorization, on how various animals parse their environments, how they represent objects and events and the relations among them; Causality, on whether and in what ways nonhuman animals represent cause and effect relationships; Consciousness, on whether it makes sense to talk about the evolution of consciousness and whether the phenomenon can be investigated empirically in nonhuman animals; and Culture, on the cognitive requirements for nongenetic transmission of information and the evolutionary consequences of such cultural exchange. ContributorsBernard Balleine, Patrick Bateson, Michael J. Beran, M. E. Bitterman, Robert Boyd, Nicola Clayton, Juan Delius, Anthony Dickinson, Robin Dunbar, D.P. Griffiths, Bernd Heinrich, Cecilia Heyes, William A. Hillix, Ludwig Huber, Nicholas Humphrey, Masako Jitsumori, Louis Lefebvre, Nicholas Mackintosh, Euan M. Macphail, Peter Richerson, Duane M. Rumbaugh, Sara Shettleworth, Martina Siemann, Kim Sterelny, Michael Tomasello, Laura Weiser, Alexandra Wells, Carolyn Wilczynski, David Sloan Wilson


Ecology Cognition And Landscape

Author by : Almo Farina
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : It is more and more evident that our living system is completely disturbed by human intrusion. Such intrusion affects the functioning of entire systems in ways we do not yet fully understand. We use paradigms such as the disturbance to cover large and deep gaps in our scienti?c knowledge. Human ecology is an uncertain terrain for anthropologists, geographers, and ecologists and rarely is expanded to include the social and economic realms. The integration of different disciplines and the application of their many paradigms to problems of environmental complexity remains a distant goal despite the many efforts that have been made to achieve it. Philosophical and semantic barriers are erected when such integration is pursued by pioneering scientists. Recently, evolutionary ecology has shown great interest in the spatial processes well described by the emerging discipline of landscape ecology. But this interest takes the form of pure curiosity or at worst, of skepticism toward the real capacity of landscape ecology to contribute to the advancement of ecological science. The past two centuries have been characterized by huge changes occurring in the entire ecosphere. Global changes are the effects of human intervention at a planetary scale, with consequent degradation of the environment creating an e- logical debt for future generations. On the other side of the issue, new technologies have improved the welfare of billions of people and have given hope to many other billions that they may also see such improvement in the near future.


Social Cognition And Individual Change

Author by : Aaron M. Brower
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE Publications
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Total Read : 53
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Description : This clearly-written book provides an introduction to a cognitive-ecological approach to counselling and clinical practice. The authors examine theoretical underpinnings and key components, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the approach. They present examples that show practitioners how the model can enhance work with clients and apply it to relevant stages of practice - including assessment, goal setting and intervention planning.


Theories Of Team Cognition

Author by : Eduardo Salas
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
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Description : Cognitive processes in teams have been a valuable arena for team researchers to explore. Team cognition research advances and informs a variety of disciplines, including cognitive and social sciences, engineering, military science, organizational science, human factors, medicine, and communications. There has been a great deal of progress in the team cognition literature, yet the field is still in its early stages of maturity. There is much more to be gained from the field’s insights and there is a need to unite the diverse array of scholarly ideas that permeate the field. This movement will serve to organize the research and ideas that have surfaced in the field, thereby making them more accessible to different disciplines while at the same time, motivating continued progress in the field. This book aims to be a step in this direction and acts as a forum for leading scholars to share their ideas, theories, models, and conceptions about what matters and where more attention is needed in the field of team cognition.


Induction Catastrophe Theory

Author by : William S. Dockens (III)
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 57
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Cognitive Aspects Of Stimulus Control

Author by : W. K. Honig
Languange : en
Publisher by : Psychology Press
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Total Read : 89
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Description : The study of discrimination and generalization in animals traditionally involves stimuli that are simple, uniform, and restricted in time or space. In recent years, the area of stimulus control has been expanded with the use of stimuli that are complex, extended in time or space, and incorporate or represent natural objects, events, or locations. The contributors to this unique volume have emphasized controlling functions of complex stimulus events -- such as location or duration -- and their relation to cognitive processes in animals. The chapters cover a wide array of topics, including spatial cognition, categorization, pattern perception, numerosity discriminations, imagery, and spatial tracking, thereby addressing the question of how complex events are perceived, processed, and organized. This volume goes beyond other recent books on animal cognition in that it specifically places some well-known phenomena within the context of stimulus control.


