Description : This book addresses the fundamental issues of predator-prey interactions, with an emphasis on predation among arthropods, which have been better studied, and for which the database is more extensive than for the large and rare vertebrate predators. The book should appeal to ecologists interested in the broad issue of predation effects on communities.
Description : From the Foreword: "Predator-prey interactions are among the most significant of all organism-organism interactions....It will only be by compiling and evaluating data on predator-prey relations as they are recorded in the fossil record that we can hope to tease apart their role in the tangled web of evolutionary interaction over time. This volume, compiled by a group of expert specialists on the evidence of predator-prey interactions in the fossil record, is a pioneering effort to collate the information now accumulating in this important field. It will be a standard reference on which future study of one of the central dynamics of ecology as seen in the fossil record will be built." (Richard K. Bambach, Professor Emeritus, Virginia Tech, Associate of the Botanical Museum, Harvard University)
Description : Predation is one of the commonest ecologial interactions in the natural world, and predators have attracted attention from all sort of naturalists, and then scientists, since time immemorial. However, the influence of predator-prey relationships on the functioning of ecosystems remains largely unclear. The theoretical and empirical studies available to date are insufficient to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ecological consequences of predation, especially as the biological complexity increases. Predator-prey studies are also of much interest for the conservation of prey, and particularly of predators, mainly due to the traditional, strongly unfounded conflict between them and game harvesting. This book, with its six main chapters, aspires to increase and stimulate current knowledge of predator-prey relationships worldwide. For this purpose, the author takes advantage of the in-depth exploration -based on either an ecological or a conservation approach- of a typical Mediterranean vertebrate system. As a result, some old, controversial questions now find novel, science-based answers.
Description : Knowledge of predator-prey interactions is vital in many subfields of ecology, including food web ecology, behavioral ecology, and population ecology. Information on predator-prey interactions is obtained from a variety of sources, including stomach contents, biochemical tracers such as stable isotopes, fecal matter, and direct observation. These data sources are used to infer the predator’s diet and each presents analytical and interpretation challenges. In this dissertation, I pursue research to improve the analysis, interpretation, and application of varied data sources to study predator-prey interactions. My first chapter develops a mixture model to increase the accuracy and precision of diet estimates from stomach content data by addressing several challenges inherent to most stomach content datasets. I extend this model in my second chapter to address sample interdependence, which is a common issue due to sample collection methods. My third chapter addresses the challenges of applying stable isotope analysis to jellyfish due to their unique physiology and proposes a path forward to be able to use this data source effectively. My fourth chapter predicts the effect of hypoxia, a common environmental stressor, on energy flow from zooplankton to zooplanktivorous fish by merging multiple data sources in a Bayesian integrated assessment. Together, my dissertation research identifies and addresses some common challenges of analyzing predator-prey interactions.
Description : During the last two decades, a broad spectrum of short- and long-term studies on different taxonomic groups has enriched our understanding about how dynamics of taxonomic and ecological diversification have changed through geologic time. There are two major issues that have impacted these studies: the quality and quantity of data used are often insufficient in various ways and the methods used may produce results that are more equivocal than supposed. To investigate these issues more fully, this dissertation focuses on studies on two major aspects: 1) short-term studies examining the nature of successful and unsuccessful predatory attacks on Plio-Pleistocene bivalves; and 2) a Phanerozoic-scale project examining trends in bivalve richness and ecological differentiation. The short-term studies, focusing on shell-breaking predation on bivalves, have shown that the existing methodologies which only study either successful or unsuccessful component of predation in isolation are fraught with potential issues in developing effective interpretations. When these two components (i.e., successful and unsuccessful) are studied in tandem as was done here, however, traces of predation can be used to better constrain potential paleoecological interpretations related to predation intensity, predator's attack strategies, and predator-prey dynamics. The long-term project includes two Phanerozoic studies on bivalves' taxonomic and ecological richness. The taxonomic study has shown how the elements included in various datasets used can affect the Phanerozoic richness trajectory of bivalves. The revised and newly compiled dataset developed here reveals that bivalves showed three major episodes of diversification - a Ordovician radiation of orders and families, a Mesozoic diversification of families, and a dramatic Cenozoic rise in the total number of genera - all of which were synchronous with ecological diversification in terms of appearances of new life forms capable of colonizing new ecospace (i.e., cubes). However, these synchronous changes in taxonomic-ecologic richness were influenced by many biotic (e.g., predation, competition, and adaptive innovations) and abiotic (e.g., nutrient availability, sea level, and temperature) components, for which I propose a multilevel mixed model such that all these components can be studied in tandem.
Description : Introduction to Population Ecology is an accessible and up-to-date textbook covering all aspects of population ecology. Discusses field and laboratory data to illustrate the fundamental laws of population ecology. Provides an overview of how population theory has developed. Explores single-species population growth and self-limitation; metapopulations; and a broad range of interspecific interactions including parasite-host, predator-prey, and plant-herbivore. Keeps the mathematics as simple as possible, using a careful step-by-step approach and including graphs and other visual aids to help understanding. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/rockwood and by request on CD-ROM.
Description : This book argues that the "null model" for describing consumer-resource interactions in ecology must be changed. Evidence is drawn from experiments, from observations and from mathematical models.
Author by : Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Mercedes Pascual
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
Total Download : 901
File Size : 51,6 Mb
Description : Food webs are one of the most useful, and challenging, objects of study in ecology. These networks of predator-prey interactions, conjured in Darwin's image of a "tangled bank," provide a paradigmatic example of complex adaptive systems. This book is based on a February 2004 Santa Fe Institute workshop. Its authors treat the ecology of predator-prey interactions, food web theory, structure and dynamics. The book explores the boundaries of what is known of the relationship between structure and dynamics in ecological networks and will define directions for future developments in this field.
Description : Single-species growth; Pedration and parasitism; Predador-prey systems; Lotka-volterra systems for predator-prey interactions; Intermediate predator-prey models; Continous models; Discrete models; The kolmogorov model; Related topics and applications; Related topics; Aplications; competition and cooperation (symbiosis); Lotka-volterra competition models; Higher-oder competition models; cooperation (symbiosis); Pertubation theory; The implicit function theorem; Existence and Uniqueness of solutions of ordinary differential equations; Stability and periodicity; The poincare-bendixon theorem; The hopf bifurcation theorem.