Encyclopaedia Of The History Of Science Technology And Medicine In Non Western Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Here, at last, is the massively updated and augmented second edition of this landmark encyclopedia. It contains approximately 1000 entries dealing in depth with the history of the scientific, technological and medical accomplishments of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. The entries consist of fully updated articles together with hundreds of entirely new topics. This unique reference work includes intercultural articles on broad topics such as mathematics and astronomy as well as thoughtful philosophical articles on concepts and ideas related to the study of non-Western Science, such as rationality, objectivity, and method. You’ll also find material on religion and science, East and West, and magic and science.


Encyclopaedia Of The History Of Science Technology And Medicine In Non Westen Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
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Description : The Encyclopaedia fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural stud ies. Reference works on other cultures tend either to omit science completely or pay little attention to it, and those on the history of science almost always start with the Greeks, with perhaps a mention of the Islamic world as a trans lator of Greek scientific works. The purpose of the Encyclopaedia is to bring together knowledge of many disparate fields in one place and to legitimize the study of other cultures' science. Our aim is not to claim the superiority of other cultures, but to engage in a mutual exchange of ideas. The Western aca demic divisions of science, technology, and medicine have been united in the Encyclopaedia because in ancient cultures these disciplines were connected. This work contributes to redressing the balance in the number of reference works devoted to the study of Western science, and encourages awareness of cultural diversity. The Encyclopaedia is the first compilation of this sort, and it is testimony both to the earlier Eurocentric view of academia as well as to the widened vision of today. There is nothing that crosses disciplinary and geographic boundaries, dealing with both scientific and philosophical issues, to the extent that this work does. xi PERSONAL NOTE FROM THE EDITOR Many years ago I taught African history at a secondary school in Central Africa.


Encyclopaedia Of The History Of Science Technology And Medicine In Non Western Cultures L Z

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : The entries consist of fully updated articles together with hundreds of entirely new topics adorned with full color pictures. This unique reference work includes intercultural articles on broad topics such as mathematics and astronomy as well as thoughtful philosophical articles on concepts and ideas related to the study of non-Western Science, such as rationality, objectivity, and method. You'll also find material on religion and science, East and West, and magic and science. This amazing resource even contains entries on fascinating esoteric topics such as Native American mathematics, Polynesian navigation, and African Metallurgy. There are also biographical articles for those cultures where individual scientists are known to us, such as China and the Islamic world. - Publisher.


Medicine Across Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
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Description : This work deals with the medical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Indian, Egyptian, and Tibetan medicine, the book includes essays on comparing Chinese and western medicine and religion and medicine. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography.


The Cambridge World History Volume 4 A World With States Empires And Networks 1200 Bce 900 Ce

Author by : Craig Benjamin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
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Description : From 1200 BCE to 900 CE, the world witnessed the rise of powerful new states and empires, as well as networks of cross-cultural exchange and conquest. Considering the formation and expansion of these large-scale entities, this fourth volume of the Cambridge World History series outlines key economic, political, social, cultural, and intellectual developments that occurred across the globe in this period. Leading scholars examine critical transformations in science and technology, economic systems, attitudes towards gender and family, social hierarchies, education, art, and slavery. The second part of the volume focuses on broader processes of change within western and central Eurasia, the Mediterranean, South Asia, Africa, East Asia, Europe, the Americas and Oceania, as well as offering regional studies highlighting specific topics, from trade along the Silk Roads and across the Sahara, to Chaco culture in the US southwest, to Confucianism and the state in East Asia.


