Environmental Health And Safety For Hazardous Waste Sites

Author by : Richard C. Barth
Languange : en
Publisher by : AIHA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 14
Total Download : 263
File Size : 50,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The companion workbook to The Noise Manual, or stand alone product, is a practical teaching tool that includes more than 400 real-world sample problems with worked-out solutions. Detailed and thought- provoking problem discussions are provided for those who deal with various phases of a hearing conservation program.


Occupational Safety And Health Guidance Manual For Hazardous Waste Site Activities

Author by : National Institute and Health
Languange : en
Publisher by : CreateSpace
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 340
File Size : 40,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : In the past decade, industry, government, and the general public have become increasingly aware of the need to respond to the hazardous waste problem, which has grown steadily over the past 40 years. In 1980, Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - the Superfund law-to provide for "liability, compensation, cleanup, and emergency response for hazardous substances released into the environment and the cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites." This manual, Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities, is a guidance document for managers responsible for occupational safety and health programs at inactive hazardous waste sites. It assumes a basic knowledge of science and experience in occupational safety and health. It is the product of a four-agency committee (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH], the Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA], the U.S. Coast Guard [USCG], and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] mandated by CERCLA section 301(f) to study the problem of protecting the safety and health or workers at hazardous waste sites, and by CERCLA section 111(c)(6) to develop a program to protect the health and safety of employees involved in response to hazardous substance releases, removals, or remedial actions. This manual is intended for federal, state, and local offices and their contractors. It may be used: as a planning tool by government or private individuals; as a management tool by upper level or field managers; as an educational tool to provide a comprehensive overview of all aspects of safety and health protection at hazardous waste sites; as a reference document for site personnel who need to review important aspects of health and safety.


Occupational Safety And Health Guidance Manual For Hazardous Waste Site Activities

Author by : National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Languange : en
Publisher by : CreateSpace
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
Total Download : 108
File Size : 46,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : In the past decade, industry, government, and the general public have become increasingly aware of the need to respond to the hazardous waste problem, which has grown steadily over the past 40 years. In 1980, Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) -- the Superfund law-to provide for "liability, compensation, cleanup, and emergency response for hazardous substances released into the environment and the cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites." This manual is a guidance document for managers responsible for occupational safety and health programs at inactive hazardous waste sites. It assumes a basic knowledge of science and experience in occupational safety and health. It is the product of a four-agency committee (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH], the Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA], the U.S. Coast Guard [USCG], and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]) mandated by CERCLA section 301(f) to study the problem of protecting the safety and health of workers at hazardous waste sites, and by CERCLA section 111(c)(6) to develop a program to protect the health and safety of employees involved in response to hazardous substance releases, removals, or remedial actions. This manual is intended for federal, state, and local officials and their contractors. It may be used: As a planning tool by government or private individuals; As a management tool by upper level or field managers; As an educational tool to provide a comprehensive overview of all aspects of safety and health protection at hazardous waste sites; As a reference document for site personnel who need to review important aspects of health and safety. This document is not a detailed industrial hygiene textbook or a comprehensive source book on occupational safety and health. It provides general guidance and should be used as a preliminary basis for developing a specific health and safety program. The appropriateness of the information presented should always be evaluated in light of site-specific conditions. Other sources and experienced individuals should be consulted as necessary for the detail needed to design and implement occupational safety and health programs at specific hazardous waste sites.


Hazardous Waste Compliance

Author by : Clifford Florczak
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 929
File Size : 47,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Hazardous Waste Compliance concentrates on government regulations as they relate to hazardous waste and other hazardous materials. The main focus of this book is on how to comply with these requirements as well as on other best management practices (BMP), which will ensure worker safety and business protection from the risk of the commercial penalties associated with regulations breaches. The authors provide the reader with useful techniques to enhance worker protection and promote efficiency, productivity and cost effectiveness, along with achieving the necessary quality standards for the work being performed. The authors further outline and define methods to help reduce worker injury and illness, the scope and application of HAZWOPER, and ways to implement hazardous material related requirements through enhancements of existing programs. In addition, detailed discussion helps to provide methods to help promote consistency in health and safety program development for handling hazardous materials, encourage a high standard for health and safety, and share lessons learned to help provide approaches that have been implemented on hazardous waste and other sites. Provides a comprehensive overview of regulatory requirements in the industry Real-life experiences are presented in the form of case histories A training aid for both new and experienced site workers


