Description : During the 1980s the news media were filled with reports of soaring unemployment as 'downsizing' and `restructuring' became the new buzzwords. Firms managed their workforce reduction by increasing the attractiveness of their pension plans-especially their early-retirement plans. In this volume, the authors examine the U.S. auto industry and present a full-scale analysis of the work and retirement decisions of its workers. They address organizational context and the logic of financial incentives in employer-provided early retirement plans. The impact of pension provisions, layoffs, plant closures, attitudes about `generational equity', and other factors influencing the workers' evaluation of the optimum time to end their careers in the auto industry are explored.
Description : This book reviews, summarizes, and integrates a diverse literature on the topic of retirement and provides a coherent view to better inform researchers and practitioners. Organized around three phases of the retirement process--pre-retirement, retirement decision-making, and post-retirement--the chapters examine economic, sociological, gerontological, and psychological theory and research. Topics discussed include: types of retirement, retirement planning and preparation, early retirement incentive programs, the economics of the retirement decision-making, and work after retirement, among others. Contributors include Jerome Kaplan, Kenneth Shultz, Harvey Sterns, and Linda Stroh.
Description : Every industrial nation in the world guarantees its citizens access to essential health care services--every country, that is, except the United States. In fact, one in eight Americans--a shocking 43 million people--do not have any health care insurance at all. One Nation, Uninsured offers a vividly written history of America's failed efforts to address the health care needs of its citizens. Covering the entire twentieth century, Jill Quadagno shows how each attempt to enact national health insurance was met with fierce attacks by powerful stakeholders, who mobilized their considerable resources to keep the financing of health care out of the government's hands. Quadagno describes how at first physicians led the anti-reform coalition, fearful that government entry would mean government control of the lucrative private health care market. Doctors lobbied legislators, influenced elections by giving large campaign contributions to sympathetic candidates, and organized "grassroots" protests, conspiring with other like-minded groups to defeat reform efforts. As the success of Medicare and Medicaid in the mid-century led physicians and the AMA to start scaling back their attacks, the insurance industry began assuming a leading role against reform that continues to this day. One Nation, Uninsured offers a sweeping history of the battles over health care. It is an invaluable read for anyone who has a stake in the future of America's health care system.
Description : As one sixty-year-old, thirty-and-out auto worker said, "My people came from Scotland, and they worked in the mines and we thought black lung was the worst. We came over here for a better life and work in the factories and now [GM] closes them down the same way." This is just one of the quotes Josie Kearns shares in her stories of thirty laid-off auto workers and their families. While some of the stories are heart-wrenching, the volume is not one of gloom and despair. Like Studs Terkel and his Working, Kearns gives special attention to he workers' aspirations, philosophies, and humor. For those who went through retraining programs or put their entrepreneurial spirit to work after their layoffs, Kearns discovers unlikely success stories and describes the dramatic changes workers realized upon entering new fields or becoming their own bosses. She precedes each interview with a brief biographical sketch and also looks at the effects of retirement and retraining on the former auto workers.
Description : Eichar begins by establishing theoretical distinctions relating to "occupation" and "class." He next looks at basic job characteristics and examines occupational self-direction and its relation to class consciousness. From a review of recent literature, the author develops a set of hypotheses relating to the impact of occupational self-direction and alienation on class consciousness. Interpreting his findings, Eichar points out significant differences in the impact of alienation and occupational self-direction depending on the level of class consciousness. Offering solid empirical analysis and careful review of the new class theories, as well as more traditional views of the relationship between work and political attitudes, this study will be of interest in political sociology, Marxist studies, industrial psychology, management theory, and related fields.