The Ethics Of Anthropology And Amerindian Research

Author by : Richard J. Chacon
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : The decision to publish scholarly findings bearing on the question of Amerindian environmental degradation, warfare, and/or violence is one that weighs heavily on anthropologists. This burden stems from the fact that documentation of this may render descendant communities vulnerable to a host of predatory agendas and hostile modern forces. Consequently, some anthropologists and community advocates alike argue that such culturally and socially sensitive, and thereby, politically volatile information regarding Amerindian-induced environmental degradation and warfare should not be reported. This admonition presents a conundrum for anthropologists and other social scientists employed in the academy or who work at the behest of tribal entities. This work documents the various ethical dilemmas that confront anthropologists, and researchers in general, when investigating Amerindian communities. The contributions to this volume explore the ramifications of reporting--and, specifically,--of non-reporting instances of environmental degradation and warfare among Amerindians. Collectively, the contributions in this volume, which extend across the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, ethnohistory, ethnic studies, philosophy, and medicine, argue that the non-reporting of environmental mismanagement and violence in Amerindian communities generally harms not only the field of anthropology but the Amerindian populations themselves.


Nature Across Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 72
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Description : Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures consists of about 25 essays dealing with the environmental knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Indian, Thai, and Andean views of nature and the environment, among others, the book includes essays on Environmentalism and Images of the Other, Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Worldviews and Ecology, Rethinking the Western/non-Western Divide, and Landscape, Nature, and Culture. The essays address the connections between nature and culture and relate the environmental practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both environmental history and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.


Astronomy Across Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
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Description : Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.


Childbirth Across Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
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Description : This book will explore the childbirth process through globally diverse perspectives in order to offer a broader context with which to think about birth. We will address multiple rituals and management models surrounding the labor and birth process from communities across the globe. Labor and birth are biocultural events that are managed in countless ways. We are particularly interested in the notion of power. Who controls the pregnancy and the birth? Is it the hospital, the doctor, or the in-laws, and in which cultures does the mother have the control? These decisions, regarding place of birth, position, who receives the baby and even how the mother may or may not behave during the actual delivery, are all part of the different ways that birth is conducted. One chapter of the book will be devoted to midwives and other birth attendants. There will also be chapters on the Evolution of Birth, on Women’s Birth Narratives, and on Child Spacing and Breastfeeding. This book will bring together global research conducted by professional anthropologists, midwives and doctors who work closely with the individuals from the cultures they are writing about, offering a unique perspective direct from the cultural group.


The Oxford Companion To The History Of Modern Science

Author by : John L. Heilbron
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : Containing 609 encyclopedic articles written by more than 200 prominent scholars, The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science presents an unparalleled history of the field invaluable to anyone with an interest in the technology, ideas, discoveries, and learned institutions that have shaped our world over the past five centuries. Focusing on the period from the Renaissance to the early twenty-first century, the articles cover all disciplines (Biology, Alchemy, Behaviorism), historical periods (the Scientific Revolution, World War II, the Cold War), concepts (Hypothesis, Space and Time, Ether), and methodologies and philosophies (Observation and Experiment, Darwinism). Coverage is international, tracing the spread of science from its traditional centers and explaining how the prevailing knowledge of non-Western societies has modified or contributed to the dominant global science as it is currently understood. Revealing the interplay between science and the wider culture, the Companion includes entries on topics such as minority groups, art, religion, and science's practical applications. One hundred biographies of the most iconic historic figures, chosen for their contributions to science and the interest of their lives, are also included. Above all The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science is a companion to world history: modern in coverage, generous in breadth, and cosmopolitan in scope. The volume's utility is enhanced by a thematic outline of the entire contents, a thorough system of cross-referencing, and a detailed index that enables the reader to follow a specific line of inquiry along various threads from multiple starting points. Each essay has numerous suggestions for further reading, all of which favor literature that is accessible to the general reader, and a bibliographical essay provides a general overview of the scholarship in the field. Lastly, as a contribution to the visual appeal of the Companion, over 100 black-and-white illustrations and an eight-page color section capture the eye and spark the imagination.


Mathematics Across Cultures

Author by : Helaine Selin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
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Description : Mathematics Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Mathematics consists of essays dealing with the mathematical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Inca, Egyptian, and African mathematics, among others, the book includes essays on Rationality, Logic and Mathematics, and the transfer of knowledge from East to West. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate the mathematical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.


