Electoral Engineering

Author by : Pippa Norris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : From Kosovo to Kabul, the last decade witnessed growing interest in ?electoral engineering?. Reformers have sought to achieve either greater government accountability through majoritarian arrangements or wider parliamentary diversity through proportional formula. Underlying the normative debates are important claims about the impact and consequences of electoral reform for political representation and voting behavior. The study compares and evaluates two broad schools of thought, each offering contracting expectations. One popular approach claims that formal rules define electoral incentives facing parties, politicians and citizens. By changing these rules, rational choice institutionalism claims that we have the capacity to shape political behavior. Alternative cultural modernization theories differ in their emphasis on the primary motors driving human behavior, their expectations about the pace of change, and also their assumptions about the ability of formal institutional rules to alter, rather than adapt to, deeply embedded and habitual social norms and patterns of human behavior.


Democracy In Divided Societies

Author by : Benjamin Reilly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : This text examines the potential of electoral engineering as a mechanism of conflict management in divided societies. It focuses on the little-known experience of a number of divided societies which have used vote-pooling electoral systems.


Electoral Engineering

Author by : Pippa Norris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 35
Total Download : 946
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Description :


Operationalising E Democracy Through A System Engineering Approach In Mauritius And Australia

Author by : Soobhiraj Bungsraz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
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Description : This book describes how the Systems Engineering (SE) methodology can be used to harness technology and enhance democracy within any political system. Moreover, it provides a practical roadmap for countries and politicians who are willing to change their existing system of governance to one that allows the people to have a meaningful say. In this regard, the book compares and contrasts two countries, Mauritius and Australia, highlighting how SE and e-democracy can be implemented in different contexts.


The Origin Of Electoral Systems In The Postwar Era

Author by : Krister Lundell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 96
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Description : This book explores and presents the influence of contextual factors on the choice of electoral systems for parliamentary elections in both democracies and non-democracies around the world. Taking a macroscopic approach, the author focuses on structural explanations, with an emphasis on general patterns rather than country specific explanations. Drawn from a wealth of data, the book presents the frequency of the adoption of each electoral formula and system in the postwar era and is followed by a theoretical elaboration of electoral system choice. The author then draws on rational, cultural/historical and institutional theories which are systematically analyzed by means of sophisticated bivariate and multivariate techniques. Lundell demonstrates that few electoral systems have been chosen from rational considerations and the impact of the cultural and historical setting is tremendous; colonial legacy, regional influence and temporal trends largely explain the cross-national variation in electoral systems. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of political science, electoral politics and comparative politics.


Is Democracy Exportable

Author by : Zoltan Barany
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : This books explains the normative and empirical issues behind the concept known as 'democracy promotion.'


China S Impact On The African Renaissance

Author by : Kobus Jonker
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 41
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Description : This book provides the first comprehensive academic study of what China's trade with, and investment in, African countries mean for the socio-economic well-being of the continent. Based on the African Tree of Organic Growth Framework developed in the book, Jonker and Robinson outline the factors necessary in realizing Africa's Renaissance vision and the impact that the Chinese might have on this process. Using the metaphor of the Baobab tree, the authors analyze the historical, cultural and economic contexts within African countries, the channels available to produce development and growth, and the fruits or social and economic well-being created by this integrated process. The book takes readers on a journey of numerous African examples and case studies, describing and analyzing the challenges and complexities of countries in their desire to achieve organic, cultural, scientific and economic renewal, and the improvement of the well-being of their citizens. This book will be of great value to economists, people who wish to do business in Africa, China-watchers, those who are following the development and growth of Africa, and more.


Democracy And The Politics Of Electoral System Choice

Author by : Amel Ahmed
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
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Description : Explores the dynamics of electoral system choice and raises questions about the democratic credentials of the early processes of democratization.


Radical Right

Author by : Pippa Norris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 581
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Description : This book, first published in 2005, explains why radical right parties have advanced in a diverse array of democracies.