Local Applications Of The Ecological Approach To Human Machine Systems

Author by : Peter A. Hancock
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Total Read : 37
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Description : There is a growing consensus in the human factors/ergonomics community that human factors research has had little impact on significant applied problems. Some have suggested that the problem lies in the fact that much HF/E research has been based on the wrong type of psychology, an information processing view of psychology that is reductionistic and context-free. Ecological psychology offers a viable alternative, presenting a richer view of human behavior that is holistic and contextualized. The papers presented in these two volumes show the conceptual impact that ecological psychology can have on HF/E, as well as presenting a number of specific examples illustrating the ecological approach to human-machine systems. It is the first collection of papers that explicitly draws a connection between these two fields. While work in this area is only just beginning, the evidence available suggests that taking an ecological approach to human factors/ergonomics helps bridge the existing gap between basic research and applied problems.


Embodied Social Cognition

Author by : Jessica Lindblom
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 9
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Description : This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous social interaction and cognition in situ. Furthermore, the theoretical contributions and implications of the study of embodied social cognition are discussed and summed up. Finally, the issue what it would take for an artificial system to be socially embodied is addressed and discussed, as well as the practical relevance for applications to artificial intelligence (AI) and socially interactive technology.


Mechanisms Of Everyday Cognition

Author by : James M. Puckett
Languange : en
Publisher by : Psychology Press
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Total Read : 30
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Description : Based on the proceedings of the twelfth biennial conference on life-span developmental psychology, most of the contributions in this volume deal with the mechanisms of everyday cognition. However, a broad spectrum of additional concerns is addressed within the domain of everyday cognition: its metatheoretical underpinnings, theory and theoretical issues, methods of investigation, empirical considerations, and social issues and applications. Addressing everyday cognition in infancy, childhood, adolescence, young and middle adulthood, and old age, this book is consistent with the chronological life-span theme of this series. The contributors collectively discuss some of the traditional concerns of life-span psychology: the dialectical nature of everyday cognition, individual differences, and contextual influences. Leading and concluding chapters provide overview, integration, and summary. In bringing together a wide array of age periods and points of view within the domain of everyday cognition, the editors hope that students and researchers in developmental psychology and cognitive science will find a useful cross-fertilization of ideas. A huge variety of theoretical perspectives is presented ranging from the position that everyday cognition and academic (laboratory) cognition are different manifestations of the same underlying processes to the position that the underlying processes are completely separate. Also of importance, a large assortment of research methods is illustrated including interviews, laboratory simulations, real-life observations and psychometric methods.


Primate Cognition

Author by : Michael Tomasello
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 32
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Description : Soon after Charles Darwin formulated his theory of evolution, primate cognition became a major area of research. In this book, Michael Tomasello and Josep Call assess the current state of our knowledge about the cognitive skills of non-human primates. They integrate empirical findings on the topic from the beginning of the century to the present, placing this research in theoretical perspective. They begin with an examination of the way primates adapt to their physical world, mostly for the purpose of foraging. The second part of the book looks at primate social knowledge and focuses on the adaptations of primates to their social world for purposes of competition and cooperation. In the third section, the authors construct a general theory of primate cognition, distinguishing the cognition in primates from that of other mammals (human in particular). Their broad-ranging theory provides a guide for future research. Primate Cognition is an enlightening exploration of the cognitive capacities of our nearest primate relatives and a useful resource for a wide range of researchers and students in psychology, behavioral biology, primatology, and anthropology.