Magnetic Materials And Technologies For Medical Applications

Author by : Alexander Tishin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Woodhead Publishing
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Total Read : 67
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Description : The study of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of various diseases is not a new one; however, we are still learning how magnetic fields impact the human body and its organs. Many novel magnetic materials and technologies could potentially transform medicine. Magnetic Materials and Technologies for Medical Applications explores these current and emerging technologies. Beginning with foundational knowledge on the basics of magnetism, this book then details the approaches and methods used in the creation of novel magnetic materials and devices. This book also discusses current technologies and applications, as well as the commercial aspects of introducing new technologies to the field. This book serves as an excellent introduction for early career researchers or a reference to more experienced researchers who wish to stay abreast of current trends and developing technologies in the field. This book could also be used by clinicians working in medicine and companies interested in establishing new medical technologies. Each chapter provides novel tasks for future scientific and technology research studies. Outlines the basics of magnetism for enhanced understanding of its applications in medicine Covers novel magnetic devices as well as technologies still under development, including magnetic brain stimulation, biosensors, and nanoparticles for drug delivery Explores commercial opportunities and obstacles to market entry for new magnetic materials and technologies for the medical field


Sanskrit Astronomical Tables

Author by : Clemency Montelle
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 72
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Description : This groundbreaking volume provides an up-to-date, accessible guide to Sanskrit astronomical tables and their analysis. It begins with an overview of Indian mathematical astronomy and its literature, including table texts, in the context of history of pre-modern astronomy. It then discusses the primary mathematical astronomy content of table texts and the attempted taxonomy of this genre before diving into the broad outlines of their representation in the Sanskrit scientific manuscript corpus. Finally, the authors survey the major categories of individual tables compiled in these texts, complete with brief analyses of some of the methods for constructing and using them, and then chronicle the evolution of the table-text genre and the impacts of its changing role on the discipline of Sanskrit jyotiṣa. There are also three appendices: one inventories all the identified individual works in the genre currently known to the authors; one provides reference information about the details of all the notational, calendric, astronomical, and other classification systems invoked in the study; and one serves as a glossary of the relevant Sanskrit terms.


Reader S Guide To The History Of Science

Author by : Arne Hessenbruch
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
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Description : The Reader's Guide to the History of Science looks at the literature of science in some 550 entries on individuals (Einstein), institutions and disciplines (Mathematics), general themes (Romantic Science) and central concepts (Paradigm and Fact). The history of science is construed widely to include the history of medicine and technology as is reflected in the range of disciplines from which the international team of 200 contributors are drawn.


Before Copernicus

Author by : Rivka Feldhay
Languange : en
Publisher by : McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
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Total Read : 79
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Description : In 1984, Noel Swerdlow and Otto Neugebauer argued that Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) explained planetary motion by using mathematical devices and astronomical models originally developed by Islamic astronomers in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Was this a parallel development, or did Copernicus somehow learn of the work of his predecessors, and if so, how? And if Copernicus did use material from the Islamic world, how then should we understand the European context of his innovative cosmology? Although Copernicus’s work has been subject to a number of excellent studies, there has been little attention paid to the sources and diverse cultures that might have inspired him. Foregrounding the importance of interactions between Islamic and European astronomers and philosophers, Before Copernicus explores the multi-cultural, multi-religious, and multi-lingual context of learning on the eve of the Copernican revolution, determining the relationship between Copernicus and his predecessors. Essays by Christopher Celenza and Nancy Bisaha delve into the European cultural and intellectual contexts of the fifteenth century, revealing both the profound differences between “them” and “us,” and the nascent attitudes that would mark the turn to modernity. Michael Shank, F. Jamil Ragep, Sally Ragep, and Robert Morrison depict the vibrant and creative work of astronomers in the Christian, Islamic, and Jewish worlds. In other essays, Rivka Feldhay, Raz Chen-Morris, and Edith Sylla demonstrate the importance of shifting outlooks that were critical for the emergence of a new worldview. Highlighting the often-neglected intercultural exchange between Islam and early modern Europe, Before Copernicus reimagines the scientific revolution in a global context.