Protecting Personnel At Hazardous Waste Sites

Author by : William Martin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Butterworth-Heinemann
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
Total Download : 526
File Size : 55,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Introduction and Federal Government Programs; Information Gathering, Databases, and Site Characterization; Occupational Health and Safety Programs for Hazardous Wastes; Toxicology and Risk Assessment; Air Monitoring at Hazardous Waste Sites; Compatibility Testing; Medical Surveillance; Engineering Controls and Site Layout; Personal Protective Equipment; Heat Stress in Industrial Protective Encapsulating Garments; Decontamination; Training; Health and Safety and Contingency Plans; Radiation Safety; Ordnance, Explosive Waste and Unexploded Ordnance; Monitoring Well Health and Safety; Transportation Safety; ISO 9000 and 14000 for Hazardous Waste Operations, Appendices, Index.


Basic Hazardous Waste Management Third Edition

Author by : William C. Blackman, Jr.
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 44
Total Download : 252
File Size : 42,8 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : This third edition updates and expands the material presented in the best-selling first and second editions of Basic Hazardous Waste Management. It covers health and safety issues affecting hazardous waste workers, management and regulation of radioactive and biomedical/infectious wastes, as well as current trends in technologies. While the topics have been completely revised, the author employs the same practical approach that made the previous editions so popular. Chapters are structured to first outline the issue, subject, or technology, then to describe generic practice, and then to conclude with a summary of the statutory or regulatory approach. Blackman introduces fundamental issues such as human health hazards; the environmental impacts of toxic, reactive, and ignitable materials; the mobility, pathways and fates of released hazardous materials; and the roles of science, technology, and risk assessment in the standards-setting process. He explores hazardous waste site remediation technology, and the application of federal statutes, regulations, programs, and policies to the cleanup of contaminated sites. This text provides an introductory framework-which can serve as the foundation for a program of study in traditional as well as modern hazardous waste management-or a component of a related program. Its overview format provides numerous references to more detailed materials to assist the student or instructor in expansion on specific topics.


Protecting Personnel At Hazardous Waste Sites

Author by : WILLIAM F. MARTIN
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 54
Total Download : 774
File Size : 54,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The second edition of this book brings together a wide range of occupational safety and health recommendations and practices directly applying to hazardous waste site clean ups. In addition to providing the most current information on maximum protection for clean up personnel, this book is a practical authoritative guide for those involved in clean up operations. The completely updated second edition cites the newest OSHA and NIOSH recommendations which have developed over the past decade and explores the new federal emphasis in hazardous waste site clean ups as Radiation safety, Toxicology, Unexploded ordanance, OSHA training, EPA training and site health and safety plans.


Handbook Of Environmental Health And Safety

Author by : Herman Koren
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
Total Download : 737
File Size : 45,6 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : "Ir Quality Management Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Private and Public Water Supplies Swimming Areas Plumbing Private and Public Sewage Disposal and Soils Water Pollution and Water Quality Controls Environmental Health Emergencies, Nuisance Complaints, and Special Problems Instrumentation References Indexes.


Occupational Safety And Health Guidance Manual For Hazardous Waste Site Activities

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
Total Download : 500
File Size : 52,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : In the past decade, industry, government, and the general public have become increasingly aware of the need to respond to the hazardous waste problem, which has grown steadily over the past 40 years. In 1980, Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)-the Superfund law-to provide for "liability, compensation, cleanup, and emergency response for hazardous substances released into the environment and the cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites." This manual is a guidance document for managers responsible for occupational safety and health programs at inactive hazardous waste sites. It assumes a basic knowledge of science and experience in occupational safety and health. It is the product of a four-agency committee (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA, the U.S. Coast Guard USCG, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA) mandated by CERCLA section 301(f) to study the problem of protecting the safety and health of workers at hazardous waste sites, and by CERCLA section 111(c)(6) to develop a program to protect the health and safety of employees involved in response to hazardous substance releases, removals, or remedial actions.