Handbook Of Embodied Cognition And Sport Psychology

Author by : Massimiliano L. Cappuccio
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
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Total Read : 64
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Description : The first systematic collaboration between cognitive scientists and sports psychologists considers the mind–body relationship from the perspective of athletic skill and sports practice. This landmark work is the first systematic collaboration between cognitive scientists and sports psychologists that considers the mind–body relationship from the perspective of athletic skill and sports practice. With twenty-six chapters by leading researchers, the book connects and integrates findings from fields that range from philosophy of mind to sociology of sports. The chapters show not only that sports can tell scientists how the human mind works but also that the scientific study of the human mind can help athletes succeed. Sports psychology research has always focused on the themes, notions, and models of embodied cognition; embodied cognition, in turn, has found striking confirmation of its theoretical claims in the psychological accounts of sports performance and athletic skill. Athletic skill is a legitimate form of intelligence, involving cognitive faculties no less sophisticated and complex than those required by mathematical problem solving. After presenting the key concepts necessary for applying embodied cognition to sports psychology, the book discusses skill disruption (the tendency to “choke” under pressure); sensorimotor skill acquisition and how training correlates to the development of cognitive faculties; the intersubjective and social dimension of sports skills, seen in team sports; sports practice in cultural and societal contexts; the notion of “affordance” and its significance for ecological psychology and embodied cognition theory; and the mind's predictive capabilities, which enable anticipation, creativity, improvisation, and imagination in sports performance. Contributors Ana Maria Abreu, Kenneth Aggerholm, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza, Duarte Araújo, Jürgen Beckmann, Kath Bicknell, Geoffrey P. Bingham, Jens E. Birch, Gunnar Breivik, Noel E. Brick, Massimiliano L. Cappuccio, Thomas H. Carr, Alberto Cei, Anthony Chemero, Wayne Christensen, Lincoln J. Colling, Cassie Comley, Keith Davids, Matt Dicks, Caren Diehl, Karl Erickson, Anna Esposito, Pedro Tiago Esteves, Mirko Farina, Giolo Fele, Denis Francesconi, Shaun Gallagher, Gowrishankar Ganesh, Raúl Sánchez-García, Rob Gray, Denise M. Hill, Daniel D. Hutto, Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Geir Jordet, Adam Kiefer, Michael Kirchhoff, Kevin Krein, Kenneth Liberman, Tadhg E. MacIntyre, Nelson Mauro Maldonato, David L. Mann, Richard S. W. Masters, Patrick McGivern, Doris McIlwain, Michele Merritt, Christopher Mesagno, Vegard Fusche Moe, Barbara Gail Montero, Aidan P. Moran, David Moreau, Hiroki Nakamoto, Alberto Oliverio, David Papineau, Gert-Jan Pepping, Miriam Reiner, Ian Renshaw, Michael A. Riley, Zuzanna Rucinska, Lawrence Shapiro, Paula Silva, Shannon Spaulding, John Sutton, Phillip D. Tomporowski, John Toner, Andrew D. Wilson, Audrey Yap, Qin Zhu, Christopher Madan


Adaptive Perspectives On Human Technology Interaction

Author by : Alex Kirlik
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 44
Total Download : 225
File Size : 49,9 Mb
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Description : In everyday life, and particularly in the modern workplace, information technology and automation increasingly mediate, augment, and sometimes even interfere with how humans interact with their environment. How to understand and support cognition in human-technology interaction is both a practically and socially relevant problem. The chapters in this volume frame this problem in adaptive terms: How are behavior and cognition adapted, or perhaps ill-adapted, to the demands and opportunities of an environment where interaction is mediated by tools and technology? The authors draw heavily on the work of Egon Brunswik, a pioneer in ecological and cognitive psychology, as well as on modern refinements and extensions of Brunswikian ideas, including Hammond's Social Judgment Theory, Gigerenzer's Ecological Rationality and Anderson's Rational Analysis. Inspired by Brunswik's view of cognition as "coming to terms" with the "casual texture" of the external world, the chapters in this volume provide quantitative and computational models and measures for studying how people come to terms with an increasingly technological ecology, and provide insights for supporting cognition and performance through design, training, and other interventions. The methods, models, and measures presented in this book provide timely and important resources for addressing problems in the rapidly growing field of human-technology interaction. The book will be of interest to researchers, students, and practitioners in human factors, cognitive engineering, human-computer interaction, judgment and decision making, and cognitive science.