Handbook To Life In Medieval And Early Modern Japan

Author by : William E. Deal
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
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Description : andbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan spans the beginning of the Kamakura period in 1185 through the end of the Edo (Tokugawa) period in 1868. The medieval and early modern eras in Japan were largely shaped by the rise of the warrior class. After 1603, with the founding of the Tokugawa shogunate, Japanese culture changed dramatically, but as cities grew and merchants thrived, the warrior class became less dominant. By the end of the Edo period, Japan's insular feudal society and military government became irrelevant in an increasingly consumer-oriented economy and thriving urban culture. The contribution of military rulers, celebrated warriors, and cultural innovators to medieval and early modern Japanese culture are well documented. However, life at the village level also had a strong impact on the culture. Covering both levels of society, this comprehensive guide provides insightful information on well-known people and peasants, artisans, shopkeepers, and others outside the periphery of power. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan introduces the reader to the significant people and events-cultural, social, political, and historical-and the everyday experiences and elements of material culture during this time. Organized thematically, the text covers: History; Land, Environment, and Population; Government; Society and Economy; Warriors and Warfare; Religion; Philosophy, Education, and Science; Language and Literature; Performing Arts; Art and Architecture; Travel and Communication; Daily Life. Each chapter includes an extensive bibliography, and photographs and maps complement the text. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan provides all the essential information for anyone interested in Japanese history, society, or culture.


Early Maritime Cultures In East Africa And The Western Indian Ocean

Author by : Akshay Sarathi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
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Total Read : 99
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Description : This volume represents a multi-disciplinary effort to examine East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean. Multiple lines of evidence drawn from linguistics, archaeology, history, art history, and ethnography come together in novel ways to highlight different aspects of the region’s past and offer innovative avenues for future research.


Mask Of The Sun The Science History And Forgotten Lore Of Eclipses

Author by : John Dvorak
Languange : en
Publisher by : Simon and Schuster
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Total Read : 17
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Description : They have been thought of as harbingers of evil as well as a sign of the divine. Eclipses—one of the rarest and most stunning celestial events we can witness here on Earth—have shaped the course of human history and thought since humans first turned their eyes to the sky. What do Virginia Woolf, the rotation of hurricanes, Babylonian kings and Einstein’s General Theory Relativity all have in common? Eclipses. Always spectacular and, today, precisely predicable, eclipses have allowed us to know when the first Olympic games were played and, long before the first space probe, that the Moon was covered by dust. Eclipses have stunned, frightened, emboldened and mesmerized people for thousands of years. They were recorded on ancient turtle shells discovered in the Wastes of Yin in China, on clay tablets from Mesopotamia and on the Mayan “Dresden Codex." They are mentioned in Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and at least eight times in the Bible. Columbus used them to trick people, while Renaissance painter Taddeo Gaddi was blinded by one. Sorcery was banished within the Catholic Church after astrologers used an eclipse to predict a pope’s death. In Mask of the Sun, acclaimed writer John Dvorak the importance of the number 177 and why the ancient Romans thought it was bad to have sexual intercourse during an eclipse (whereas other cultures thought it would be good luck). Even today, pregnant women in Mexico wear safety pins on their underwear during an eclipse. Eclipses are an amazing phenomena—unique to Earth—that have provided the key to much of what we now know and understand about the sun, our moon, gravity, and the workings of the universe. Both entertaining and authoritative, Mask of the Sun reveals the humanism behind the science of both lunar and solar eclipses. With insightful detail and vividly accessible prose, Dvorak provides explanations as to how and why eclipses occur—as well as insight into the forthcoming eclipse of 2017 that will be visible across North America.


Literary Research And The Victorian And Edwardian Ages 1830 1910

Author by : Melissa S. Van Vuuren
Languange : en
Publisher by : Scarecrow Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
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Description : This volume discusses traditional and new resources for researching British literature of the Victorian and Edwardian ages and the ways in which those resources can be used in conjunction with one another.