Hazardous Waste Management

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 44
Total Download : 114
File Size : 46,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Ecological Assessment Of Hazardous Waste Sites

Author by : James T. Maughan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Van Nostrand Reinhold Company
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
Total Download : 429
File Size : 44,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Ecological Assessment of Hazardous Waste Sites James T. Maughan, Ph.D. This book provides the essential technical and regulatory information necessary to plan, prepare, and implement an ecological assessment of a hazardous waste site in compliance with current government regulations. James T. Maughan, with input from several contributing authors, presents a precise, step-by-step approach to analysis of ecological resources present on-site, their risk from contamination, and the potential for remediation and restoration. All aspects of the book are related back to a clearly-stated definition of objectives and needs for ecological assessment of hazardous waste sites. Focusing on both traditional and experimental methods for the evaluation of a hazardous waste site, the book examines the overall approach to assessments as well as techniques for evaluating three prominent aspects of ecological assessments: terrestrial pathways of contaminants, sediment quality and contamination, and toxicity testing. Dr. Maughan catalogs and clarifies the appropriate regulations and agency expectations that must be met in order to avoid noncompliance. In addition, the author includes detailed case studies which elaborate the concepts and techniques of ecological assessment. Ecological Assessment of Hazardous Waste Sites is ideal as both a reference and a training text for ecologists, other biologists, and natural resource planners lacking extensive experience in hazardous waste investigations. Engineers, geologists, chemists, and managers with hazardous waste experience but little or no experience in ecology will find this an invaluable source: This book is of use to a wide cross-section of professionals, educators, and students in the environmental consulting industry and the environmental regulatory community.


Code Of Federal Regulations

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
Total Download : 204
File Size : 54,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Employee Health Risks At Toxic Waste Sites

Author by : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Civil Service
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
Total Download : 954
File Size : 49,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Hazardous Materials Awareness And Operations

Author by : Iafc
Languange : en
Publisher by : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 997
File Size : 43,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Each new print copy of Hazardous Materials: Awareness and Operations also includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access that unlocks a complete eBook, Study Center, homework and Assessment Center, and a dashboard that reports actionable data. Experience Navigate 2 today at www.jblnavigate.com/2. A fire fighter’s ability to recognize an incident involving hazardous materials or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is critical. They must possess the knowledge required to identify the presence of hazardous materials and WMD, and have an understanding of what their role is within the response plan. The second edition of Hazardous Materials Awareness and Operations will provide fire fighters and first responders with these skills and enable them to keep themselves and others safe while mitigating these potentially deadly incidents. Hazardous Materials Awareness and Operations, Second Edition meets and exceeds the requirements for first responders within the 2013 Edition of NFPA 472, Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents. Additionally, the material presented also exceeds the hazardous materials response requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Hazardous Materials Awareness and Operations provides in-depth coverage of: • The properties and effects of hazardous materials and WMDs • How to calculate potential danger and initiate a response plan • Selection, use, advantages, and disadvantages of personal protective equipment • Mass and technical decontamination • Evidence preservation and sampling • Product control • Victim rescue and recovery • Air monitoring and sampling • Illicit laboratory incidents The second edition features: • A new chapter on Fire Smoke designed to teach hazardous materials responders how to prevent, protect, detect, diagnose, and appropriately treat smoke inhalation. • Knowledge and Skills Objectives correlated to the 2013 Edition of NFPA 472, Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents. • Detailed step-by-step skill drills with which include the corresponding NFPA job performance requirement. • Scenario based learning tools including You are the Responder, Responder in Action, and Voices of Experience case studies to encourage critical thinking skills. • Responder Tips and Safety Tips to provide helpful advice from hazardous materials veterans.


Risk Assessment

Author by : Peter LaGoy
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 63
Total Download : 239
File Size : 46,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : Site-specific risk assessment is the process of evaluating whether or not a site poses a risk to human health or the environment. The purpose of all hazardous waste site remediation is ultimately to render a site safe for human or ecological populations. Consequently, risk assessment, as the process used to measure the effectiveness of the remediation process, is critical to all hazardous waste-site work. Risk assessment at hazardous waste sites involves the use of standard approaches and assumptions in a reasoned, common sense manner. The purpose of this book is to provide practical guidance to people wishing to learn about, conduct, or use risk assessment procedures in evaluating hazardous waste sites. Critical issues, standard formulas and assumptions, and guidance on characterizing risk results in a useable manner are presented. The use of risk assessment as a key tool in selecting appropriate remedial options at hazardous waste sites is also described. Most attention is given to human health risks associated with exposure to toxic chemicals, but descriptions of the strategies used to estimate radiation health risks and to evaluate risks to the environment are also provided. Although most commonly applied to hazardous waste site remediation, the procedures outlined in this book are generally applicable to any situation involving a potential for health risks to an exposed population. This book provides guidance on the mechanics of risk assessment preparation and illustrates these approaches with examples. However, the focus of the book is on the subjective nature of risk assessment, the art rather than the science. The actual risk (i.e., the right answer) can never be known. Consequently, while it is valuable to attempt to obtain the best numeric solution, reasonableness and the application of common sense are equally important. The book therefore devotes a substantial amount of space to issues of uncertainty that are inherent in risk assessment, and the need to address this uncertainty.


