Description : Insufficient resources and inadequate public expenditure management often prevent governments in low-income countries from providing quality basic education free of charge. User payments by parents are an alternative means of financing basic education. This paper assesses how user payments affect educational opportunities and quality of education for children of poor families in low-income countries. Conditions are identified under which user payments can or cannot improve educational outcomes. User payments, whether taking the form of compulsory benefit taxation or voluntary user fees, are a temporary solution and second-best compared with free-access, publicly financed quality education that is consistent with macroeconomic stability.
Description : In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents’ ability or willingness to pay. In many poor countries, however, governments lack either the financial resources or the political will to provide each child with a basic education, despite the benefits that would accrue not only to individuals but to society as a whole. In some of these countries, parents cover part or all of the cost of their children’s education. This paper explores the pros and cons of user payments.
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Description : On September 1, 2001, Anne Krueger took up the reins as the IMF’s First Deputy Managing Director. She brought with her a wealth of experience from the public and private sectors, including long stints in academia—most recently as an economics professor at Stanford University—and, from 1982 to 1986, as the World Bank’s Vice President for Economics and Research. She is a Distinguished Fellow and past President ofthe American Economic Association.
Description : Commissioning editors say good dialogue is one of the first things that make a book stand out from the crowd - and similarly, that clunky direct speech is one of the first things that will send a book straight from the slushpile to the rejections bin. But while many other aspects of writing are pored over in intense detail, there have been very few books on the art of writing successful dialogue. In this practical guide for aspiring writers of all levels, Irving Weinman, himself a published writer and well-known creative writing tutor, uses case studies to help you explore how to write good dialogue, and gives you a range of fun and challenging exercises that will help you, to, to write brilliant dialogue.
Description : Take a fresh look at the Bible while you experience a new translation. The Common English Bible is relevant, readable, and reliable. The result is a new version that the typical reader or worshipper is able to understand. 115 leading biblical scholars from 22 faith traditions and 77 reading specialists in 13 denominations worked on this translation. Contains Apocrypha books.