Medicine And Humanism In Late Medieval Italy

Author by : Sarah R. Kyle
Languange : en
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
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Total Read : 10
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Description : "The Carrara Herbal is an exceptional illustrated book of materia medica (therapeutic substances drawn from plants, animals and minerals). It is exceptional in both its illustrations and its content, making it of interest to historians of art and medicine alike. The Herbal contains a translation into Paduan dialect of a Latin version of the mid-thirteenth-century Arabic pharmacopeia, Kitab al-Adwiya al-mufrada (The Book of Simple Medicines), written by Ibn Sarabi, a Christian physician working in al-Andalus and known in the Latin West as Serapion the Younger."--Introduction.


Literary Research And Postcolonial Literatures In English

Author by : H. Faye Christenberry
Languange : en
Publisher by : Scarecrow Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
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Description : Postcolonial literatures can be defined as the body of creative work written by authors whose lands were formerly colonized. This book is a research guide to postcolonial literatures in English, specifically from former British colonies in Africa, the Caribbean, and South Asia. While this volume focuses exclusively on Anglophone literatures, it does not address those from Australia, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand as they have already been covered in previous volumes in the series.


Indigo Quilts

Author by : Kay Triplett
Languange : en
Publisher by : C&T Publishing Inc
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 44
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Description : A detailed look at the history of Indigo quilts, as well as five beautiful projects inspired by antique designs. The beauty of Indigo quilts is undeniable. Explore the origins of the fiber and fabric presented by two members of the American Quilt Study Group. Step inside the Poos Collection of quilts, one of the largest privately held collections in the world. Featuring stunning quilts circa 1750 to 1890. Get inspired and make one of the gorgeous quilt projects using present day Indigo or reproduction fabrics. Includes: 25 stunning antique quilts from one of the world’s largest privately held quilt and textile collections Appliqué and patchwork! 5 beautiful projects inspired by antique quilts Photographic history of indigo’s origins in textiles, from Africa to America Praise for Indigo Quilts “This excellent mix of history and quilt projects is the Triplett sisters’ third book based off the Poos Collections, a large, privately held gathering of quilts and textiles managed by the authors. . . . The Tripletts’ style is scholarly and readable; the pictures are stunning and seductive, and the book finishes off with five indigo design projects for the mid-level-to-expert quilter.” —Publishers Weekly “In their third book about the collection, their focus is on historic indigo quilts, as well as the African tradition of indigo cultivation and dyeing that was brought to the United States both by African traders and explorers and by slaves captured from their West African homelands. . . . Historical quilt enthusiasts will appreciate the depth of the Tripletts’ research on the history of indigo dyeing; contemporary quilters who appreciate reproduction quilts will enjoy the gallery and the patterns.” —Library Journal


International Encyclopedia Of Human Geography

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
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Description : The International Encyclopedia of Human Geography provides an authoritative and comprehensive source of information on the discipline of human geography and its constituent, and related, subject areas. The encyclopedia includes over 1,000 detailed entries on philosophy and theory, key concepts, methods and practices, biographies of notable geographers, and geographical thought and praxis in different parts of the world. This groundbreaking project covers every field of human geography and the discipline’s relationships to other disciplines, and is global in scope, involving an international set of contributors. Given its broad, inclusive scope and unique online accessibility, it is anticipated that the International Encyclopedia of Human Geography will become the major reference work for the discipline over the coming decades. The Encyclopedia will be available in both limited edition print and online via ScienceDirect - featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit http://info.sciencedirect.com/content/books/ref_works/coming/ Available online on ScienceDirect and in limited edition print format Broad, interdisciplinary coverage across human geography: Philosophy, Methods, People, Social/Cultural, Political, Economic, Development, Health, Cartography, Urban, Historical, Regional Comprehensive and unique - the first of its kind in human geography