Democracy In Divided Societies

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 370
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Description : He shows that electoral systems which encourage bargaining between rival political actors, which promote the development of broad-based political parties and which present politicians with incentives to attract votes from a range of ethnic groups can encourage the development of moderate, accommodatory political competition even in the most divided societies."--BOOK JACKET.


Mixed Member Electoral Systems The Best Of Both Worlds

Author by : Matthew Shugart
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
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Description : Mixed-member electoral systems may well be the electoral reform of the 21st century. In the view of many electoral reformers, mixed systems offer the best of both the traditional British single-seat district system and PR systems. This book seeks to evaluate: why these systems have recently appealed to many countries with diverse electoral histories; and how well expectations for these systems have been met. - ;Mixed-member electoral systems may well be the electoral reform of the 21st century. In the view of many electoral reformers, mixed-member systems offer the best of both the traditional British single-seat district system and PR systems. This book seeks to evaluate: why mixed-member systems have recently appealed to many countries with diverse electoral histories; and how well expectations for these systems have been met. Each major country, which has adopted a mixed system thus, has two chapters in this book, one on origins and one on consequences. These countries are Germany, New Zealand, Italy, Israel, Japan, Venezuela, Bolivia, Mexico, Hungary, and Russia. In addition, there are also chapters on the prospects for a mixed-member system being adopted in Britain and Canada, respectively. The material presented suggests that mixed-member systems have been largely successful thus far. They appear to be more likely than most other electoral systems to generate two-bloc party systems, without in the process reducing minor parties to insignificance. In addition, they are more likely than any other class of electoral system to simultaneously generate local accountability as well as a nationally-oriented party system. Mixed-member electoral systems have now joined majoritarian and proportional systems as basic options which must be considered whenever electoral systems are designed or redesigned. Such a development represents a fundamental change in thinking about electoral systems around the world. - ;An important and timely contribution ... an excellent reference book that provides unique and extensive coverage of a diverse range of cases. - Japanese Journal of Political Science;The book provides a useful classification of some electoral system elements in two dimensions: inter-party (majoritarian vs. proportional) and intra-party (candidates vs. parties dominance), as well as ten single-country good reading studies. - West European Politics;The core of the book, especially the section on how MMP systems came to be introduced in the ten case study countries, will have lasting value for its detail ... the editors' contributions are excellent: they have done much more than simply collate a series of chapters. As a whole, the book will provide an important reference work for the study of what, in their words, 'might prove to be the electoral reform of the twenty-first century'. - Representation


Bosnia After Dayton

Author by : Sumantra Bose
Languange : en
Publisher by : C. HURST & CO. PUBLISHERS
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Total Read : 66
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Description : This volume attempts to place the Dayton Peace Agreement within the context of Bosnia's complex historical legacy.


The Impact Of Electoral Engineering On Nationalist Party Behavior In Post War States

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
Total Download : 750
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Description : To what extent can electoral engineering mitigate deadly intra-state conflict? This paper investigates the impact of electoral engineering on nationalist party behavior in highly-fragmented states. As nationalist parties have been instrumental in escalating inter-group tensions to large-scale hostilities, frameworks for conflict resolution frequently incorporate institutional mechanisms as a means of altering the incentives for conflict exploitation or for inter-group cooperation. Specifically, the paper investigates proportional representation (PR) and preferential systems. To test the impact of these systems, the study observes party engagement in cooperative or conflictual behavior during legislative campaigns in the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, and Croatia over several election cycles. Data from the Bosnian cases largely support expectations that PR presents incentives for nationalist parties to "play the ethnic card" and exacerbate communal conflict. In contrast, the Croatian case provides a degree of support for the prediction that preferential voting structures encourage cooperation and thus conflict dampening.