Hazardous Waste Sites

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 61
Total Download : 418
File Size : 46,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Hazardous And Toxic Waste Disposal

Author by : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Subcommittee on Environmental Pollution
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 803
File Size : 45,7 Mb
GET BOOK

Description :


Handbook Of Environmental Health Volume I

Author by : Herman Koren
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 69
Total Download : 472
File Size : 51,5 Mb
GET BOOK

Description : The Handbook of Environmental Health-Biological, Chemical and Physical Agents of Environmentally Related Disease, Volume 1, Fourth Edition includes twelve chapters on a variety of topics basically following a standard chapter outline where applicable with the exception of chapters 1, 2 and 12. The outline is as follows: 1. Background and status 2. Scientific, technological and general information 3. Statement of the problem 4. Potential for intervention 5. Some specific resources 6. Standards, practices, and techniques 7. Modes of surveillance and evaluation 8. Various controls 9. Summary of the chapter 10. Research needs for the future Chapter 1, Environment and Humans discusses ecosystems, energy technologies and environmental problems, important concepts of chemistry, transport and alteration of chemicals in the environment, environmental economics, risk-benefit analysis, environmental health law, environmental impact statements, competencies for the environmental health practitioner. Chapter 2, Environmental Problems and Human Health has a general discussion of people and disease followed by a brief discussion of physiology including the human cell, blood, lymphatic system, tissue membranes, nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system and urinary system. There is a discussion of toxicological principles including toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. There is a discussion of carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, reproductive toxicity and teratogenesis and the role of environmental contaminants in causing disease. Medical surveillance techniques utilized to measure potential toxicity are included. Basic concepts of microbiology are discussed followed by principles of communicable diseases and emerging infectious diseases. There’s an explanation of epidemiological principles including epidemiological investigations and environmental health and environmental epidemiology. The chapter concludes with a discussion of risk assessment and risk management. Chapter 3, Food Protection discusses food microbiology, reproduction and growth of microorganisms, environmental effects on bacteria, detergents and disinfectants, sources of foodborne disease exposure, FoodNet, various foodborne infections, bacterial food poisoning, chemical poisoning, poisonous plants and fungi, allergic reactions, parasitic infections, chronic aftereffects of foodborne disease, vessel sanitation programs, food quality protection acts, plans review, food service facilities, food storage, inspection techniques, preparation and serving of food, cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils, insect and rodent control, flow systems, epidemiological study techniques, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Inspection, food protection controls, food service training programs, national food safety initiative. Chapter 4, Food Technology discusses emerging or reemerging foodborne pathogens, chemistry of foods, food additives and preservatives, food spoilage, pesticides and fertilizers in food, antibiotics in food, heavy metals and the food chain, use of recycled plastics in food packaging, environmental problems in milk processing, poultry processing, egg processing, meat processing, fish and shellfish processing, produce processing, and imported foods. National standards, practices and techniques are provided for milk, ice cream, poultry, eggs, meat, produce and seafood. Current modes of surveillance and evaluation as well as appropriate control measures are provided for each of the above areas. Chapter 5, Insect Control discusses scientific, technological, and general information about various insects of public health significance including fleas, flies, lice, mites, mosquitoes, and roaches. There is a substantial discussion of the many diseases transmitted by insects including African Bite Fever, Bubonic Plague, Chagas Disease, Colorado Tick Fever, Dengue Fever, Ehrlichioses, Encephalitis, Lyme Disease, Malaria, Rickettsial Pox, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Scabies, Scrub Typhus, Tularemia, Typhus Fever, Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers, Yellow Fever. Included in the text are the national standards, practices, and techniques utilized to conduct surveys, methods of prevention and controls of the insects. Further there is a discussion of emerging and reemerging insect borne diseases including why this is occurring. Integrated pest management is a special topic. Chapter 6, Rodent Control discusses the characteristics and behavior of murine rodents and deer mice, how they affect humans and the various diseases that they cause. National standards, practices and techniques are established for rodent poisoning and trapping, food and harborage