Lost Discoveries

Author by : Dick Teresi
Languange : en
Publisher by : Simon and Schuster
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
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Description : Lost Discoveries, Dick Teresi's innovative history of science, explores the unheralded scientific breakthroughs from peoples of the ancient world -- Babylonians, Egyptians, Indians, Africans, New World and Oceanic tribes, among others -- and the non-European medieval world. They left an enormous heritage in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, cosmology, physics, geology, chemistry, and technology. The mathematical foundation of Western science is a gift from the Indians, Chinese, Arabs, Babylonians, and Maya. The ancient Egyptians developed the concept of the lowest common denominator, and they developed a fraction table that modern scholars estimate required 28,000 calculations to compile. The Babylonians developed the first written math and used a place-value number system. Our numerals, 0 through 9, were invented in ancient India; the Indians also boasted geometry, trigonometry, and a kind of calculus. Planetary astronomy as well may have begun with the ancient Indians, who correctly identified the relative distances of the known planets from the sun, and knew the moon was nearer to the earth than the sun was. The Chinese observed, reported, dated, recorded, and interpreted eclipses between 1400 and 1200 b.c. Most of the names of our stars and constellations are Arabic. Arabs built the first observatories. Five thousand years ago, the Sumerians said the earth was circular. In the sixth century, a Hindu astronomer taught that the daily rotation of the earth on its axis provided the rising and setting of the sun. Chinese and Arab scholars were the first to use fossils scientifically to trace earth's history. Chinese alchemists realized that most physical substances were merely combinations of other substances, which could be mixed in different proportions. Islamic scholars are legendary for translating scientific texts of many languages into Arabic, a tradition that began with alchemical books. In the eleventh century, Avicenna of Persia divined that outward qualities of metals were of little value in classification, and he stressed internal structure, a notion anticipating Mendeleyev's periodic chart of elements. Iron suspension bridges came from Kashmir, printing from India; papermaking was from China, Tibet, India, and Baghdad; movable type was invented by Pi Sheng in about 1041; the Quechuan Indians of Peru were the first to vulcanize rubber; Andean farmers were the first to freeze-dry potatoes. European explorers depended heavily on Indian and Filipino shipbuilders, and collected maps and sea charts from Javanese and Arab merchants. The first comprehensive, authoritative, popularly written, multicultural history of science, Lost Discoveries fills a crucial gap in the history of science.


Understanding Alternative Medicine

Author by : Virginia M Tyler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 76
Total Download : 340
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Description : Understanding Alternative Medicine: New Health Paths in America provides health professionals and educators with insight into the growing use and social acceptance of alternative medicines in the United States today. This book discusses the political, economic, and scientific implications of multicultural medicine in American society and provides you with specific information on the use of alternative medicines in the United States. With this complete and comprehensive guide, you will discover the safety and efficacy of alternative medicines, therapies, and philosophies to offer your patients the best possible care for their ailments. Intelligent and informative, Understanding Alternative Medicine examines several different philosophies that alternative treatments are based on, such as Shamanism, Ayurvedic Medicine, and traditional chinese medicine and discusses some of the negative consequences of these practices on both the plant and animal kingdoms. This essential book will provide you with a variety of medical suggestions to improve your patients’health while examining present issues surrounding alternative medicine, including: realizing the environmental impact on endangered plants and animals used as ingredients in traditional and herbal medicines to help you understand the negative effects on the world while balancing the positive effects for the human population understanding the economic growth and social acceptance of the alternative health industry and its move into mainstream society examining why, according to some doctors’opinions, the United States Food and Drug Administration continues to be unsuccessful in its efforts to properly evaluate the safety and efficacy of alternative medicine Through this essential book,you will discover how American medicine has diversified among accepted medical practices as well as medical practitioners and that these trends are beginning to change American health care practices and procedures. Understanding Alternative Medicine offers proof on how these changes have influenced the growing availability, awareness, and use of traditional medicines in order to expand your options for patient care and help people live improved and healthier lives.