Domestic Perspectives On Contemporary Democracy

Author by : Peter F Nardulli
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Illinois Press
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Total Read : 43
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Description : In looking at the remarkable proliferation of democracies since 1974, this volume offers important insight into the challenges and opportunities that democracy faces in the twenty-first century. Distinguished contributors detail difficulties that democracies face from within and how they deal with them. Among the contemporary threats to democracy emanating from internal sources are tensions arising over technology and its uses; ethnic, religious, and racial distinctions; and disparate access to resources, education, and employment. A democratically elected government can behave more or less democratically, even when controlling access to information, using legal authority to aid or intimidate, and applying resources to shape the conditions for the next election. With elections recently disputed in the United States, Mexico, Lebanon, and the Ukraine, debates about the future of democracy are inescapably debates about what kind of democracy is desired. Contributors are W. Lance Bennett, Bruce Bimber, Jon Fraenkel, Brian J. Gaines, Bernard Grofman, Wayne V. McIntosh, Peter F. Nardulli, Mark Q. Sawyer, Stephen Simon, Paul M. Sniderman, and Jack Snyder.


Ballot Box And Tinder Box

Author by : Evangelos Liaras
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The objective of this dissertation is to systematize the existing hypotheses in the electoral engineering literature and to test them in a set of selected case studies in order to answer a central question: does the electoral system affect the structure of political parties in ethnically divided societies and if so how? The academic debate on electoral design for divided societies has focused on the impact of institutional choices on ultimate conflict outcomes. The findings of previous studies have been generally inconclusive, while the lack of sub-national data on ethnic composition and voting patterns has made it difficult to examine mechanisms regarding the role of demographics. To approach the problem from a different angle, I propose a research design focusing on the intermediate link from electoral institutions to the ethnic structure of the party system. For the empirical portion of my work, I chose to conduct a structured historical comparison of four societies which implemented major electoral reforms: Turkey, Northern Ireland, Guyana, and Sri Lanka. Based on the study of these cases, I am arguing that politicians and voters have not responded to electoral incentives in the ways predicted by existent theories, and that no clear relationship can be observed between the electoral system's proportionality, the heterogeneity of electoral constituencies, and the number of parties or the types of ethnic appeals they make to voters. These findings indicate that the hopes placed in electoral system design for divided societies are unwarranted and that attention among political scientists and policymakers should shift to other peace-building approaches.


Crafting Constitutional Democracies

Author by : Edward V. Schneier
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
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Total Read : 89
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Description : By examining the institutions of government through the lens of constitution-making, Crafting Constitutional Democracies provides a broad and insightful introduction to comparative politics. Drawn from a series of lectures given in Jakarta, Indonesia, on the drafting of the U.S. constitution, the book illustrates the problems faced by generations of founders, through numerous historic and contemporary examples. Both Indonesia in 1999 and the United States in 1789 faced the same basic issue: how to construct a central government for a large and diverse nation that allowed the majority of the people to govern themselves without intruding on the rights of minorities. What kinds of institutions make for 'good government'? What factors need to be considered in designing a government? Author Edward Schneier explores these questions through a rich variety of examples from both recent and historic transitions to democracy. Drawing frequently upon the arguments of the American Federalist Papers and more contemporary theories of democratization, Crafting Constitutional Democracies lucidly explores the key questions of how and why democracies succeed and fail. A concluding chapter on constitutional change and decline raises provocative and important questions about the lessons that citizens of the world's older democracies might take from the struggles of the new.


The Sage Handbook Of Electoral Behaviour

Author by : Kai Arzheimer
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
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Description : The Handbook of Electoral Behaviour is an authoritative and wide ranging survey of this dynamic field, drawing together a team of the world's leading scholars to provide a state-of-the-art review that sets the agenda for future study.