removal, and rodent proofing. A special feature is the discussion of an actual working community rodent control program. Chapter 7, Pesticides discusses current issues, current laws and the effects of pesticides on groundwater, surface water, land, food, air and people. The various categories of pesticides and current allowable usage of inorganic insecticides and petroleum compounds, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, biolarvicides, and insect growth regulators are discussed. Chapter 8, Indoor Environment discusses indoor air pollution, housing, health and the housing environment, human illness, monitoring environmental disease, residential wood combustion, environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, radon gas, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, molds, bacteria and other biological contaminants, environmental lead hazards, noise, accidents and injuries. National standards, practices, and techniques are provided for all areas of the indoor environment, and survey techniques and housing studies are included. Chapter 9-Institutional Environment discusses the complex environment and potential for disease in nursing and convalescent homes, old-age homes, schools, colleges, and universities, prisons and hospitals. There are in-depth discussions on the potential for spread of disease through air, water, fomites, surfaces, people, food, laundry, insects and rodents, laboratories and biohazards, and surgical suites. Within the hospital setting there are extended discussions of heating, air conditioning, and laminar flow, housekeeping, laundry, solid and hazardous waste, maintenance, plumbing, food, hazardous chemicals, insects and rodents, radioactive materials, water supply, emergency medical services, fire safety and patient safety programs. Handwashing and hospital environmental control is explained in depth including the various microorganisms that may be transmitted by hands. There is a special discussion on laboratories and bio hazards including bacterial agents, fungal agents, parasitic agents, prions, rickettsial agents, viral agents, arborviruses and related zoological viruses. There are additional discussions on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, tuberculosis, resistant organisms. Emerging and reemerging infection problems are of great significance. Hospital acquired infection and routes of transmission are significant problems. Occupational health and safety problems in the hospital are analyzed. The most recent CDC guidelines for all these areas are included. A significant number of inspection and survey forms are included in order for the reader to get a better understanding of specific problems in a specific institution. Chapter 10-Recreational Environment includes problems and solutions to problems in water quality, water supply, sewage, plumbing, shelter, food, solid waste, fish handling, stables, swimming and boating. Chapter 11-Occupational Environment includes a discussion of the interrelated challenges of various pressures in the environment. It includes physical agents such as sound, non-ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation, hot and cold temperature extremes. It also includes discussions of chemical agents such as toxic chemicals, flammable chemicals, corrosive chemicals, reactive agents. It includes discussions of biological agents. Ergonomics is an essential part of the chapter. The occupational health controls of substitution, isolation, ventilation, personal protective equipment, housekeeping, and education for control of physical agents, chemical agents, biological agents and ergonomic factors are also discussed. Chapter 12-Major Instrumentation for Environmental Evaluation of Occupational, Residential, and Public Indoor Settings discusses instantaneous or real-time monitoring, integrated or continuous monitoring, personal monitoring and area monitoring. Techniques and equipment are discussed for various airborne particulates and gaseous agents. Integrated or continuous monitoring of sound as well as instantaneous or real-time monitoring of sound is explained. Evaluation of air temperature factors are discussed. Evaluations of the illumination, microwave radiation, electric and magnetic fields, ionizing radiation, air pressure, velocity and flow rate are presented. Excellent graphics help the reader understand the principles of instrumentation. A large and current bibliography by chapter is included at the end of the book. This state-of-the-art computerized graphics can be found throughout the book. A comprehensive index of both Volume I and Volume II is at the end of the book to aid the reader in easily finding necessary information. The reader is referred to the Volume II when appropriate. The book is user-friendly to a variety of individuals including generalalist professionals as well as specialists, industrial hygiene personnel, health and medical personnel, the media, supervisors and managers of environmental health and occupational health areas, and students. Individuals can easily gain appropriate and applicable standards, rules and regulations to help the individual increase knowledge in a given area or solve actual problems. The book is utilized to help individuals also prepare for registration examinations. The book is co-published with the National Environmental Health Association.