Strengthening Electoral Integrity

Author by : Maguire Lecturer in Comparative Politics Pippa Norris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
Total Download : 255
File Size : 45,8 Mb
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Description : Today a general mood of pessimism surrounds Western efforts to strengthen elections and democracy abroad. If elections are often deeply flawed or even broken in many countries around the world, can anything be done to fix them? To counter the prevailing ethos, Pippa Norris presents new evidence for why programs of international electoral assistance work. She evaluates the effectiveness of several practical remedies, including efforts designed to reform electoral laws, strengthen women's representation, build effective electoral management bodies, promote balanced campaign communications, regulate political money, and improve voter registration. Pippa Norris argues that it would be a tragedy to undermine progress by withdrawing from international engagement. Instead, the international community needs to learn the lessons of what works best to strengthen electoral integrity, to focus activities and resources upon the most effective programs, and to innovate after a quarter century of efforts to strengthen electoral integrity.


Electoral Reform In Mexico

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Security, International Organizations, and Human Rights
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 67
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File Size : 51,5 Mb
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Description : Distributed to some depository libraries in microfiche.


The Oxford Handbook Of Electoral Systems

Author by : Erik S. Herron
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 19
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Description : Machine generated contents note: -- 1. Terminology and Basic Rules of Electoral Systems -- Erik S. Herron, Robert J. Pekkanen, and Matthew S. Shugart -- Part I. Foundations of Electoral Systems -- 2. Dimensions of Variation in Electoral Systems -- Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell -- 3. Electoral System Effects on Party Systems -- Matthew S. Shugart and Rein Taagepera -- 4. Party System Effects on Electoral Systems -- Josep M. Colomer -- 5. Electoral System Design in New Democracies -- John M. Carey -- 6. Electoral System Change -- Alan Renwick -- Part II. Issues and Representation -- 7. Social Diversity, Electoral Systems, and the Party System -- Robert Moser, Ethan Scheiner, and Heather Stoll -- 8. Electoral Systems and Ethnic Minority Representation -- David Lublin and Shaun Bowler -- 9. Electoral Systems and Women's Representation -- Mona Lena Krook -- 10. Electoral Systems and Voter Turnout -- Daniel M. Smith -- 11. Electoral Systems and Citizen-Elite Ideological Congruence -- Matthew Golder and Benjamin Ferland -- 12. Electoral Systems and Issue Polarization -- James F. Adams and Nathan J. Rexford -- Part III. Electoral Systems and the Wider Political System -- 13. Portfolio-maximizing Strategic Voting in Parliamentary Elections -- Gary W. Cox -- 14. Presidential and Legislative Elections -- Mark P. Jones -- 15. Electoral Systems and Legislative Organization -- Shane Martin -- 16. Electoral Systems and Roles in the Legislative Arena -- Audrey André and Sam Depauw -- 17. Electoral Systems and Constituency Service -- Brian F. Crisp and William M. Simoneau -- 18. Direct Democracy and Referendums -- Matt Qvortrup -- 19. Electoral Systems in Authoritarian States -- Jennifer Gandhi and Abigail L. Heller -- Part IV. Electoral Systems and Research Design -- 20. Election Data and Levels of Analysis -- Ken Kollman -- 21. Experimental Research Design in the Study of Electoral Systems -- Joshua Tucker and Dominik Duell -- 22. Reconciling Approaches in the Study of Mixed-Member Electoral Systems -- Erik S. Herron, Kuniaki Nemoto, and Misa Nishikawa -- Part V. Holding Elections -- 23. Election Administration -- Thad E. Hall -- 24. Electoral Systems and Electoral Integrity -- Pippa Norris -- 25. Electoral Systems and Redistricting -- Lisa Handley -- 26. Electoral Systems and Campaign Finance -- Joel W. Johnson -- Part VI. Electoral Systems in Context -- 27. Electoral Systems in Context: The Netherlands -- Kristof Jacobs -- 28. Electoral Systems in Context: Israel -- Reuven Y. Hazan, Reut Itzkovitch-Malka, and Gideon Rahat -- 29. Electoral Systems in Context: Finland -- Åsa von Schoultz -- 30. Electoral Systems in Context: United Kingdom -- Thomas Carl Lundberg -- 31. Electoral Systems in Context: Ireland -- Michael Marsh -- 32. Electoral Systems in Context: France -- Verónica Hoyo -- 33. Electoral Systems in Context: India -- Adam Ziegfeld -- 34. Electoral Systems in Context: United States -- Steven L. Taylor -- 35. Electoral Systems in Context: Canada -- Louis Massicotte -- 36. Electoral Systems in Context: Australia -- Ian McAllister and Toni Makkai -- 37. Electoral Systems in Context: Germany -- Thomas Zittel -- Part VII. Electoral Systems in the Context of Reform -- 38. Electoral Systems in Context: New Zealand -- Jack Vowles -- 39. Electoral Systems in Context: Japan -- Kuniaki Nemoto -- 40. Electoral Systems in Context: Italy -- Gianluca Passarelli -- 41. Electoral Systems in Context: Colombia -- Steven L. Taylor and Matthew S. Shugart -- Part VIII. Electoral Systems in the Context of New Democracies -- 42. Electoral Systems in Context: Ukraine -- Erik S. Herron -- 43. Electoral Systems in Context: Indonesia -- Nathan Allen -- 44. Electoral Systems in Context: South Africa -- Karen E. Ferree


The Democratization Project

Author by : Ashok Swain
Languange : en
Publisher by : Anthem Press
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Total Read : 29
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Description : This volume, drawing on the work of a variety of scholars, contributes to identifying and understanding the challenges and opportunities presented by the current wave of democratization to the peace and development of the world both at the domestic level in selected countries, trends in regions of the world, and in the global system of the post-Cold War Era.


Votes Party Systems And Democracy In Asia

Author by : Jungug Choi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
Total Download : 362
File Size : 43,5 Mb
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Description : This book looks at the link between voters and political party systems in Asian democracies, focusing on India, Indonesia, Korea and the Philippines. It discusses this link in terms of three distinct elements: the formation of voters preferences, the translation of preferences into votes, and the translation of votes into seats. The book goes on to discuss how far the general rules of political party systems and their underlying causal mechanisms such as strategic voting are apparent in these Asian democracies. In particular, it explores the extent to which electoral rules and social structural variables affect the process of transforming preferences into a political party system within the context of Asian politics.The extensive areas covered by the book overcome the traditional sub-regional division of Asia, namely, East, Southeast and South Asia.


Why Elections Fail

Author by : Pippa Norris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 36
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Description : Too often, elections around the globe are, unfortunately, deeply flawed or even fail. What triggers these problems? In this second volume of her trilogy on electoral integrity, Pippa Norris compares structural, international, and institutional accounts as alternative perspectives to explain why elections fail to meet international standards. The book argues that rules preventing political actors from manipulating electoral governance are needed to secure integrity, although at the same time officials also need sufficient resources and capacities to manage elections effectively. Drawing on new evidence, the study determines the most effective types of strategies for strengthening the quality of electoral governance around the world. With a global perspective, this book provides fresh insights into these major issues at the heart of the study of elections and voting behavior, comparative politics, democracy and democratization, political culture, democratic governance, public policymaking, development, international relations and conflict studies, and processes of regime change.


Political Parties

Author by : Jorge I. Domínguez
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 37
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Description : First Published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Comparative Politics

Author by : John T. Ishiyama
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Total Read : 95
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Description : By revealing the contextual conditions which promote or hinder democratic development, Comparative Politics shows how democracy may not be the best institutional arrangement given a country's unique set of historical, economic, social, cultural and international circumstances. Addresses the contextual conditions which promote or hinder democratic development Reveals that democracy may not be the best institutional arrangement given a country's unique set of historical, economic, social, cultural and international circumstances Applies theories and principles relating to the promotion of the development of democracy to the contemporary case studies


Hybrid Sovereignty In The Arab Middle East

Author by : G. Bacik
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 63
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Description : This book provides readers with a fresh analysis of the Arab state by using a new theoretical framework: hybrid sovereignty. The author examines various areas to make his argument: citizenship, the issue of minorities, electoral engineering, the failure of central rule, tribalism, and the lack of impersonal bureaucratic mechanism.